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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025781/subclinical-meningoventriculitis-as-a-cause-of-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#1
Ravindran Visagan, Laurent James Livermore, Dominic Kelly, Shailendra Magdum
Communicating hydrocephalus may complicate infantile bacterial meningitis, typically presenting with systemic features of infection. We report a rare case of 'subclinical meningoventriculitis' causing obstructive hydrocephalus and its challenging management. A healthy 10-week-old immunocompetent male patient presented with failure to thrive and vomiting, secondary to presumed gastro-oesophageal reflux. The child was neurologically alert, afebrile with normal inflammatory markers. Progressive macrocephaly prompted an MRI confirming triventricular hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025780/cryptococcus-neoformans-osteomyelitis-and-intramuscular-abscess-in-a-liver-transplant-patient
#2
Sonia Maria Poenaru, Rymon Rofaiel, Seyed M Hosseini-Moghaddam
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important pathogen that can cause severe illness and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We highlight here the case of a 53-year-old man presenting to hospital 4 years postliver transplant with fever, acute renal failure and a medial thigh lesion. Initially treated as bacterial sepsis, the patient failed to improve on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Further investigations revealed disseminated cryptococcemia complicated by patellar osteomyelitis and an intramuscular abscess. Unfortunately, although the patient initially showed signs of clinical improvement after starting standard antifungal agents, he deteriorated and died secondary to acute renal failure...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025194/procalcitonin-to-initiate-or-discontinue-antibiotics-in-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#3
REVIEW
Philipp Schuetz, Yannick Wirz, Ramon Sager, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm, Lila Bouadma, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Jean Chastre, Florence Tubach, Kristina B Kristoffersen, Olaf Burkhardt, Tobias Welte, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Long Wei, Heiner C Bucher, Neera Bhatnagar, Djillali Annane, Konrad Reinhart, Angela Branche, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Dylan W de Lange, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Stella Ss Lima, Vera Maravić-Stojković, Alessia Verduri, Bin Cao, Yahya Shehabi, Albertus Beishuizen, Jens-Ulrik S Jensen, Caspar Corti, Jos A Van Oers, Ann R Falsey, Evelien de Jong, Carolina F Oliveira, Bianca Beghe, Matthias Briel, Beat Mueller
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about antibiotic therapy (PCT-guided antibiotic therapy). Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the feasibility of using procalcitonin for starting and stopping antibiotics in different patient populations with ARIs and different settings ranging from primary care settings to emergency departments, hospital wards, and intensive care units...
October 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021888/a-good-short-term-outcome-in-delayed-decompression-of-cauda-equina-syndrome-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-spinal-epidural-abscess-a-case-report
#4
J Hanifah, J Joehaimey, M I Yusof
Spinal epidural abscess is a severe, generally pyogenic, infection of the epidural space of spinal cord or cauda equina. The swelling caused by the abscess leads to compression or vascular disruption of neurological structures that requires urgent surgical decompression to avoid significant permanent disability. We share a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae spinal epidural abscess secondary to haematogenous spread of previous lung infection that presented late at our centre with cauda equina syndrome that showed good short-term outcome in delayed decompression...
