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Secondary bacterial infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210015/frequency-of-bacterial-samples-from-patients-with-chronic-acquired-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction
#1
Kourosh Shahraki, Ali Makateb, Keyvan Shirzadi, Keivan Khosravifard
INTRODUCTION: Dacryocystitis is an infection of lacremical sac due to obstruction of nasolacrimal duct which has primary or secondary causes. Idiopathic inflammatory obstruction is the primary cause. Trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia, and mechanical obstruction are secondary one. AIM: The objective of this study is determination of bacterial samples from patients with chronic acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was contained 90 patients with dacryocystitis from 2010 to 2011, in Besat hospital...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209676/what-is-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#2
REVIEW
Erika Yue Lee, Raed Alhusayen, Perla Lansang, Neil Shear, Jensen Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A PubMed literature search was performed using the MeSH term hidradenitis suppurativa. MAIN MESSAGE: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent, and debilitating skin condition. It is an inflammatory disorder of the follicular epithelium, but secondary bacterial infection can often occur...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208879/carbamazepine-induced-life-threatening-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-agranulocytosis-the-maiden-case
#3
A Avinash, V Mohanbabu Amberkar, Sushil Kiran Kunder, Sharath Madhyastha, K Meenakumari
Stevens-Johnson syndrome is one of the few dermatological emergencies in clinical practice. The syndrome is often secondary to the usage of drugs, of which allopurinol, penicillins, sulfa drugs, ibuprofen, sodium valproate, phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine are commonly implicated. Agranulocytosis is the existence of a clinically significant reduction in neutrophil count. This condition is a serious threat to the patient, as he/she is at a greater risk of contracting bacterial or fungal infections, which may prove to be fatal...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198193/association-between-dehydration-and-fever-during-the-first-week-of-life
#4
Ariane Boutin, Ana Carceller, Marie Pier Desjardins, Marisol Sanchez, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: Trying to differentiate serious bacterial infection (SBI) from a self-limiting illness in febrile infants seen in the pediatric emergency department (PED) is a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dehydration and its relationship to SBI in febrile full-term newborns under 1 week of age seen in a PED. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195822/microflora-of-retained-intracochlear-electrodes-from-infected-cochlear-implants
#5
Varun V Varadarajan, Carolyn O Dirain, Patrick J Antonelli
Objectives Cochlear implant infections may be refractory to medical management and require device removal with subsequent reimplantation. During device removal, the intracochlear electrode array is commonly left in place to prevent obliteration of the cochlear lumen. If the electrode is colonized with pathogens, this risks contaminating the replacement implant. In this study, we compare the microorganisms detected on infected cochlear implants against those on the retained electrode using culture and microbial gene-sequencing techniques...
February 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193896/regulatory-cascade-and-biological-activity-of-beauveria-bassiana-oosporein-that-limits-bacterial-growth-after-host-death
#6
Yanhua Fan, Xi Liu, Nemat O Keyhani, Guirong Tang, Yan Pei, Wenwen Zhang, Sheng Tong
The regulatory network and biological functions of the fungal secondary metabolite oosporein have remained obscure. Beauveria bassiana has evolved the ability to parasitize insects and outcompete microbial challengers for assimilation of host nutrients. A novel zinc finger transcription factor, BbSmr1 (B. bassiana secondary metabolite regulator 1), was identified in a screen for oosporein overproduction. Deletion of Bbsmr1 resulted in up-regulation of the oosporein biosynthetic gene cluster (OpS genes) and constitutive oosporein production...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189043/type-i-interferon-signalling-is-not-required-for-the-induction-of-endotoxin-tolerance
#7
Yalda Karimi, Sophie M Poznanski, Fatemeh Vahedi, Branson Chen, Marianne V Chew, Amanda J Lee, Ali A Ashkar
Endotoxin, or LPS tolerance, is an immunomodulatory mechanism that results in a significantly diminished response to secondary LPS exposure, which may serve to protect the host against endotoxic shock. Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines released upon LPS binding to TLR4 and have been shown to have immunomodulatory properties. Due to this regulatory function of type I IFN, we aimed to investigate the role of type I IFN signalling in LPS tolerance. Our data suggests that type I IFN does not play a role in LPS tolerance in vitro, as both wild type and IFNAR1(-/-) peritoneal macrophages showed reduced cytokine production after secondary LPS exposure...
