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Preventive medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544934/preventive-effect-of-berberine-against-dmba-induced-breast-cancer-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Kalyani Chowdary Karnam, Maheswara Ellutla, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala, Shravan Kumar Uppulapu, Malayamarutham Kalyankumarraju, Mangala Lahkar
Breast cancer is the prime cause for cancer mortality in women worldwide. The importance of diverse natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal plants is widely used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. Because of its capability to seize the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of numerous malignant cells, berberine has received considerable attention as a potential anticancer agent. In the present study, breast cancer was induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) at a dose of 80mg/kg of body weight...
May 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543945/indirect-computed-tomography-lymphangiography-with-aqueous-contrast-for-evaluation-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-dogs-with-tumors-of-the-head
#2
Janet A Grimes, Scott A Secrest, Nicole C Northrup, Corey F Saba, Chad W Schmiedt
Sentinel lymph node evaluation is widely used in human medicine to evaluate the first lymph node(s) to which a tumor drains. Sentinel lymph node biopsy allows avoidance of extensive lymphadenectomies in cases where the sentinel lymph node is negative for metastasis, thereby reducing patient morbidity. It has been shown that regional lymph nodes are not always the sentinel lymph node, thus identification and sampling of sentinel lymph nodes allows for more accurate staging, which is critical for treatment and prognostication in dogs with cancer...
May 21, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542602/antimicrobial-resistance-status-of-enterococcus-from-australian-cattle-populations-at-slaughter
#3
Robert S Barlow, Kate E McMillan, Lesley L Duffy, Narelle Fegan, David Jordan, Glen E Mellor
Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. A consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. Australia is a major exporter of beef; however it does not have an ongoing surveillance system for AMR in cattle or foods derived from these animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541925/improvement-screening-for-ultra-high-dimensional-data-with-censored-survival-outcomes-and-varying-coefficients
#4
Mu Yue, Jialiang Li
Motivated by risk prediction studies with ultra-high dimensional bio markers, we propose a novel improvement screening methodology. Accurate risk prediction can be quite useful for patient treatment selection, prevention strategy or disease management in evidence-based medicine. The question of how to choose new markers in addition to the conventional ones is especially important. In the past decade, a number of new measures for quantifying the added value from the new markers were proposed, among which the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) stand out...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541356/food-and-plant-bioactives-for-reducing-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-an-evidence-based-approach
#5
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alessandro Colletti
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in Western countries. Prevention is known to be the cornerstone to lessen the incidence of CVDs and also to reduce the economic burden of both the citizen and the healthcare system. "Interventional medicine" certainly puts lifestyle modification as the first therapeutic step, including a healthy diet and physical activity. Secondly, a large body of research individuated a number of food and plant bioactives, which are potentially efficacious in preventing and reducing some highly prevalent CV risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular compliance...
May 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541315/therapeutic-t-cell-engineering
#6
Michel Sadelain, Isabelle Rivière, Stanley Riddell
Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimaeric antigen receptors (CARs) are a class of synthetic receptors that reprogram lymphocyte specificity and function. CARs targeting CD19 have demonstrated remarkable potency in B cell malignancies. Engineered T cells are applicable in principle to many cancers, pending further progress to identify suitable target antigens, overcome immunosuppressive tumour microenvironments, reduce toxicities, and prevent antigen escape...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540159/what-makes-vietnamese-not-attend-periodic-general-health-examinations-a-2016-cross-sectional-study
#7
Quan-Hoang Vuong, Quang-Hoi Vu, Thu-Trang Vuong
OBJECTIVES: General health examinations (GHE) have become an increasingly common measure for preventive medicine in Vietnam. However, little is known about the factors among Viet-namese people who attend or miss GHE. Budget or time constraints remain to be evaluated for better-informed policy making. This study investigates factors affecting behaviors in attending periodic GHE. The main objectives are as follows: (1) to explore empirical relationships between influencing factors and periodic GHE frequencies, and (2) to predict the probabilities of attending GHE under associated conditions...