July 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021784/synthetic-peptides-to-target-stringent-response-controlled-virulence-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-murine-cutaneous-infection-model
#5
Daniel Pletzer, Heidi Wolfmeier, Manjeet Bains, Robert E W Hancock
Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (p)ppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018774/influenza-a-virus-as-a-predisposing-factor-for-cryptococcosis
#6
Lorena V N Oliveira, Marliete C Costa, Thaís F F Magalhães, Rafael W Bastos, Patrícia C Santos, Hellem C S Carneiro, Noelly Q Ribeiro, Gabriella F Ferreira, Lucas S Ribeiro, Ana P F Gonçalves, Caio T Fagundes, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Julianne T Djordjevic, Tania C Sorrell, Daniele G Souza, Alexandre M V Machado, Daniel A Santos
Influenza A virus (IAV) infects millions of people annually and predisposes to secondary bacterial infections. Inhalation of fungi within the Cryptococcus complex causes pulmonary disease with secondary meningo-encephalitis. Underlying pulmonary disease is a strong risk factor for development of C. gattii cryptococcosis though the effect of concurrent infection with IAV has not been studied. We developed an in vivo model of Influenza A H1N1 and C. gattii co-infection. Co-infection resulted in a major increase in morbidity and mortality, with severe lung damage and a high brain fungal burden when mice were infected in the acute phase of influenza multiplication...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991759/the-importance-of-perioperative-prophylaxis-with-cefuroxime-or-ceftriaxone-in-the-surgical-site-infections-prevention-after-cranial-and-spinal-neurosurgical-procedures
#7
Aleksandra Dimovska-Gavrilovska, Aleksandar Chaparoski, Andreja Gavrilovski, Zvonko Milenkovikj
Introduction Surgical site infections pose a significant problem in the treatment of neurosurgical procedures, regardless of the application of perioperative prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics. The infection rate in these procedures ranges from less than 1% to above 15%. Different antibiotics and administration regimes have been used in the perioperative prophylaxis so far, and there are numerous comparative studies regarding their efficiency, however, it is generally indicated that the choice thereof should be based on information and local specifics connected to the most probable bacterial causers, which would possibly contaminate the surgical site and cause infection, and moreover, the mandatory compliance with the principles of providing adequate concentration of the drug at the time of the anticipated contamination...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990093/snps-of-cd14-change-the-mastitis-morbidity-of-chinese-holstein
#8
Jun Li, Qiang Wang, Fanghui Chen, Haosen Wang, Jie Chen, Zhao Wang, Jiayan Huo, Yafei Cai
Gram‑negative (GN) bacterial infection is a main cause of bovine mastitis. The cluster of differentiation (CD) 14 gene serves an essential role in GN bacterium‑induced innate immune response. CD14 works as a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, combines with LPS‑liposaccharide binding protein complex, and causes cellular activation. However, the effects of CD14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on morbidity of clinical mastitis remain unclear. In the present study, To investigate the polymorphisms of CD14 gene and its effects on cows' susceptibility to mastitis, polymerase chain reaction‑single‑strand conformation polymorphism (PCR‑SSCP) assay was used to detect SNPs of CD14 gene in 134 Chinese Holsteins...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988964/epidemiology-of-bacteremia-in-febrile-infants-aged-60-days-and-younger
#9
Elizabeth C Powell, Prashant V Mahajan, Genie Roosevelt, John D Hoyle, Rajender Gattu, Andrea T Cruz, Alexander J Rogers, Shireen M Atabaki, David M Jaffe, T Charles Casper, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the current epidemiology of bacteremia in febrile infants 60 days of age and younger in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN). METHODS: We conducted a planned secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of febrile infants 60 days of age and younger presenting to any of 26 PECARN emergency departments (2008 to 2013) who had blood cultures obtained. We excluded infants with significant comorbidities or critically ill appearance...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969684/group-b-streptococcus-gbs-is-an-important-pathogen-in-human-disease-but-what-about-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Kate Skolnik, Austin Nguyen, Christina S Thornton, Barbara Waddell, Tyler Williamson, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common commensal capable of causing severe invasive infections. Most GBS infections occur in neonates (often as pneumonia). GBS can also cause infection in adults with diabetes and other immunological impairments but rarely leads to pneumonia in adults. GBS has occasionally been found in the sputum of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, an inherited condition known for progressive lung disease. However, the epidemiology and clinical significance of GBS in CF are not understood...
