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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226304/successful-medical-management-of-pseudomembranous-cystitis-in-three-cats-with-lower-urinary-tract-obstruction
#1
A Vila, R Movilla, J Castro, C Mallol, R Novellas, Y Espada, X Roura
CASE REPORT: The present case series describes the clinical course and outcome of three cats diagnosed with pseudomembranous cystitis. This is an uncommon presentation of lower urinary tract obstruction but can be easily be identified by ultrasonography, revealing severe bladder wall thickening and thin hyperechoic luminal strips. The condition can be secondary to severe bacterial urinary tract infection. All cats were successfully treated with medical management only, mainly based on antimicrobials and individualised supportive therapy...
December 10, 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226107/cholangitis-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#2
REVIEW
Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh
Cholangitis is a serious life-threatening situation affecting the hepatobiliary system. This review provides an update regarding the clinical and pathological features of various forms of cholangitis. A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases. It was found that the etiology and pathogenesis of cholangitis are heterogeneous. Cholangitis can be categorized as primary sclerosing (PSC), secondary (acute) cholangitis, and a recently characterized form, known as IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225005/eicosanoid-mediated-immunity-in-insects
#3
Yonggyun Kim, Shabbir Ahmed, David Stanley, Chunju An
Eicosanoid is a collective term for oxygenated metabolites of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. As seen in mammals, eicosanoids play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes, including immune responses, in insects. Upon microbial pathogen infection, non-self recognition signals are propagated to nearly immune effectors such as hemocytes and fat body using various immune mediators, in which eicosanoid signals act as the ultimate downstream mediator. The chemical diversity of eicosanoids may operate to mediate various immune responses...
December 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219259/nursing-management-of-childhood-chickenpox-infection
#4
Grace Boyd, Paul Anthony Heaton, Rachel Wilkinson, Siba Prosad Paul
Chickenpox is an extremely contagious infectious disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). It is a common childhood illness characterised by an itchy vesicular rash and fever, which usually resolves spontaneously without medical intervention. Serious, and rarely fatal, complications can occur, including pneumonia, central nervous system infection, overwhelming secondary bacterial infections, especially with Group A streptococcus, and necrotising fasciitis. Therefore it is crucial that emergency department (ED) nurses can recognise the signs and symptoms that indicate deterioration...
December 8, 2017: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216028/progress-toward-global-eradication-of-dracunculiasis-january-2016-june-2017
#6
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from contaminated drinking water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on a lower limb (1). Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination,* and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with endemic dracunculiasis...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212588/comparisons-of-vaginal-flora-patterns-among-sexual-behaviour-groups-of-women-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#7
Kristin M Olson, Louis J Boohaker, Jane R Schwebke, Stella Aslibekyan, Christina A Muzny
Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge. The objective was to compare the prevalence of BV by Nugent score among African-American women who have sex with women (WSW) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) compared with an age-matched group of women who have sex with men (WSM). Secondary objectives were to correlate low versus high Nugent scores with vaginal symptoms among women with BV and to correlate BV diagnosis with sexual practices. Methods: A secondary analysis of clinical and laboratory data from African-American WSW (n=73) and WSWM (n=68) participating in the Women's Sexual Health Project (August 2011-October 2013) and a 3:1 age-matched group of African-American WSM participating in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora (August 1999-February 2002) at a sexually transmissible infection clinic (n=423) was performed...
December 7, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208923/plant-endophytes-interaction-influences-the-secondary-metabolism-in-echinacea-purpurea-l-moench-an-in-vitro-model
#8
Valentina Maggini, Marinella De Leo, Alessio Mengoni, Eugenia Rosaria Gallo, Elisangela Miceli, Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel, Sauro Biffi, Luisa Pistelli, Renato Fani, Fabio Firenzuoli, Patrizia Bogani
The influence of the interaction(s) between the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and its endophytic communities on the production of alkamides is investigated. To mimic the in vivo conditions, we have set up an infection model of axenic in vitro E. purpurea plants inoculated with a pool of bacterial strains isolated from the E. purpurea stems and leaves. Here we show different alkamide levels between control (not-inoculated) and inoculated plants, suggesting that the alkamide biosynthesis may be modulated by the bacterial infection...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207801/autoimmune-haemolytic-anaemia-a-spectrum-of-presentation-in-children
#9
Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Ankita Patel, Sataroopa Mishra
Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemias (AIHAs) are rare in children. They can be either a primary disease or secondary to/triggered by a host of other clinical conditions. We present five interesting cases of paediatric AIHA associated with infections (viral, bacterial and atypical) and autoimmune diseases {Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)}. The H1N1 influenza associated AIHA responded to oseltamivir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg) while the cases secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcal bacteraemia required only treatment of the primary infection...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205230/can-protein-restriction-set-up-t-lymphocytes-favorably-for-their-activation-against-pathogens-through-myc
#10
Jung-Eun Lee
One area that presents a significant threat to global health is infectious diseases. With increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria [1], opportunistic infections are a growing concern for human societies. In 2009, there were 89,000 deaths caused by pneumonia, septicemia, and influenza virus in the United States alone [2]. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria increase the risk of secondary infection that is associated with many standard medical procedures such as organ transplantation, chemotherapy, dialysis, and elective surgery [1]...
