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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425200/high-dose-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-as-a-maintenance-regimen-for-heart-transplantation-may-be-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
Yu-Ning Hu, Nan-Yao Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Chi-Hsin Hsu, Chwan-Yao Luo
BACKGROUND: Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen...
April 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421168/contribution-of-the-a-baumannii-a1s_0114-gene-to-the-interaction-with-eukaryotic-cells-and-virulence
#2
Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Theresa A Ramelot, Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Juan A Vallejo, Alejandro Beceiro, Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, María Merino, Steven E Fiester, Michael A Kennedy, Luis A Actis, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Genetic and functional studies showed that some components of the Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 A1S_0112-A1S_0119 gene cluster are critical for biofilm biogenesis and surface motility. Recently, our group has shown that the A1S_0114 gene was involved in biofilm formation, a process related with pathogenesis. Confirming our previous results, microscopy images revealed that the ATCC 17978 Δ0114 derivative lacking this gene was unable to form a mature biofilm structure. Therefore, other bacterial phenotypes were analyzed to determine the role of this gene in the pathogenicity of A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#3
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#4
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414673/purulent-pericarditis-due-to-an-infected-pacemaker-lead
#5
Teresa Backes
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous drug users have a substantially increased risk of infective endocarditis, especially in the setting of implanted cardiac devices. Purulent pericarditis is a rare occurrence that can occur iatrogenically or through direct or hematogenous spread. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 75 year old man with a past medical history significant for hepatitis C, IV drug abuse, and sick sinus syndrome status post pacemaker was brought in by EMS with a chief complaint of diaphoresis and chest pain...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413453/amelioration-of-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-by-probiotic-vsl-3-treatment
#6
Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni infections is progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic compounds might open up valuable tools to decrease pathogen burden and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune responses, but in vivo data are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment were perorally challenged with the commercial probiotic compound VSL#3 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408931/drug-induced-pneumonitis-secondary-to-treatment-with-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-viekira-pak%C3%A2-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-case-report-of-an-unexpected-life-threatening-adverse-reaction
#7
Shih Yea Sylvia Wu, Bridget Faire, Edward Gane
VIEKIRA PAK (ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir) is an approved treatment for compensated patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This oral regimen has minimal adverse effects and is well tolerated. Cure rates are 97% in patients infected with HCV GT 1a and 99% in those with HCV GT 1b. We report the first case of life-threatening allergic pneumonitis associated with VIEKIRA PAK. This unexpected serious adverse event occurred in a 68-year-old Chinese female with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408468/avoidance-of-voiding-cystourethrography-in-infants-younger-than-3-months-with-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infection-and-normal-renal-ultrasound
#8
Jean-Yves Pauchard, Hassib Chehade, Chafika Zohra Kies, Eric Girardin, Francois Cachat, Mario Gehri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents the most common bacterial infection in infants, and its prevalence increases with the presence of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is invasive, and its indication in infants <3 months is not yet defined. This study aims to investigate, in infants aged 0-3 months, if the presence of Escherichia coli versus non-E. coli bacteria and/or normal or abnormal renal ultrasound (US) could avoid the use of VCUG...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408365/immunomodulators-targeting-marco-expression-improve-resistance-to-post-influenza-bacterial-pneumonia
#9
Muzo Wu, John G Gibbons, Glen M Deloid, Alice S Bedugnis, Rajesh K Thimmulappa, Shyam Biswal, Lester Kobzik
Down-regulation of the alveolar macrophage (AM) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) leads to susceptibility to post-influenza bacterial pneumonia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether immunomodulation of MARCO could improve host defense and resistance to secondary bacterial pneumonia. RNAseq analysis identified a striking increase of MARCO expression between days 9 and 11 after influenza infection and indicated important roles for Akt and Nrf2 in MARCO recovery...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402221/an-update-on-the-use-of-c-elegans-for-preclinical-drug-discovery-screening-and-identifying-anti-infective-drugs
#10
Wooseong Kim, Gabriel Lambert Hendricks, Kiho Lee, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant and -tolerant bacteria is a major threat to human health. Although efforts for drug discovery are ongoing, conventional bacteria-centered screening strategies have thus far failed to yield new classes of effective antibiotics. Therefore, new paradigms for discovering novel antibiotics are of critical importance. Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism used for in vivo, offers a promising solution for identification of anti-infective compounds. Areas covered:This review examines the advantages of C...
April 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402132/modic-type-1-vertebral-endplate-changes-injury-inflammation-or-infection
#11
Matthew Thomas Crockett, Brendan Sean Kelly, Susie van Baarsel, Eoin Carl Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: In the 29 years since the initial description of Modic type 1 vertebral endplate changes there has been ongoing debate regarding their cause. Studies have attributed Modic type 1 vertebral endplate changes to traumatic injury to the vertebral endplate, localized action of proinflammatory mediators, and more recently low-grade bacterial infection. Can we reconcile these conflicting data about the underlying cause of Modic type 1 vertebral endplate changes? Are we now in a position to conclude whether Modic type 1 vertebral endplate changes are secondary to injury, inflammation, or infection? CONCLUSION: We argue that the processes are not disparate but are in fact closely linked, each potentially instigating a chain of events leading to the MRI findings of Modic type 1 vertebral endplate change...
