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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454846/comparison-of-reporting-phase-iii-randomized-controlled-trials-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-common-bacterial-infections-in-clinicaltrials-gov-and-matched-publications
#1
Daniel Shepshelovich, Dana Yelin, Anat Gafter-Gvili, Shira Goldman, Tomer Avni, Dafna Yahav
OBJECTIVES: Discrepancies between ClinicalTrials.gov entries and matching publications were previously described in general medicine. We aimed to evaluate the consistency of reporting in trials addressing systemic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov for completed phase III trials comparing antibiotic regimens until 5/2017. Matched publications were identified in PubMed. Two independent reviewers extracted data and identified inconsistencies...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453435/evidence-of-a-gene-environment-interaction-of-nodal-variants-and-inflammation-in-preterm-birth
#2
Lisa M Starr, Taghreed Heba, Daniel Dufort
OBJECTIVE: NODAL has been implicated in timing of parturition and immune regulation. We investigated the relationship between NODAL polymorphisms, infection/inflammation, and preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: For this secondary analysis, 613 women (189 preterm and 424 term) from the Montreal Prematurity Study were genotyped for NODAL polymorphisms and assessed for bacterial vaginosis and placental inflammation. RESULT: NODAL polymorphisms were not associated with preterm birth...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452598/7-versus-14-days-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Nick Daneman, Asgar H Rishu, Ruxandra Pinto, Pierre Aslanian, Sean M Bagshaw, Alex Carignan, Emmanuel Charbonney, Bryan Coburn, Deborah J Cook, Michael E Detsky, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, Francois Lamontagne, Francois Lauzier, John C Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Wendy Sligl, Henry T Stelfox, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Shorter-duration antibiotic treatment is sufficient for a range of bacterial infections, but has not been adequately studied for bloodstream infections. Our systematic review, survey, and observational study indicated equipoise for a trial of 7 versus 14 days of antibiotic treatment for bloodstream infections; a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) was a necessary next step to assess feasibility of a larger trial. METHODS: We conducted an open, pilot RCT of antibiotic treatment duration among critically ill patients with bloodstream infection across 11 intensive care units (ICUs)...
February 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450193/a-method-for-quantification-of-epithelium-colonization-capacity-by-pathogenic-bacteria
#4
Rune M Pedersen, Rasmus B Grønnemose, Kristian Stærk, Cecilie A Asferg, Thea B Andersen, Hans J Kolmos, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Thomas E Andersen
Most bacterial infections initiate at the mucosal epithelium lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. At these sites, bacterial pathogens must adhere and increase in numbers to effectively breach the outer barrier and invade the host. If the bacterium succeeds in reaching the bloodstream, effective dissemination again requires that bacteria in the blood, reestablish contact to distant endothelium sites and form secondary site foci. The infectious potential of bacteria is therefore closely linked to their ability to adhere to, colonize, and invade epithelial and endothelial surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447243/differences-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-between-uninfected-piglets-and-piglets-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#5
Mei-Zhou Huang, Sheng-Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Dong-An Cui, Ya-Jun Yang, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Jian-Yong Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea, a disastrous gastrointestinal disease, causes great financial losses due to its high infectivity, morbidity and mortality in suckling piglets despite the development and application of various vaccines. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to explore differences in the intestinal microbiota between uninfected piglets and piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results revealed that the small intestinal microbiota of suckling piglets infected with PEDV showed low diversity and was dominated by Proteobacteria (49...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443786/improved-vacuum-sealing-drainage-for-treatment-of-surgical-site-infection-following-posterior-spinal-internal-fixation-a-case-report
#6
Hengyan Zhang, Qiyi Li
RATIONALE: Surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgeries involving internal fixation often require removing the instrument; however, this can cause spinal instability. Previous reports have demonstrated the usefulness of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) therapy, but the cases require wound opening, aseptic condition to replace the VSD device, and a secondary operation to close the wound. Thus, to improve the VSD treatment and develop a maneuverable procedure, make sense in spine surgery...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443436/fitness-costs-of-infection-with-serratia-symbiotica-are-associated-with-greater-susceptibility-to-insecticides-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#7
Marisa Skaljac, Phillipp Kirfel, Jens Grotmann, Andreas Vilcinskas
BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests that damage crops by direct feeding and by vectoring important plant viruses. Bacterial symbionts can influence aphid biology, e.g. by providing essential nutrients or facilitating adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress. RESULTS: We investigated the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) and its commonly associated secondary bacterial symbiont Serratia symbiotica to study the effect of this symbiont on host fitness and susceptibility to the insecticides imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos methyl, methomyl, cyantraniliprole and spirotetramat...
