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Secondary bacterial infection

Sarah A Moore, R Timothy Bentley, Sheila Carrera-Justiz, Kari D Foss, Ronaldo C da Costa, Laurie B Cook
Objectives The aim of this study was to compile an overview of the clinical features of intracranial complication of otitis media/interna (OMI) in cats managed across five veterinary referral hospitals. Of additional interest were culture results that could inform empirical antibiotic selection, as well as outcome with both medical and surgical management. Methods A retrospective medical record review was conducted at five veterinary referral practices to identify cats with a diagnosis of intracranial complication secondary to OMI between 2009 and 2017...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Adeline Barthelemy, Valentin Sencio, Daphnée Soulard, Lucie Deruyter, Christelle Faveeuw, Ronan Le Goffic, François Trottein
Severe bacterial (pneumococcal) infections are commonly associated with influenza and are significant contributors to the excess morbidity and mortality of influenza. Disruption of lung tissue integrity during influenza participates in bacterial pulmonary colonization and dissemination out of the lungs. Interleukin (IL)-22 has gained considerable interest in anti-inflammatory and anti-infection immunotherapy over the last decade. In the current study, we investigated the effect of exogenous IL-22 delivery on the outcome of pneumococcal superinfection post-influenza...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Li Qian, Fan Jia, Sun Jingxuan, Wang Manqun, Chen Julian
Bacterial symbionts associated with insects are often involved in host development and ecological fitness. In aphids, the role of these symbionts is variable and not fully understood across different host species. Here, we investigated the symbiont diversity of the grain aphid, Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi), from 17 different geographical areas. Of these, two strains with the same symbiont profile, except for the presence of Hamiltonella defensa , were selected using PCR. The Hamiltonella -infected strain, YX, was collected from a Yuxi wheat field in Yunnan Province, China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shaoqi Qu, Cunchun Dai, Jiajia Zhu, Li Zhao, Yuwen Li, Zhihui Hao
The aim of this study was to prepare cefquinome-loaded polylactic acid microspheres and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo characteristics and pharmacodynamics for the therapy of pneumonia in a rat model. Microspheres were prepared using a 0.7 mm two-fluid nozzle spray drier in one step resulting in spherical and smooth microspheres of uniform size (9.8 ± 3.6 μm). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of cefquinome were 91.6 ± 2.6% and 18.7 ± 1.2%, respectively. In vitro release of cefquinome from the microspheres was sustained for 36 h...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
María Laura Martín, Valeria Pfaffen, Laura E Valenti, Carla E Giacomelli
Staphylococcus aureus has become the most common opportunistic microorganism related to nosocomial infections due to the bacteria capacity to form biofilms on biomedical devices and implants. Since bacterial adhesion is the first step in this pathogenesis, it is evident that inhibiting such a process will reduce the opportunity for bacterial colonization on the devices. This work is aimed at optimizing a surface biofunctionalization strategy to inhibit the adhesion of S. aureus on solid substrates. The first part of the work deals with the albumin adsorption-desorption process, studied by a factorial design of experiments to explore a wide range of experimental factors (protein concentration, pH, flow rate and adsorption time) and responses (initial adsorption rate, adsorbed amount, desorbed extent) for hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, with a reduced number of experiments...
April 3, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Farzaneh Rezvani, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei
Objective Although the etiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is yet to be discovered, some studies have mentioned the effect of infectious diseases in occurrence of RLS. This study aims to determine the association between common Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and occurrence of RLS. Methods In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, patients with RLS who were referred to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Fayazbakhsh Hospital in Tehran from September to December 2016 were evaluated. Patients with underlying diseases that would lead to secondary RLS were excluded from the study...
April 6, 2018: Neurological Research
Suttichai Visuttichaikit, Nuntra Suwantarat, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Pansachee Damronglerd
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. We report a case of a heterosexual, HIV-positive man who presented with secondary syphilis and a lung abscess. A bacterial lung abscess was suspected and a computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration of the lung abscess was performed. Direct pulmonary involvement by T. pallidum was suggested by a positive PCR result on the aspirated fluid specimen. The clinical signs of secondary syphilis improved, and the lung abscess was resolved after treatment with benzathine penicillin G and amoxicillin-clavulanate...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Keven M Robinson, Krishnaveni Ramanan, Michelle E Clay, Kevin J McHugh, Matthew J Pilewski, Kara L Nickolich, Catherine Corey, Sruti Shiva, Jieru Wang, John F Alcorn
Secondary bacterial respiratory infections are commonly associated with both acute and chronic lung injury. Influenza complicated by bacterial pneumonia is an effective model to study host defense during pulmonary superinfection due to its clinical relevance. Multiprotein inflammasomes are responsible for IL-1β production in response to infection and drive tissue inflammation. In this study, we examined the role of the inflammasome during viral/bacterial superinfection. We demonstrate that ASC-/- mice are protected from bacterial superinfection and produce sufficient quantities of IL-1β through an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) inflammasome-independent mechanism...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
Heather E Stefanski, Leslie Jonart, Emily Goren, James J Mulé, Bruce R Blazar
Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy conditioning regimens required for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) cause significant morbidity and mortality as a result of insufficient immune surveillance mechanisms leading to increased risks of infection and tumor recurrence. Such conditioning causes host stromal cell injury, impairing restoration of the central (thymus) and peripheral (spleen and lymph node) T cell compartments and slow immune reconstitution. The chemokine, CCL21, produced by host stromal cells, recruits T- and B-cells that provide lymphotoxin mediated instructive signals to stromal cells for lymphoid organogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Omar Laraqui, Nadia Manar, Salwa Laraqui, Tarik Ghailan, Frédéric Deschamps, Reda Hammouda, Chakib El Houssine Laraqui
BACKGROUND: The main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of skin diseases amongst fishermen, to specify the different clinical forms, associations and most frequent localisations, and to identify potential aetiological factors. The secondary objectives were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of seafarers regarding occupational dermatoses to conduct information, awareness and education campaigns on risk factors and behaviours and to propose adapted prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved 1102 artisanal fishermen who attended the annual legal medical consultation at the occupational health service...