February 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185306/antimicrobial-use-guidelines-for-treatment-of-respiratory-tract-disease-in-dogs-and-cats-antimicrobial-guidelines-working-group-of-the-international-society-for-companion-animal-infectious-diseases
#8
M R Lappin, J Blondeau, D Booth, E B Breitschwerdt, L Guardabassi, D H Lloyd, M G Papich, S C Rankin, J E Sykes, J Turnidge, J S Weese
Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases convened a Working Group of clinical microbiologists, pharmacologists, and internists to share experiences, examine scientific data, review clinical trials, and develop these guidelines to assist veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166712/experimental-acute-infection-of-alpacas-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-1-subgenotype-b-alters-peripheral-blood-and-galt-leukocyte-subsets
#9
Christina L Topliff, Abdulrahman A Alkheraif, Charles A Kuszynski, William C Davis, David J Steffen, Jack A Schmitz, Kent M Eskridge, Bryan Charleston, Jamie N Henningson, Clayton L Kelling
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas ( Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161356/a-retrospective-cross-sectional-quantitative-molecular-approach-in-biological-samples-from-patients-with-syphilis
#10
Miguel Pinto, Minia Antelo, Rita Ferreira, Jacinta Azevedo, Irene Santo, Maria José Borrego, João Paulo Gomes
Syphilis is the sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a pathogen highly adapted to the human host. As a multistage disease, syphilis presents distinct clinical manifestations that pose different implications for diagnosis. Nevertheless, the inherent factors leading to diverse disease progressions are still unknown. We aimed to assess the association between treponemal loads and dissimilar disease outcomes, to better understand syphilis. We retrospectively analyzed 309 DNA samples distinct anatomic sites associated with particular syphilis manifestations...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159230/goblet-cell-depletion-in-small-intestinal-villous-and-crypt-epithelium-of-conventional-nursing-and-weaned-pigs-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#11
Kwonil Jung, Linda J Saif
Intestinal goblet cells secret mucins to form mucus layers critical for maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes watery diarrhea and high mortality of suckling pigs. PEDV mainly infects villous epithelial cells of the small intestine, and infected cells undergo acute, massive necrosis, followed by severe villous atrophy. Conventional 9-day-old nursing pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n=9); Mock (n=11)] and 26-day-old weaned [PEDV-inoculated (n=11); Mock (n=9)] were inoculated orally [8...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159176/legionnaire-s-disease-cardiac-manifestations
#12
REVIEW
John L Brusch
Most cardiac infections with Legionella are secondary to bacteremias arising from a pulmonary focus. Other possible sites of origin are infected sternotomy wounds or equipment contaminated by Legionella spp. Legionella endocarditis is truly a "stealth" infection, with almost no hallmarks of bacterial endocarditis. The key step in making the diagnosis of Legionella endocarditis is for the physician to be aware of the clinical causes of culture-negative infective endocarditis and to include Legionella cardiac involvement in this differential...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159173/legionnaire-s-disease-and-influenza
#13
REVIEW
Eleni E Magira, Sryros Zakynthinos
Legionella pneumophila and influenza types A and B viruses can cause either community-acquired pneumonia with respiratory failure, or Legionella infection could attribute to influenza infection with potentially fatal prognosis. Copathogenesis between pandemic influenza and bacteria is characterized by complex interactions between coinfecting pathogens and the host. Understanding the underlying reason of the emersion of the secondary bacterial infection during an influenza infection is challenging. The dual infection has an impact on viral control and may delay viral clearance...
March 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159155/postviral-complications-bacterial-pneumonia
#14
REVIEW
Jason E Prasso, Jane C Deng
Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158976/the-role-of-serum-procalcitonin-in-establishing-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-pleural-infection
#15
Giles Dixon, Adriana Lama-Lopez, Oliver J Bintcliffe, Anna J Morley, Clare E Hooper, Nick A Maskell
BACKGROUND: Bacterial pleural infection requires prompt identification to enable appropriate investigation and treatment. In contrast to commonly used biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and white cell count (WCC), which can be raised due to non-infective inflammatory processes, procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as a specific biomarker of bacterial infection. The utility of PCT in this role is yet to be validated in a large prospective trial. This study aimed to identify whether serum PCT is superior to CRP and WCC in establishing the diagnosis of bacterial pleural infection...