February 14, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438547/effectiveness-of-general-practitioner-online-training-and-an-information-booklet-for-parents-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Christopher C Butler, Jochen W L Cals, Nick A Francis, Paul Little, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Lucy Yardley, Nicolaas P A Zuithoff, Alike W van der Velden
Objectives: Antibiotics are too often prescribed in childhood respiratory tract infection (RTI), despite limited effectiveness, potential side effects and bacterial resistance. We aimed to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children with RTI by online training for general practitioners (GPs) and information for parents. Methods: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in primary care. The intervention consisted of online training for GPs and an information booklet for parents...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435555/opioid-analgesic-use-and-risk-for-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases-a-nested-case-control-study
#9
Andrew D Wiese, Marie R Griffin, William Schaffner, C Michael Stein, Robert A Greevy, Edward F Mitchel, Carlos G Grijalva
Background: Although certain opioid analgesics have immunosuppressive properties and increase the risk for infections in animals, the clinical effects of prescription opioid use on infection risk among humans are unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that prescription opioid use is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Design: Nested case-control study. Setting: Tennessee Medicaid database linked to Medicare and Active Bacterial Core surveillance system databases (1995 to 2014)...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433841/relationship-between-acute-kidney-injury-and-serum-procalcitonin-pct-concentration-in-critically-ill-patients-with-influenza-infection
#10
A Rodríguez, L F Reyes, J Monclou, B Suberviola, M Bodí, G Sirgo, J Solé-Violán, J Guardiola, D Barahona, E Díaz, I Martín-Loeches, M I Restrepo
INTRODUCTION: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration could be increased in patients with renal dysfunction in the absence of bacterial infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the interactions among serum renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and serum PCT concentration, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to lung influenza infection. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective multicentre observational study. SETTING: 148 Spanish ICUs...
February 9, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427413/tgf-%C3%AE-1-suppresses-the-type-i-ifn-response-and-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-macrophages
#11
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Samantha M Yeligar, Susan Stephenson, Xiao Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Anne M Fitzpatrick, Lou Ann S Brown
TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with an established role in fibrosis; however, the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β1 are less characterized. Elevated levels of TGF-β1 are found in patients with acute and chronic lung diseases, and the underlying disease processes are exacerbated by respiratory viral infections. The alveolar macrophage is the first line of cellular defense against respiratory viral infections, and its response to infections is dependent on environmental cues. Using the mouse alveolar macrophage line, MH-S, and human CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the type I IFN antiviral response, macrophage polarization, and mitochondrial bioenergetics following a challenge with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415569/the-adhesins-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#12
Karen L Osman, Johanna M Jefferies, Christopher H Woelk, David W Cleary, Stuart C Clarke
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract and the greatest contributor to invasive Haemophilus disease. Additionally, in children, NTHi is responsible for the majority of otitis media (OM) which can lead to chronic infection and hearing loss. In adults, NTHi infection in the lungs is responsible for the onset of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to protect against NTHi infections...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411124/malignancy-and-chemotherapy-induced-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-single-centre-experience-of-20%C3%A2-years
#13
Volker Strenger, Gerald Merth, Herwig Lackner, Stephan W Aberle, Harald H Kessler, Markus G Seidel, Wolfgang Schwinger, Daniela Sperl, Petra Sovinz, Anna Karastaneva, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a possibly life-threatening syndrome of immune dysregulation and can be divided into primary (hereditary) and secondary forms (including malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH)). We retrospectively analysed epidemiological, clinical, virological and laboratory data from patients with M-HLH treated at our department between 1995 and 2014. Out of 1.706 haemato-/oncologic patients treated at our department between 1995 and 2014, we identified 22 (1.29%) patients with secondary HLH (1...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410519/rationale-and-design-of-an-inhibitor-of-reca-protein-as-an-inhibitor-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
