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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343091/rapid-detection-and-ruling-out-of-neonatal-sepsis-by-pcr-coupled-with-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-pcr-esi-ms
#1
Cristina Delcò, Oliver Karam, Riccardo Pfister, Alain Gervaix, Gesuele Renzi, Stéphane Emonet, Jacques Schrenzel, Klara M Posfay-Barbe
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and clinicians are typically required to administer empiric antibiotics while waiting for blood culture results. However, prolonged and inappropriate use of antibiotics is associated with various complications and adverse events. Better tools to rapidly rule out bacterial infections are therefore needed. AIMS: We aimed to assess the negative predictive value of PCR coupled with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) compared to conventional blood cultures in neonatal sepsis...
March 23, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337489/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-microbiota-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-ibadan-south-west-nigeria
#2
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Elizabeth Adesola Amosun, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu
BACKGROUND: Rearing of dogs and other pets has become increasingly popular in modern society. Bacterial flora resides within the nasal and oral cavities of dogs and when chanced, can be pathogenic. Certain similarities between humans and dogs portends dangerous behavioral habits that could lead to zoonotic disease transmission. This study was aimed at isolation, identification and antibiotic profiling of bacteria from nasal swabs of apparently healthy dogs. The zoonotic risk was also considered...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331804/infected-ascites-distinguishing-secondary-peritonitis-from-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-a-cirrhotic-patient-with-classic-symptoms
#3
Marvin Louis Roy Lu, Akanksha Agarwal, Josh Sloan, Aaron Kosmin
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can be differentiated from secondary bacterial peritonitis by the absence of a surgically treatable intra-abdominal source of infection. However, oftentimes this is unapparent and other clinical clues need to be sought after to make the right diagnosis. CASE: A 64-year-old woman was admitted because of three days of worsening diffuse abdominal pain and distention. She was morbidly obese and had a history of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329174/ccr7-deficiency-modulates-t-cell-response-and-increases-susceptibility-to-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection
#4
Joern Pezoldt, Fabio Pisano, Wiebke Heine, Maria Pasztoi, Maik Rosenheinrich, Aaron M Nuss, Marina C Pils, Immo Prinz, Reinhold Förster, Jochen Huehn, Petra Dersch
Background: To successfully limit pathogen dissemination an immunological link between the entry tissue of the pathogen and the underlying secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) needs to be established to prime adaptive immune responses. Here, the prerequisite of CCR7 to mount host immune responses within SLOs during gastrointestinal Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection to limit pathogen spread was investigated. Methods: Survival, bacterial dissemination, intestinal and systemic pathology of wild type (WT) and CCR7-/- mice were assessed and correlated to the presence of immune cell subsets and cytokine responses throughout the course of infection...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301232/molecular-characterization-of-hemorrhagic-enteritis-viruses-hev-detected-in-hev-vaccinated-commercial-turkey-flocks-in-germany
#5
Tamiru Negash Alkie, Ronald Guenther, Silke Rautenschlein
Despite the application of live hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) vaccines, HEV field outbreaks are suspected to still occur in turkey flocks in Germany. Increasing secondary bacterial infections in HEV-vaccinated flocks suggest that vaccines may be losing efficacy or, possibly, that vaccine strains are causing disease. Thus, the goal of the current study was to investigate the diversity of HEV isolates from fattening turkey flocks between 2008 and 2012 by characterizing the open reading frame (ORF)1 gene at its 5' and 3' ends...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293548/age-appropriate-functions-and-dysfunctions-of-the-neonatal-neutrophil
#6
REVIEW
Shelley Melissa Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Neonatal and adult neutrophils are distinctly different from one another due to well-defined and documented deficiencies in neonatal cells, including impaired functions, reduced concentrations of microbicidal proteins and enzymes necessary for pathogen destruction, and variances in cell surface receptors. Neutrophil maturation is clearly demonstrated throughout pregnancy from the earliest hematopoietic precursors in the yolk sac to the well-developed myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow around the seventh month of gestation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292454/adolescent-sexuality-updates-to-the-sexually-transmitted-infection-guidelines
#7
REVIEW
Zoon Wangu, Gale R Burstein
Adolescents are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI) secondary to both cognitive and biological susceptibility. The prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of STIs are a critical part of adolescent health care. This article discusses the most common bacterial, parasitic, and viral STIs encountered in this age group with an emphasis on new guidelines for screening and management.