October 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969197/neglected-necrotizing-fasciitis-a-rare-complication-of-spinal-anaesthesia
#11
Karikal Chakaravarthi, Ashish Gupta, Lileswar Kaman
Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) is a rare, rapidly progressive severe bacterial soft tissue infection with a high mortality rate. NF classically involves the trunk, groin/perineum, lower limbs, and postoperative wound sites. NF secondary to spinal anaesthesia in a young postpartum female is extremely rare. Here we are describing a young postpartum female who underwent cesarean section for the delivery of child but developed NF of the back starting from the site of spinal needle insertion. She was referred to our center after 21 days of surgery with extensive NF...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956005/development-of-a-subunit-vaccine-for-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diseases-biophysical-characterization-of-toxoids-a-and-b
#12
Alexey Gribenko, Elena Severina, Maninder K Sidhu, Kathrin U Jansen, Bruce A Green, Yury V Matsuka
Inactivation of bacterial toxins for use in human vaccines traditionally is achieved by treatment with formaldehyde. In contrast, the bivalent experimental vaccine for the prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI) that is currently being evaluated in clinical trials was produced using a different strategy. C. difficile toxins A and B were inactivated using site-directed mutagenesis and treatment with 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (EDC/NHS). In the present work we investigate the effect of genetic and chemical modifications on the structure of inactivated toxins (toxoids) A and B...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945111/pi3k%C3%AE-selective-and-pi3k%C3%AE-%C3%AE-combinatorial-inhibitors-in-clinical-development-for-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#13
Benjamin L Lampson, Jennifer R Brown
The efficacy of the prototypical phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (iNHL) has led to development of multiple compounds targeting this pathway. Areas Covered: We review the hypothesized therapeutic mechanisms of PI3K inhibitors, including abrogation of B cell receptor signaling, blockade of microenvironmental pro-survival signals, and enhancement of anti-tumor immunity. We examine toxicities of idelalisib, including bacterial infections (possibly secondary to drug-induced neutropenia), opportunistic infections (possibly attributable to on-target inhibition of T cell function), and organ toxicities such as transaminitis and enterocolitis (possibly autoimmune, secondary to on-target inhibition of p110δ in regulatory T cells)...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942759/binding-host-proteins-to-the-m-protein-contributes-to-the-mortality-associated-with-influenza-streptococcus-pyogenes-superinfections
#14
Andrea L Herrera, Kuta Suso, Stephanie Allison, Abby Simon, Evelyn Schlenker, Victor C Huber, Michael S Chaussee
The mortality associated with influenza A virus (IAV) is often due to the development of secondary bacterial infections known as superinfections. The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a relatively uncommon cause of IAV superinfections, but the mortality of these infections is high. We used a murine model to determine whether the surface-localized GAS M protein contributes to the outcome of IAV-GAS superinfections. A comparison between wild-type GAS and an M protein mutant strain (emm3) showed that the M3 protein was essential to virulence...
September 25, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942073/update-on-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis
#15
REVIEW
Ariana Austin, Tom Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
Infectious keratitis is a major global cause of visual impairment and blindness, often affecting marginalized populations. Proper diagnosis of the causative organism is critical, and although culture remains the prevailing diagnostic tool, newer techniques such as in vivo confocal microscopy are helpful for diagnosing fungus and Acanthamoeba. Next-generation sequencing holds the potential for early and accurate diagnosis even for organisms that are difficult to culture by conventional methods. Topical antibiotics remain the best treatment for bacterial keratitis, and a recent review found all commonly prescribed topical antibiotics to be equally effective...
September 20, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939581/protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-characterising-the-immune-responses-induced-by-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-vaccination-in-healthy-kenyan-women-setting-the-stage-for-a-potential-vzv-based-hiv-vaccine
#16
Catia T Perciani, Walter Jaoko, Sharon Walmsley, Bashir Farah, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Mario Ostrowski, Omu Anzala, Kavi-Icr Team, Kelly S MacDonald
INTRODUCTION: A protective HIV vaccine would be expected to induce durable effector immune responses at the mucosa, restricting HIV infection at its portal of entry. We hypothesise that use of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as an HIV delivery vector could generate sustained and robust tissue-based immunity against HIV antigens to provide long-term protection against HIV. Given that HIV uniquely targets immune-activated T cells, the development of human vaccines against HIV must also involve a specific examination of the safety of the vector...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928207/a-perfect-storm-increased-colonization-and-failure-of-vaccination-leads-to-severe-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-influenza-virus-infected-obese-mice
#19
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924860/facial-nerve-palsy-secondary-to-epstein-barr-virus-infection-of-the-middle-ear-in-pediatric-population-may-be-more-common-than-we-think
#20
Katarina Vogelnik, Aleš Matos
BACKGROUND: Facial nerve palsy is a rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM). The general understanding is that this complication has a bacterial cause although bacteria can be isolated from the middle ear only in approximately two-thirds of cases of AOM. Detection of viral agents from specimens obtained during myringotomy in patients with AOM suggests a possible role of viruses in the etiology of this disease. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We studied 5 otherwise healthy 17- to 27-month-old children who were referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery from December 2012 to January 2016 because of AOM and ipsilateral facial nerve palsy...
September 18, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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