April 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540125/project-heaven-preoperative-training-in-virtual-reality
#8
Kiratipath Iamsakul, Alexander V Pavlovcik, Jesus I Calderon, Lance M Sanderson
A cephalosomatic anastomosis (CSA; also called HEAVEN: head anastomosis venture) has been proposed as an option for patients with neurological impairments, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), and terminal medical illnesses, for which medicine is currently powerless. Protocols to prepare a patient for life after CSA do not currently exist. However, methods used in conventional neurorehabilitation can be used as a reference for developing preparatory training. Studies on virtual reality (VR) technologies have documented VR's ability to enhance rehabilitation and improve the quality of recovery in patients with neurological disabilities...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539739/effects-of-ligusticum-porteri-osha-root-extract-on-human-promyelocytic-leukemia-cells
#9
Khanh Nguyen, Jean Sparks, Felix Omoruyi
BACKGROUND: Ligusticum porteri roots have been traditionally used in folk medicine, but the scientific basis is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of L. porteri root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and H2O2-induced oxidative damaged HL-60 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 cells were incubated with different concentrations of root extract, and cells were harvested for viability assays on day 3 and 7...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539709/multipathway-integrated-adjustment-mechanism-of-glycyrrhiza-triterpenes-curing-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#10
Ying Wang, Shuai Wang, Yongrui Bao, Tianjiao Li, Xin Chang, Guanlin Yang, Xiansheng Meng
BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcer is a common chronic disease in human digestive system, which is difficult to cure, easy to relapse, and endangers human health seriously. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has a unique advantage in improving the general situation, stablizing medical condition, and with little side effects. Glycyrrhiza known as "king of all the medicine", has a range of pharmacological activities and is commonly used in a variety of proprietary Chinese medicines and formulations...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538846/-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-internal-medicine-services-of-a-venezuelan-university-hospital
#11
Pedro Quijada-Martínez, Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, María Araque
Objectives: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine services of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (HULA), Mérida, Venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three adult patients with bladder catheterization were studied between January and July 2015...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538237/update-on-postnatal-steroids
#12
Henry L Halliday
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538056/engaging-all-employees-in-efforts-to-achieve-high-reliability
#13
Anne Marie Benedicto
DRAMATIC AND NUMEROUS advances in science, technology, and medicine provide new opportunities to keep people healthy as well as to diagnose, treat, and cure disease. Unfortunately, increasing complexity increases opportunities for mistakes and errors, particularly in healthcare organizations as they struggle to prevent patient harm (). Safety problems persist and harm to patients continues despite widespread attention to the need for improvement ().An engaged and empowered workforce is critical to improving the patient experience, improving health outcomes, and correcting unsafe conditions ()...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537495/remotely-guided-breast-sonography-for-long-term-space-missions-a-case-report-and-discussion
#14
Jackelynne P Silva-Martinez, Andreia Sorice Genaro, Hui Annie Wen, Naama Glauber, Thais Russomano
BACKGROUND: Space radiation can cause different types of cancers in crewmembers, especially during long-term space missions. INTRODUCTION: To date, a complete bilateral breast ultrasound has not been performed at the International Space Station (ISS). A breast screening imaging technique could be a useful tool for early identification of breast cancer in astronauts. We hypothesized that breast ultrasound performed by a crewmember while being remotely guided by a specialist from the ground could be an essential tool for medical diagnosis in space...
May 24, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537424/vascular-stem-progenitor-cell-migration-and-differentiation-in-atherosclerosis
#15
Baoqi Yu, Qishan Chen, Alexandra Le Bras, Li Zhang, Qingbo Xu
SIGNIFICANCE: Atherosclerosis is a major cause for the death of human beings, and takes place in large and middle-sized arteries. The pathogenesis of the disease has been widely investigated and new findings on vascular stem/progenitor cells could have impact on vascular regeneration. Recent Advances: Recent studies have shown that abundant stem/progenitor cells present in the vessel wall are mainly responsible for cell accumulation in the intima during vascular remodeling. It has been demonstrated that the mobilization and recruitment of tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells give rise to endothelial and smooth muscle cells, which participate in vascular repair and remodeling such as neointimal hyperplasia and arteriosclerosis...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536986/evaluation-of-anti-inflammatory-and-ulcerogenic-potential-of-zinc-ibuprofen-and-zinc-naproxen-complexes-in-rats
#16
Magdalena Jarosz, Natalia Szkaradek, Henryk Marona, Gabriel Nowak, Katarzyna Młyniec, Tadeusz Librowski
Because of numerous indications and high availability, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly prescribed and used medicines in the world. However, long-term therapy with and improper use of NSAIDs may lead to gastrointestinal damage. Therefore, improving the therapeutic index of the existing drugs has become a priority over the past decades. Considerable attention in the field has been concentrated on metal complexes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of complexation with zinc on the anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of ibuprofen and naproxen after single and triple intragastric administration to rats...
May 23, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536932/thromboprophylaxis-in-extracorporeal-circuits-current-pharmacological-strategies-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Gail M Annich, Oshri Zaulan, Megan Neufeld, Deborah Wagner, Melissa M Reynolds
The development of extracorporeal devices for organ support has been a part of medical history and progression since the late 1900s. These types of technology are primarily used and developed in the field of critical care medicine. Unfractionated heparin, discovered in 1916, has really been the only consistent form of thromboprophylaxis for attenuating or even preventing the blood-biomaterial reaction that occurs when such technologies are initiated. The advent of regional anticoagulation for procedures such as continuous renal replacement therapy and plasmapheresis have certainly removed the risks of systemic heparinization and heparin effect, but the challenges of the blood-biomaterial reaction and downstream effects remain...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536827/genetic-counselling-for-maternally-inherited-mitochondrial-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Joanna Poulton, Josef Finsterer, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
The aim of this review was to provide an evidence-based approach to frequently asked questions relating to the risk of transmitting a maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder (MID). We do not address disorders linked with disturbed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, causing mtDNA depletion or multiple mtDNA deletions, as these are autosomally inherited. The review addresses questions regarding prognosis, recurrence risks and the strategies available to prevent disease transmission. The clinical and genetic complexity of maternally inherited MIDs represent a major challenge for patients, their relatives and health professionals...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536752/pharmacists-assessment-of-the-difficulty-and-frequency-of-ethical-issues-encountered-in-community-pharmacy-settings
#19
Tatjana Crnjanski, Dusanka Krajnovic, Mirko Savic
Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP)...
May 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536366/advances-in-the-use-of-regulatory-t-cells-for-the-prevention-and-therapy-of-graft-vs-host-disease
#20
REVIEW
Reshma Ramlal, Gerhard C Hildebrandt
Regulatory T (Tregs) cells play a crucial role in immunoregulation and promotion of immunological tolerance. Adoptive transfer of these cells has therefore been of interest in the field of bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases and allergy medicine. In bone marrow transplantation, Tregs play a pivotal role in the prevention of graft-verus-host disease (GvHD). This has generated interest in using adoptive Treg cellular therapy in the prevention and treatment of GvHD. There have been several barriers to the feasibility of Treg cellular therapy in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) which include low Treg concentration in peripheral blood, requiring expansion of the Treg population; instability of the expanded product with loss of FoxP3 expression; and issues related to the purity of the expanded product...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicines
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