April 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290115/sonication-of-arthroplasty-implants-improves-accuracy-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-cultures
#8
REVIEW
Adam C Rothenberg, Alan E Wilson, John P Hayes, Michael J O'Malley, Brian A Klatt
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that sonication of explanted prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty components with culture of the sonication fluid may enhance diagnostic sensitivity. Previous studies on the use of implant sonicate cultures have evaluated diagnostic thresholds but did not elaborate on the clinical importance of positive implant sonicate cultures in the setting of presumed aseptic revisions and did not utilize consensus statements on periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis when defining their gold standard for infection...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289719/type-i-interferons-regulate-susceptibility-to-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#9
Monica Cappelletti, Pietro Presicce, Matthew J Lawson, Vandana Chaturvedi, Traci E Stankiewicz, Simone Vanoni, Isaac T W Harley, Jaclyn W McAlees, Daniel A Giles, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Cesar M Rueda, Paranth Senthamaraikannan, Xiaofei Sun, Rebekah Karns, Kasper Hoebe, Edith M Janssen, Christopher L Karp, David A Hildeman, Simon P Hogan, Suhas G Kallapur, Claire A Chougnet, Sing Sing Way, Senad Divanovic
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Maternal inflammation induced by microbial infection is a critical predisposing factor for PTB. However, biological processes associated with competency of pathogens, including viruses, to induce PTB or sensitize for secondary bacterial infection-driven PTB are unknown. We show that pathogen/pathogen-associated molecular pattern-driven activation of type I IFN/IFN receptor (IFNAR) was sufficient to prime for systemic and uterine proinflammatory chemokine and cytokine production and induction of PTB...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284597/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-pa01-impairs-enzymes-of-the-phosphotransfer-network-in-the-gills-of-rhamdia-quelen
#10
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Roberto C V Santos, Lenita M Stefani, Karen Luise S Moreira, Marcelo L da Veiga, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for gills bioenergetics, since this tissue plays an important role in the respiratory energy metabolism. The effects of bacterial infection on gills remain poorly understood, limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether experimental infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01 alters the enzymes of the phosphoryltransfer network (adenylate kinase (AK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK)) in gills of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284260/tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-south-african-children-with-complicated-severe-acute-malnutrition
#11
H Adler, M Archary, P Mahabeer, P LaRussa, R A Bobat
SETTING: Academic tertiary referral hospital in Durban, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and diagnostic challenges of tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial that enrolled antiretroviral therapy naïve, HIV-infected children with SAM. Trial records and hospital laboratory results were explored for clinical diagnoses and bacteriologically confirmed cases of TB...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283015/-cutaneous-larva-migrans-in-turkey-an-imported-case-report
#12
Meliha Çağla Sönmezer, Şebnem Erdinç, Necla Tülek, Cahit Babür, Ayşe Büyükdemirci, Tuba İlgar, Günay Ertem
Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitic infection most commonly found in tropical and subtropical areas. However, with the ease and increase of foreign travel to many countries around the world, the infection is not limited to these areas. CLM is an erythematous, serpiginous infection with skin eruption caused by percutaneous penetration of the larvae to the skin. In this report, a case diagnosed as imported CLM after an Amazon trip and treated with albendazole was presented. A 36 year-old male patient admitted to infectious diseases clinic with intense itching, erythematous, raised, streaklike serpiginious eruptionand some redness at bilateral foot especially at the right foot for about one week...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279802/prevention-of-influenza-virus-induced-bacterial-superinfection-by-standardized-echinacea-purpurea-via-regulation-of-surface-receptor-expression-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Selvarani Vimalanathan, Roland Schoop, Andy Suter, James Hudson
Viral infections may predispose the airways to secondary bacterial infections that can lead to unfavorable progression of principally self-limiting illnesses. Such complicated respiratory infections include pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, acute otitis media, and sepsis, which cause high morbidity and lethality. Some of the pathogenic consequences of viral infections, like the expression of bacterial adhesion receptors and the disturbance of physical barrier integrity due to inflammation, may create permissive conditions for co-infections...