February 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141587/osteoarticular-and-soft-tissue-melioidosis-in-malaysia-clinical-characteristics-and-molecular-typing-of-the-causative-agent
#16
AbdelRahman Mohammad Zueter, Mahmoud Abumarzouq, Mohd Imran Yusof, Wan Faisham Wan Ismail, Azian Harun
INTRODUCTION: Melioidosis involving bone, joints, and soft tissue is rare and reported usually following dissemination of disease from infection elsewhere in the body; to a lesser degree, it can also be reported as the primary manifestation of melioidosis. METHODOLOGY: The orthopedic registry at Hospital University Sains Malaysia from 2008 until 2014 was retrospectively reviewed and was followed by molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei. RESULTS: Out of 20 cases identified, 19 patients were confirmed to have osteoarticular and/or soft-tissue melioidosis...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120605/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-mimics-many-common-conditions-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#17
A T Akenroye, N Madan, F Mohammadi, J Leider
Introduction. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare but potentially fatal disease, is characterized by excessive immune activation and cytokine release which stimulates bone marrow macrophages to engulf hematopoietic cells. HLH could be secondary to infections: viral, fungal, and bacterial; malignancies and autoimmune diseases. The diagnosis of HLH is usually delayed due to the presence of non-specific symptoms at presentation. This delay contributes to increased mortality. Cases and review. We present the case of 4 patients who presented with subjective fevers and extreme fatigue...
January 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117457/the-aliphatic-amidase-amie-is-involved-in-regulation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-virulence
#18
Thomas Clamens, Thibaut Rosay, Alexandre Crépin, Teddy Grandjean, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Perrine Bortolotti, Anke Neidig, Marlies Mooij, Mélanie Hillion, Julien Vieillard, Pascal Cosette, Joerg Overhage, Fergal O'Gara, Emeline Bouffartigues, Alain Dufour, Sylvie Chevalier, Benoit Guery, Pierre Cornelis, Marc G J Feuilloley, Olivier Lesouhaitier
We have previously shown that the eukaryotic C-type natriuretic peptide hormone (CNP) regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation after binding on the AmiC sensor, triggering the amiE transcription. Herein, the involvement of the aliphatic amidase AmiE in P. aeruginosa virulence regulation has been investigated. The proteome analysis of an AmiE over-producing strain (AmiE(+)) revealed an expression change for 138 proteins, including some that are involved in motility, synthesis of quorum sensing compounds and virulence regulation...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116262/acetabular-prosthetic-protrusio-after-bipolar-hemi-arthroplasty-of-the-hip-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Jason Bt Lim, Chia Liang Ang, Hee Nee Pang
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar hemi-arthroplasty of the hip is a commonly performed procedure in elderly patients with intra-capsular fracture of the neck of the femur with good short-term results for pain relief, return to activity and morbidity. The incidence of intra-pelvic prosthesis migration or protrusion is rare and one of the inciting factors is chronic low-grade sepsis. Acetabular prosthesis protrusion poses a difficult and challenging surgical problem due to surrounding neurovascular structures...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114553/prognostic-accuracy-of-the-sofa-score-sirs-criteria-and-qsofa-score-for-in-hospital-mortality-among-adults-with-suspected-infection-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
Eamon P Raith, Andrew A Udy, Michael Bailey, Steven McGloughlin, Christopher MacIsaac, Rinaldo Bellomo, David V Pilcher
Importance: The Sepsis-3 Criteria emphasized the value of a change of 2 or more points in the Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, introduced quick SOFA (qSOFA), and removed the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria from the sepsis definition. Objective: Externally validate and assess the discriminatory capacities of an increase in SOFA score by 2 or more points, 2 or more SIRS criteria, or a qSOFA score of 2 or more points for outcomes among patients who are critically ill with suspected infection...
17, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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