Vishvanath Tiwari, Monalisa Tiwari, Deepika Biswas
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the ESKAPE pathogen, which causes pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and is linked to high degree of morbidity and mortality. One-way antibiotic and disinfectant resistance is acquired by the activation of RecA-mediated DNA repair (SOS-response) that maintain ROS-dependent DNA damage caused by these anti-bacterial molecules. To increase the efficacy of different anti-microbial, there is a need to design an inhibitor against RecA of A. baumannii. We have performed homology modeling to generate the structure of RecA, followed by model refinement and validation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410456/spiroplasma-affects-host-aphid-proteomics-feeding-on-two-nutritional-resources
#15
Aline Sartori Guidolin, Thaís Regiani Cataldi, Carlos Alberto Labate, Frederic Francis, Fernando Luis Cônsoli
Bacterial symbionts are broadly distributed among insects, influencing their bioecology to different degrees. Aphids carry a number of secondary symbionts that can influence aphid physiology and fitness attributes. Spiroplasma is seldom reported as an aphid symbiont, but a high level of infection has been observed in one population of the tropical aphid Aphis citricidus. We used sister isolines of Spiroplasma-infected (Ac-BS) and Spiroplasma-free (Ac-B) aphids reared on sweet orange (optimum host) and orange jasmine (suboptimum host) to demonstrate the effects of Spiroplasma infection in the aphid proteome profile...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408609/microbiota-derived-metabolic-factors-reduce-campylobacteriosis-in-mice
#16
Xiaolun Sun, Kathryn Winglee, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Josee Gauthier, Zhen He, Prabhanshu Tripathi, Dorina Avram, Steven Bruner, Anthony Fodor, Christian Jobin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Campylobacter jejuni, a prevalent food-borne bacterial pathogen, exploits the host innate response to induce colitis. Little is known about the roles of microbiota in C jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. We investigated interactions between microbiota and intestinal cells during C jejuni infection of mice. METHODS: Germ-free C57BL/6 Il10-/- mice were colonized with conventional microbiota and infected with a single dose of C jejuni (109 colony-forming units/mouse), via gavage...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405898/efficacy-and-safety-of-tigecycline-monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-hap-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#17
Xiang-Rong Bai, Jia-Ming Liu, De-Chun Jiang, Su-Ying Yan
The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403495/differing-house-finch-cytokine-expression-responses-to-original-and-evolved-isolates-of-mycoplasma-gallisepticum
#18
Michal Vinkler, Ariel E Leon, Laila Kirkpatrick, Rami A Dalloul, Dana M Hawley
The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15, and CXCLi2, syn...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400698/clonally-expanded-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-protect-against-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-reinfection
#19
Carly A Dillen, Bret L Pinsker, Alina I Marusina, Alexander A Merleev, Orly N Farber, Haiyun Liu, Nathan K Archer, Da B Lee, Yu Wang, Roger V Ortines, Steven K Lee, Mark C Marchitto, Shuting S Cai, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Larissa S May, Steven M Holland, Alexandra F Freeman, Loren G Miller, Michael R Yeaman, Scott I Simon, Joshua D Milner, Emanual Maverakis, Lloyd S Miller
The mechanisms that mediate durable protection against Staphylococcus aureus skin reinfections are unclear, as recurrences are common despite high antibody titers and memory T cells. Here, we developed a mouse model of S. aureus skin reinfection to investigate protective memory responses. In contrast with WT mice, IL-1β-deficient mice exhibited poor neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance during primary infection that was rescued during secondary S. aureus challenge. The γδ T cells from skin-draining LNs utilized compensatory T cell-intrinsic TLR2/MyD88 signaling to mediate rescue by trafficking and producing TNF and IFN-γ, which restored neutrophil recruitment and promoted bacterial clearance...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399316/adjunct-use-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-the-treatment-of-necrotizing-ulcerative-gingivitis-a-case-report
#20
Seda Sevinç Özberk, Hasan Gündoğar, Süleyman Ziya Şenyurt, Kamile Erciyas
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impaired host response. This form of gingivitis is relatively rare. NUG is an infection characterized by gingival necrosis presenting as "punched-out" papillae, spontaneous bleeding, pain, oral malodor, and pseudomembrane formation. The primary predisposing factors are bacterial plaque and an inadequate diet, but smoking and psychological stress may also affect the disease severity. NUG is associated with a characteristic bacterial flora, which includes fusiform bacteria, spirochetes, and Prevotella intermedia...
2018: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
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