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Preventive medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040541/placental-nano-vesicles-target-to-specific-organs-and-modulate-vascular-tone-in-vivo
#1
Mancy Tong, Joanna L Stanley, Q Chen, Joanna L James, Peter R Stone, Larry W Chamley
STUDY QUESTION: How do nano-vesicles extruded from normal first trimester human placentae affect maternal vascular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: Placental nano-vesicles affect the ability of systemic mesenteric arteries to undergo endothelium- and nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent vasodilation in vivo in pregnant mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dramatic cardiovascular adaptations occur during human pregnancy, including a substantial decrease in total peripheral resistance in the first trimester...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040395/human-genome-sequencing-at-the-population-scale-a-primer-on-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-and-analysis
#2
Rachel L Goldfeder, Dennis P Wall, Muin J Khoury, John P A Ioannidis, Euan A Ashley
Most human diseases have underlying genetic causes. To better understand the impact of genes on disease and its implications for medicine and public health, researchers have pursued methods for determining the sequences of individual genes, then all genes, and now complete human genomes. Massively parallel high-throughput sequencing technology, where DNA is sheared into smaller pieces, sequenced, and then computationally reordered and analyzed, enables fast and affordable sequencing of full human genomes. As the price of sequencing continues to decline, more and more individuals are having their genomes sequenced...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036770/emergency-contraception-oral-and-intrauterine-options
#3
Kirsten I Black, Safeera Y Hussainy
BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception can be used to prevent pregnancy where contraception has not been used, or there has been contraceptive misuse or failure. Australian women have three options for emergency contraception: two types of oral pills (levonorgestrel [LNG]-containing pill and ulipristal acetate [UPA]) and the copper intrauterine device (IUD). Both pills are available from pharmacies without prescription, whereas the copper IUD requires insertion by a trained provider. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to describe the indications, efficacy and contraindications for use of the three emergency contraceptive methods available in Australia...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036230/predictors-of-adverse-drug-reaction-related-hospitalisation-in-southwest-ethiopia-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#4
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo, Colin Michael Curtain, Leanne Chalmers, Daniel Yilma, Luke Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the healthcare system; however, there are no studies reporting on the magnitude and risk factors associated with ADR-related hospitalisation in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: To characterise the reaction types and the drugs implicated in admission to Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, and to identify risk factors associated with ADR-related hospitalisation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035968/the-final-word-on-nutritional-screening-and-assessment-in-older-persons
#5
Emanuele Cereda, Nicola Veronese, Riccardo Caccialanza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated perspective of how nutritional screening and assessment in older persons should be performed and reasonably implemented in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Although nutritional screening and assessment should be fast and easy procedures, there is increasing evidence that more time should be dedicated to them. This is probably an answer to the claim to a medicine being more preventive than curative. Increasing interest is currently given to healthy aging and nutritional status is more likely to be addressed for its implications on functional status and disability...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035190/brain-tumor-epidemiology-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-the-2017-brain-tumor-epidemiology-consortium-meeting-report
#6
Kimberly J Johnson, Judith Schwartzbaum, Carol Kruchko, Michael E Scheurer, Ching C Lau, Adelheid Woehrer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Joseph Wiemels
The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an international consortium that aims to advance the development of multicenter and interdisciplinary collaborations that focus on research related to the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. The 18th annual BTEC meeting was held in Banff, AB, Canada, on June 27 - 29, 2017. The meeting focused on the intersection between epidemiology and precision medicine, that is, the use of molecular indicators of risk, early disease and prognosis or precision epidemiology...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035175/lifestyle-medicine-a-brief-review-of-its-dramatic-impact-on-health-and-survival
#7
Balazs I Bodai, Therese E Nakata, William T Wong, Dawn R Clark, Steven Lawenda, Christine Tsou, Raymond Liu, Linda Shiue, Neil Cooper, Michael Rehbein, Benjamin P Ha, Anne Mckeirnan, Rajiv Misquitta, Pankaj Vij, Andrew Klonecke, Carmelo S Mejia, Emil Dionysian, Sean Hashmi, Michael Greger, Scott Stoll, Thomas M Campbell
By ignoring the root causes of disease and neglecting to prioritize lifestyle measures for prevention, the medical community is placing people at harm. Advanced nations, influenced by a Western lifestyle, are in the midst of a health crisis, resulting largely from poor lifestyle choices. Epidemiologic, ecologic, and interventional studies have repeatedly indicated that most chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes, are the result of lifestyles fueled by poor nutrition and physical inactivity...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034866/the-health-effects-of-aluminum-exposure
#8
Katrin Klotz, Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Frauke Neff, Andrea Hartwig, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler
BACKGROUND: Aluminum is regularly taken up with the daily diet. It is also used in antiperspirants, as an adjuvant for vaccination, and in desensitization procedures. In this review, we present the scientifically documented harmful effects of aluminum on health and the threshold values associated with them. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and SCOPUS databases on the topic of aluminum in connection with neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, and breast cancer, as well as on the authors' personal experience in occupational and environmental medicine...