March 7, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266549/parasitism-perturbs-the-mucosal-microbiome-of-atlantic-salmon
#14
M S Llewellyn, S Leadbeater, C Garcia, F-E Sylvain, M Custodio, K P Ang, F Powell, G R Carvalho, S Creer, J Elliot, N Derome
Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264056/salmonid-alphavirus-infection-causes-skin-dysbiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts
#15
Kristin M Reid, Sonal Patel, Aaron J Robinson, Lijing Bu, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Irene Salinas
Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261167/discovery-and-characterization-of-diazenylaryl-sulfonic-acids-as-inhibitors-of-viral-and-bacterial-neuraminidases
#16
Anja Hoffmann, Martina Richter, Susanne von Grafenstein, Elisabeth Walther, Zhongli Xu, Lilia Schumann, Ulrike Grienke, Christina E Mair, Christian Kramer, Judith M Rollinger, Klaus R Liedl, Michaela Schmidtke, Johannes Kirchmair
Viral neuraminidases are an established drug target to combat influenza. Severe complications observed in influenza patients are primarily caused by secondary infections with e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria engage in a lethal synergism with influenza A viruses (IAVs) and also express neuraminidases. Therefore, inhibitors with dual activity on viral and bacterial neuraminidases are expected to be advantageous for the treatment of influenza infections. Here we report on the discovery and characterization of diazenylaryl sulfonic acids as dual inhibitors of viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260599/peritonsillar-abscess-clinical-aspects-of-microbiology-risk-factors-and-the-association-with-parapharyngeal-abscess
#17
REVIEW
Tejs Ehlers Klug
PTA is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in Denmark) and cause of acute admission to Danish ENT departments. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. However, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. Furthermore, smoking may be associated with increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) development, although the magnitude of the association has not been estimated...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260443/outcome-of-renal-transplant-in-recipients-with-vasculitis
#18
Samia Barbouch, Meriam Hajji, Raja Aoudia, Monther Ounissi, Asma Zammouri, Rym Goucha, Fathi Ben Hamida, Mohammed Mongi Bacha, Ezzedine Abderrahim, Taieb Ben Abdallah
OBJECTIVES: End-stage renal disease develops in a high percentage of patients with vasculitis, in whom kidney transplant has become a therapeutic option. However, limited data are available on the prognosis and outcomes after kidney transplant in these patients. We aimed to compare the long-term graft survival and graft function in 8 renal transplant recipients with vasculitis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, Goodpasture syndrome, and Henoch-Schonlein purpura) with the other kidney recipients at a single center...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258141/aggregate-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-an-alginate-bead-model-system-exhibits-in-vivo-like-characteristics
#19
Majken Sønderholm, Kasper Nørskov Kragh, Klaus Koren, Tim Holm Jakobsen, Sophie Darch, Maria Alhede, Peter Østrup Jensen, Marvin Whiteley, Michael Kühl, Thomas Bjarnsholt
Alginate beads represent a simple and highly reproducible in vitro model system for diffusion limited bacterial growth. In this study, alginate beads were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and followed for up to 72 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that P. aeruginosa formed dense clusters similar in size to in vivo aggregates observed ex vivo in cystic fibrosis lungs and chronic wounds. Bacterial aggregates were primarily growing in the bead periphery and decreased in size and abundance towards the centre of the bead...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248930/genome-wide-sirna-screen-of-genes-regulating-the-lps-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-response-in-human-macrophages
#20
Jing Sun, Samuel Katz, Bhaskar Dutta, Ze Wang, Iain D C Fraser
The mammalian innate immune system senses many bacterial stimuli through the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Activation of the TLR4 receptor by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the most widely studied TLR pathway due to its central role in host responses to gram-negative bacterial infection and its contribution to endotoxemia and sepsis. Here we describe a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify genes regulating the human macrophage TNF-α response to LPS. We include a secondary validation screen conducted with six independent siRNAs per gene to facilitate removal of off-target screen hits...
March 1, 2017: Scientific Data
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