2017: MOJ Lymphology Phlebol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203400/decreased-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression-in-aged-lung-may-contribute-to-increased-susceptibility-to-secondary-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#11
Soo Jung Cho, Maria Plataki, Dana Mitzel, Gena Lowry, Kristen Rooney, Heather Stout-Delgado
Post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading morbidity and mortality in older patients (≥65years of age). The goal of our current study is to understand the impact of chronological aging on innate immune responses to a secondary, post viral infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia. Using aged murine models of infection, our findings demonstrate increased morbidity and mortality in aged mice within 48h post-secondary S. pneumoniae infection. Increased susceptibility of aged mice was associated with decreased TLR1, TLR6, and TLR9 mRNA expression and diminished IL1β mRNA expression...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198659/incidence-of-infectious-disease-and-malignancies-after-rituximab-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-results-from-a-cohort-in-germany
#12
E Schrezenmeier, K Budde, O Staeck, L Lehner, M Duerr, D Khadzhynov, T Dörner, F Halleck
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is frequently used in solid organ transplantation off-label, especially in patients with renal allografts. Few data are available on the safety aspects of solid organ transplant recipients receiving rituximab. There is a knowledge gap on long-term follow-up data, in particular on infectious complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational registry study (German Registry on Autoimmune Diseases) comprising a total of 681 patients was conducted...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195664/-actinomycosis-revealed-by-ulceration-of-the-palate-and-gingiva
#13
F Dessirier, J-P Arnault, J Denamps, H Sevestre, C Attencourt, C Lok
BACKGROUND: Actinomycosis is a chronic and extensive granulomatous, bacterial infection. Revelation by oral ulceration is rare. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 76-year-old patient with diabetes was treated with dabrafenib for stage IV melanoma. A follow-up visit revealed two ulcerated, infiltrated and hyperalgesic lesions of the palate and gingiva. There were no associated signs. The laboratory findings were normal. The possibility of squamous cell carcinoma occurring with BRAF inhibitors was discussed, despite the rarity of such cases in the literature...
November 28, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#14
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187579/urinary-tract-infection-antibiotic-trial-study-design-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Romain Basmaci, Konstantinos Vazouras, Julia Bielicki, Laura Folgori, Yingfen Hsia, Theoklis Zaoutis, Mike Sharland
CONTEXT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent common bacterial infections in children. No guidance on the conduct of pediatric febrile UTI clinical trials (CTs) exist. OBJECTIVE: To assess the criteria used for patient selection and the efficacy end points in febrile pediatric UTI CTs. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, Cochrane central databases, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched between January 1, 1990, and November 24, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: We combined Medical Subject Headings terms and free-text terms for "urinary tract infections" and "therapeutics" and "clinical trials" in children (0-18 years), identifying 3086 articles...
November 29, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181299/persistent-bacteremia-secondary-to-delayed-identification-of-lactobacillus-in-the-setting-of-mitral-valve-endocarditis
#16
Cody Stroupe, Joseph Pendley, Emmanuel Isang, Benjamin Helms
Introduction: Lactobacillus species causing infective endocarditis is rare. Most reported cases arise from the oral ingestion of Lactobacillus via dairy or nutritional supplements in patients with congenital valve disease or replacement. We present a case of native valve bacterial endocarditis caused by Lactobacillus arising from dental abscesses. Additionally, there was an error in identification of the Lactobacillus as Corynebacterium, which led to inadequate treatment. Presentation of case: A 51-year-old male presented to an outside clinic with several weeks of subjective fevers and malaise...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179171/-aberrant-bone-remodeling-during-sepsis
#17
Asuka Terashima
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that occurs upon severe bacterial infection. Although the development of early treatment for sepsis improves the survival rate of sepsis patients, in the subacute phase, certain patients suffer from secondary infection due to immunosuppression. It has been reported that one of the causes of the immunocompromised state during sepsis is lymphopenia. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We found that acute inflammation induced the immunodeficiency caused by the reduction of the numbers of peripheral lymphocytes and common lymphoid progenitors(CLPs)in the bone marrow, which was associated with a dramatic decrease in the osteoblast number...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174958/plant-phenolics-and-terpenoids-as-adjuvants-of-antibacterial-and-antifungal-drugs
#18
Susana A Zacchino, Estefania Butassi, Melina Di Liberto, Marcela Raimondi, Agustina Postigo, Maximiliano Sortino
BACKGROUND: The intensive use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs has dramatically increased the microbial resistance and has led to a higher number of difficult-to-eradicate infections. Combination therapy with two or more antimicrobial drugs has emerged some years ago to overcome the issue, but it has proven to be not completely effective. Natural secondary metabolites of MW ≤ 500 represent promising adjuvants for antimicrobials and have been the object of several researches that have increased in the last two decades...
October 31, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170046/the-single-von-willebrand-factor-c-domain-protein-svc-coding-gene-is-not-involved-in-the-hymenoptaecin-upregulation-after-israeli-acute-paralysis-virus-iapv-injection-in-the-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#19
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
Within insects, inductions of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) have been reported after different virus challenges. It is believed that this link is not directly induced by the virus itself, but rather indirectly induced by secondary effects of virus infection. Here we explored if direct sensing of the virus could trigger AMP expression. Recently, a cytokine-like molecule vago, a member of the Single von Willebrand factor C-domain (SVC) protein family, has been shown to be induced by virus infection in a Dicer-2 dependent manner...
November 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166376/predictors-of-death-in-infants-with-probable-serious-bacterial-infection
#20
Prashant Singh, Ananya Arora, Tor A Strand, Halvor Sommerfelt, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Satinder Aneja, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Jagdish Chandra, Bimbadhar Rath, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Mohini Kumari, Savita Saini, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Nitya Wadhwa
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial infections account for a significant proportion of neonatal and infant mortality globally. We aimed to identify predictors of death in infants with probable serious bacterial infection (PSBI) defined as signs/symptoms of possible serious bacterial infection along with baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥12 mg/lMETHODS:We did a secondary analysis using the data collected from 700 infants with PSBI who participated in a randomized controlled trial in India in which zinc or placebo was given in addition to standard antibiotics...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
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