September 29, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#9
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034793/patient-s-utilization-of-primary-care-a-profile-of-clinical-and-administrative-reasons-for-visits-in-israel
#10
Tamar Adar, Inbar Levkovich, Orit Cohen Castel, Khaled Karkabi
BACKGROUND: Data on patients' utilization of health services in primary care is relevant to planning healthcare. Data may be collected by numerous methods, but obtaining a true picture of content of care has practical difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To describe patient's reasons for visits to primary care physicians (PCPs) as presented by the patient; and to examine the effect of patient-, doctor- and clinic-related variables on the reasons for the visit. METHODS: Visits to PCPs were observed by peer doctors during 2014, at primary care clinics in Israel...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034761/knowledge-and-attitude-of-mothers-regarding-infant-hearing-loss-in-changsha-hunan-province-china
#11
Xiaoli Wang, Dan Wu, Yali Zhao, Danhui Li, Dinghua He
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude among mothers of newborns regarding infant hearing loss (HL) in Changsha, Hunan province, China. DESIGN: A questionnaire including 18 items was given to mothers. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 115 mothers participated in the study. RESULTS: Seven risk factors for hearing loss were identified correctly by above 60% of respondents and the top three were prolonged noise (88...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034363/nocebo-effects-in-clinical-studies-hints-for-pain-therapy
#12
Regine Klinger, Maxie Blasini, Julia Schmitz, Luana Colloca
INTRODUCTION: Nocebo-induced algesic responses occurring within clinical contexts present a challenge for health care practitioners working in the field of pain medicine. OBJECTIVES: Following the recent research on algesic nocebo effects, the scope of this review is to develop ethically acceptable strategies to help avoid, or at least reduce, nocebo responses within clinical settings. METHODS: We reviewed relevant clinical studies that depict how patient-practitioner interactions may contribute to the reduction of nocebo responses...
March 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034335/reliability-and-validity-of-the-lichtenberg-financial-decision-screening-scale
#13
Peter A Lichtenberg, Jeanne A Teresi, Katja Ocepek-Welikson, Joseph P Eimicke
The scarcity of empirically validated assessment instruments continues to impede the work of professionals in a number of fields, including medicine, finance, and estate planning; adult protective services; and criminal justice-and, more importantly, it impedes their ability to effectively assist and, in some case, protect their clients. Other professionals (e.g. legal, financial, medical, mental health services) are in a position to prevent financial exploitation and would benefit from access to new instruments...