April 12, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399544/intrawound-tobramycin-powder-eradicates-surgical-wound-contamination-an-in-vivo-rabbit-study
#12
Joseph L Laratta, Jamal N Shillingford, Nathan Hardy, Joseph M Lombardi, Comron Saifi, Alexander Romanov, Lawrence G Lenke, Ronald A Lehman, K Daniel Riew
STUDY DESIGN: Therapeutic anti-infective trial in rabbitsOBJECTIVE.: The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of intrawound tobramycin powder in terms of eradicating a known bacterial contamination in an Escherichia coli infected rabbit spinal implantation model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implant-associated surgical site infections (SSI) remain a dreaded complication of spinal surgery. Currently, over 30% of all spine SSIs are secondary to gram-negative bacteria...
April 10, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399223/first-detection-of-the-kdr-mutation-t929i-in-head-lice-phthiraptera-pediculidae-in-schoolchildren-of-the-metropolitan-area-of-nuevo-leon-and-yucatan-mexico
#13
Gustavo Ponce-Garcia, Karina Villanueva-Segura, Gerardo Trujillo-Rodriguez, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy, Adriana E Flores
The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that inhabits the human scalp. Infestations by this insect are commonly known as pediculosis, which is more common in younger groups. These infestations are asymptomatic; however, skin irritation from scratching occasionally may cause secondary bacterial infections. In recent years, the prevalence of pediculosis has increased in children; this increase has been attributed to louse resistance to the insecticides used as a control measure for infestation...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395682/wound-infection-secondary-to-snakebite
#14
M Wagener, M Naidoo, C Aldous
BACKGROUND: Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality. OBJECTIVE: A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease. METHODS: The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period...
March 29, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394295/antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-alternative-resources-with-special-emphasis-on-plant-based-antimicrobials-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Harish Chandra, Parul Bishnoi, Archana Yadav, Babita Patni, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Anant Ram Nautiyal
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe's development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc...
April 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393730/fatal-swine-influenza-a-h1n1-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-coinfection-in-a-child
#16
K Jagadishkumar Kalenahalli, N Arun Kumar, K V Ashok Chowdary, M S Sumana
One of the most common causes of death in influenza patients is secondary bacterial pneumonia and the most common pathogens involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenza. To diagnose co infection with bacteria in a H1N1 case can be difficult but should be strongly suspected in a child who present with influenza like illness and lower respiratory tract signs or symptoms. We report coinfection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in swine influenza A H1N1 child who presented with extensive pneumonia and expired within 48 hours...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393141/using-cluster-analysis-of-cytokines-to-identify-patterns-of-inflammation-in-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-pilot-study
#17
Timothy L Wiemken, Robert R Kelley, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, William A Mattingly, Forest W Arnold, Stephen P Furmanek, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Paula Peyrani, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Stefano Aliberti, Julio A Ramirez
INTRODUCTION: Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host inflammatory response to pneumonia may be characterized by distinct cytokine patterns, which can be harnessed for personalized therapies...
2017: Univ Louisville J Respir Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392538/listeria-monocytogenes-meningitis-complicating-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#18
Takuma Ohnishi, Akiko Kawano, Mayumi Araki, Yuko Hamahata, Machiko Usui, Motoko Shimoyamada, Takuya Tamame, Masayuki Akashi, Seiji Sato
Listeria monocytogenes only occasionally causes bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent children. We report a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The patient was a previously healthy 20-month-old girl who was admitted because of sustained fever and lethargy after suffering from gastroenteritis for 6 days. The patient's peripheral white blood cell count was 18,600/µL and the C-reactive protein level was 2.44 mg/dL. A stool sample tested positive for rotavirus antigen...
April 7, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385809/free-actin-impairs-macrophage-bacterial-defenses-via-scavenger-receptor-marco-interaction-with-reversal-by-plasma-gelsolin
#19
Christine M Ordija, Terry Ting-Yu Chiou, Zhiping Yang, Glen M Deloid, Melina de Oliveira Valdo, Zhi Wang, Alice Bedugnis, Terry L Noah, Samuel Jones, Henry Koziel, Lester Kobzik
Lung injury can release intracellular actin into the alveolar milieu, and is also associated with increased susceptibility to secondary infections. We investigated the effect of free (extracellular) actin on lung macrophage host defense functions. Western blot analysis demonstrated free actin release into the lung lavage fluids of mouse models of ozone injury, influenza infection and secondary pneumococcal pneumonia, and in samples from patients following burn and inhalation injury. Using levels comparable to those observed in lung injury, we found that free actin markedly inhibited murine lung macrophage binding and uptake in vitro of S...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383126/aeromonas-jandaei-and-aeromonas-veronii-caused-disease-and-mortality-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-l
#20
H T Dong, C Techatanakitarnan, P Jindakittikul, A Thaiprayoon, S Taengphu, W Charoensapsri, P Khunrae, T Rattanarojpong, S Senapin
Diseases caused by motile aeromonads in freshwater fish have been generally assumed to be linked with mainly Aeromonas hydrophila while other species were probably overlooked. Here, we identified two isolates of non-A. hydrophila recovered from Nile tilapia exhibiting disease and mortality after exposed to transport-induced stress and subsequently confirmed their virulence in artificial infection. The bacterial isolates were identified as Aeromonas jandaei and Aeromonas veronii based on phenotypic features and homology of 16S rDNA...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
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