2018: International Maritime Health
Thao V Nguyen, Andrea C Alfaro, Tim Young, Sridevi Ravi, Fabrice Merien
Vibrio coralliilyticus is a bacterial pathogen which can affect a range of marine organisms, such as corals, fish and shellfish, with sometimes devastating consequences. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the host-pathogen interaction, especially within molluscan models. We applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics to characterize the physiological responses in haemolymph of New Zealand Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) injected with Vibrio sp. DO1 (V...
April 2, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Li Li, Colin Pielsticker, Zifeng Han, Tereza Kubasová, Ivan Rychlik, Bernd Kaspers, Silke Rautenschlein
Background: Campylobacter jejuni is considered as a chicken commensal. The gut microbiota and the immune status of the host may affect its colonization. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens, which allows secondary pathogens to invade or exacerbates their pathogenesis. To investigate the effect of IBDV-induced immunosuppression on the pathogenesis of C. jejuni , broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 days post hatch followed by C...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Elizabeth W Covington, Megan Z Roberts, Jenny Dong
Effective antimicrobial stewardship practices are increasingly essential to best utilize the current arsenal of antimicrobials for the shortest necessary duration to minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance, secondary infections, and health care costs. Monitoring of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels represents an effective antimicrobial stewardship strategy to differentiate bacterial infections from viral infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Current literature illustrates the merits of PCT monitoring in reducing duration of antibiotic therapy without detrimental effects on mortality or infection relapses...
March 31, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Igho J Onakpoya, A Sarah Walker, Pui S Tan, Elizabeth A Spencer, Oghenekome A Gbinigie, Johanna Cook, Martin J Llewelyn, Christopher C Butler
Our objective was to assess the clinical effectiveness of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children in secondary care settings, using the evidence from published systematic reviews. We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl. Our primary outcome was clinical resolution. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. We included 6 systematic reviews (n = 3,162)...
2018: PloS One
Cuong Quoc Nguyen, William John Thrift, Arunima Bhattacharjee, Saba Ranjbar, Tara Gallagher, Mahsa Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Robert Noboru Sanderson, Filippo Capolino, Katrine Whiteson, Pierre Baldi, Allon I Hochbaum, Regina Ragan
Detection of bacterial metabolites at low concentrations in fluids with complex background allows for applications ranging from detecting biomarkers of respiratory infections to identifying contaminated medical instruments. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, when utilizing plasmonic nanogaps, has the relatively unique capacity to reach trace molecular detection limits in a label free format, yet large-area device fabrication incorporating nanogaps with this level of performance has proven difficult...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yong-Jia Ji, Pei-Pei Liang, Jia-Yin Shen, Jian-Jun Sun, Jun-Yang Yang, Jun Chen, Tang-Kai Qi, Zhen-Yan Wang, Wei Song, Yang Tang, Li Liu, Ren-Fang Zhang, Yin-Zhong Shen, Hong-Zhou Lu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis infection still places a great burden on HIV-infected individuals in China and other developing countries. Knowledge of the survival of HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) would provide important insights for the clinical management of this population, which remains to be well described in current China. METHODS: HIV-infected patients with PTB admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January 2011 to December 2015 were retrospectively enrolled...
March 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Yirepanjaing Ailiyaer, Xiuxiu Wang, Yan Zhang, Caiyu Li, Tao Li, Qian Qi, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogenic bacteria in bronchiectasis (BE) patients. The availability and security of nebulized amikacin treatment are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the efficiency and adverse effects of nebulized amikacin treatment for 2 weeks, administered as intravenous therapy during exacerbation of BE patients infected with P. aeruginosa. METHODS: A total of 143 patients with exacerbation of BE were screened between January 2013 and March 2016 at five tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China...
March 27, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Sean P Riley, Abigail I Fish, Fabio Del Piero, Juan J Martinez
The complement system has a well-defined role in deterring blood borne infections. However, complement is not entirely efficacious as several bacterial pathogens, including some obligate intracellular pathogens, have evolved mechanisms for resistance. It is presumed that obligate intracellular bacteria evade complement attack by residing within a host cell; however, recent studies have challenged this presumption. Herein, we demonstrate that the complement system is activated during infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium, Rickettsia australis , and that genetic ablation of complement increases susceptibility to infection...
March 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Caitlin M O'Neill, Ilene C Weitz, Casey O'Connell, Howard A Liebman
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder with a complex immunopathology and pathogenesis characterized by thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations. The disorder is separated into primary (idiopathic) ITP and secondary ITP, when associated with other immune or lymphoproliferative disorders and certain chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a recognized bacterial cause of ITP. In regions with high prevalence of infection, bacterial eradication has resulted in improvement in platelet count...
March 26, 2018: Platelets
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