March 1, 2017: Innov Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034185/ashtawarga-plants-suffering-a-triple-standardization-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Jaswinder Kaur Virk, Vikas Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar, Ranjit Singh, Parveen Bansal
Ayurveda is one of the oldest known holistic health care systems recommending diverse medicinal uses of plants for prevention and cure of diseases and illness. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the holistic system is gaining more popularity due to its easy availability, low cost, congeniality, better accessibility and higher safety than allopathic medicine. Demand of herbal drugs is increasing day-by-day because of increasing popularity of herbal drugs; however market fails to meet this supply due to numerous factors, one of the important factors being the extinction of these plants from local flora...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034184/understanding-nutrition-and-immunity-in-disease-management
#15
REVIEW
Edwin L Cooper, Melissa J Ma
As we search for answers to modern medicine's most prevalent and challenging problems, the relationship between nutrition, immunity, and biological function of various natural compounds are preimminent. Nutritional research involving genomics provides rational capabilities for preventing disease. Scientific advances in genomic sequencing reveal opportunities for exploring diet-health relationships and potential for individual, genotype based dietary recommendations. Utilizing molecular and genetic technology to analyze impact of nutrition on genomics and metabolism reveals that nutrients may influence certain innate and/or acquired immune functions...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034183/alzheimer-disease-clues-from-traditional-and-complementary-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Edwin L Cooper, Melissa J Ma
Despite modern medicine's incredible innovation and resulting accumulation of valuable knowledge, many of the world's most problematic diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD) still lack effective cures and treatments. Western medicine has revealed many genetic, cellular, and molecular processes that characterize AD such as protein aggregation and inflammation. As the need for novel and effective treatments increases, researchers have turned towards traditional medicine as a resource. Modern, evidence based research examining traditional and complementary remedies for AD has generated promising results within the last decade...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033394/diagnostic-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer-prevention
#17
Roberto Gasparri, Rosalia Romano, Giulia Sedda, Alessandro Borri, Francesco Petrella, Domenico Galetta, Monica Casiraghi, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death for neoplasm. The lung cancer mortality is frequently associated with late diagnosis, therefore an early diagnosis is a key factor to significantly improve overall survival in high risk populations of asymptomatic patients. Conventional cancer screenings (low-dose computed tomography or chest x-ray) today offers early detection but are invasive and expensive. Up to date these studies evaluated the solid and topographic cancer structure and morphology. Today the concept of tumor has been remodeled and it has been defined as a disease that has its own genetic, biological and metabolic identity and on this new awareness we should base the new screening methods...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033364/-recurrent-cystisis-no-medicine-preventive-means
#18
J Armelle
OBJECTIVE: To estimate from the literature review, the interest of hygienic and behavioural measures and the use of food supplements (herbal) to prevent female urinary tract infection. METHODS: Pubmed research was focused on the efficiency of prophylactic measures in recurrent cystisis management. RESULTS: Due to many predisposing factors such as anatomical charasteristics, hydration and lifestyle, cystisis is more common in female subjects than in male...
October 12, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032458/a-systematic-review-of-techniques-and-sources-of-big-data-in-the-healthcare-sector
#19
Susel Góngora Alonso, Isabel de la Torre Díez, Joel J P C Rodrigues, Sofiane Hamrioui, Miguel López-Coronado
The main objective of this paper is to present a review of existing researches in the literature, referring to Big Data sources and techniques in health sector and to identify which of these techniques are the most used in the prediction of chronic diseases. Academic databases and systems such as IEEE Xplore, Scopus, PubMed and Science Direct were searched, considering the date of publication from 2006 until the present time. Several search criteria were established as 'techniques' OR 'sources' AND 'Big Data' AND 'medicine' OR 'health', 'techniques' AND 'Big Data' AND 'chronic diseases', etc...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032117/salvia-miltiorrhiza-protects-adenine-induced-chronic-renal-failure-by-regulating-the-metabolic-profiling-and-modulating-the-nadph-oxidase-ros-erk-and-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathways
#20
Hongdie Cai, Shulan Su, Yonghui Li, Huiting Zeng, Zhenhua Zhu, Jianming Guo, Yue Zhu, Sheng Guo, Li Yu, Dawei Qian, Yuping Tang, Jinao Duan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is defined as a progressive and irreversible loss of renal function and associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is an important Chinese herb used in traditional Chinese medicine with notable effects on CRF. It significantly inhibited the elevation of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urine protein (UP) in adenine-induced CRF rats, while the action mechanism need to be illuminated deeply...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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