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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830074/do-antimicrobial-mass-medications-work-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-clinical-trials-investigating-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-or-metaphylaxis-against-naturally-occurring-bovine-respiratory-disease
#1
Keith Edward Baptiste, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard
A distinct difference between veterinary and human medicine is the routine use of antimicrobial mass medications (prophylaxis, metaphylaxis) to healthy individuals. The need for antimicrobial mass medications is based on beliefs that group/s of animals will contract a bacterial disease (i.e. morbidity) and/or die (i.e. mortality). Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) represents the major indication for cattle antimicrobials worldwide. The objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) for naturally occurring BRD investigating antimicrobial prophylaxis/metaphylaxis to prevent morbidity/mortality...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830061/simultaneous-determination-and-pharmacokinetics-of-danshensu-protocatechuic-aldehyde-4-hydroxy-3-methyloxyphenyl-lactic-acid-and-protocatechuic-acid-in-human-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-after-oral-administration-of-compound-danshen-dripping-pills
#2
Wei Li, Hongjie Zhou, Yang Chu, Xiangyang Wang, Ruizhi Luo, Liu Yang, Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Xiao Li, Min Chen, Luqi Huang, Xueying Yan, Zhixin Guo, He Sun
Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP), a herbal patent medicine, is widely used in China for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A simple, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous determination of danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), and their related metabolites, 4-hydroxy-3-methyloxyphenyl lactic acid (HMLA) and protocatechuic acid (PAA) in human plasma was developed and validated based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes and internal standard (IS), vanillic acid (VAA), were extracted from plasma with ethyl acetate and separated on a C18 column by using the mobile phase consisted of methanol-0...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829536/pediatric-heat-related-illness-recommendations-for-prevention-and-management-digest
#3
Roberta J Dunn, Tommy Y Kim, Pradip Chaudhari
Infants, children, and adolescents are at increased risk for heat-related illness due to their inability to remove themselves from dangerous environments. Evidence shows that morbidity and mortality from heat illness is related to the length of time core temperature is elevated, so rapid reduction and accurate serial measurements are crucial to prevention of organ system damage and death. The primary methods of patient cooling are conduction (ice-water immersion, cold packs) and convection (moisture and moving air)...
August 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828880/critical-reflections-on-a-visit-to-an-inner-city-primary-health-care-clinic-in-rio-de-janeiro
#4
Louis S Jenkins, Marcos A Goldraich
INTRODUCTION: Brazil and South Africa share many sociodemographic and health features that provide many learning opportunities. Brazil's national health system, the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) prioritises primary health care since 1994, the year democracy came to South Africa. Two family physicians from these countries met in Rocinha favela in Rio de Janeiro, a densely populated area where poverty, danger, drugs, tuberculosis and mental illness are the focus of the health system.Maria do Socorro Family Clinic: Central to the SUS are the Family Health Teams, consisting of community health workers, nurses, doctors and allied health workers...
July 27, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828676/therapeutic-applications-of-extracellular-vesicles-perspectives-from-newborn-medicine
#5
Gareth R Willis, Stella Kourembanas, S Alex Mitsialis
With the advancements in antenatal steroid therapies and surfactant replacement, current clinical practices in neonatal intensive care units allow the survival of infants at very low gestational age. Despite these advances, there continues to be significant morbidity associated with extreme preterm birth that includes both short-term and long-term cardiorespiratory impairment. With no effective single therapy in preventing or treating developmental lung injuries, the need for new tools to treat and reduce risk of complications associated with extreme preterm birth is urgent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827967/in-vitro-antidiabetic-activity-of-polar-and-nonpolar-solvent-extracts-from-leucas-aspera-willd-link-leaves
#6
V M Annapandian, R Shanmuga Sundaram
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness, and the management of diabetes is a global problem. Successful treatment is required to prevent complications and organ damages. Herbal medicines are having minimal adverse effects when compared to the available synthetic drugs to treat such chronic diseases and disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of polar and nonpolar solvent extracts of Leucas aspera (Willd...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827963/investigation-of-effect-of-1-8-cineole-on-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorhexidine-gluconate
#7
Merih Şimşek, Reşat Duman
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine belongs to a group of medicines called antiseptic antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine is commonly used for the care and clean off the skin, hands, and wounds. In recent years, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used for prevention of disease, maintaining health, and improving disease in traditional and modern medicine as a medicament. According to recent research, cineole is the isolated active agent of eucalyptus oil and possesses antimicrobial activity...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827665/schisandrin-b-reverses-doxorubicin-resistance-through-inhibiting-p-glycoprotein-and-promoting-proteasome-mediated-degradation-of-survivin
#8
Shengpeng Wang, Anqi Wang, Min Shao, Ligen Lin, Peng Li, Yitao Wang
Acquired drug resistance poses a great challenge in cancer therapy. Drug efflux and anti-apoptotic processes are the most two common mechanisms that confer cancer drug resistance. In this study, we found that Schisandrin B (Sch B), one of the major dibenzocyclooctadiene derivatives extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, could significantly enhance the sensitivity of doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant breast cancer and ovarian cancer cells to DOX. Our results showed that Sch B increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX through inhibiting expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827079/application-of-genomics-for-transfusion-therapy-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#9
Stella T Chou, Connie M Westhoff
The application of genomic approaches is impacting all areas of laboratory testing including transfusion medicine. Use of DNA-based test methods is particularly applicable for red cell and platelet antigen typing as the majority of genes encoding the carrier proteins and carbohydrates are now known and were cloned in the 1990's. Many of the antigenic polymorphisms are due to single nucleotide changes (SNP's) in the respective genes and DNA-arrays that target these changes have been validated by comparison with conventional serologic typing...
August 8, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826949/initial-results-of-the-early-auditory-referral-primary-care-ear-pc-study
#10
Philip Zazove, Melissa A Plegue, Paul R Kileny, Michael M McKee, Lauren S Schleicher, Lee A Green, Ananda Sen, Mary E Rapai, Timothy C Guetterman, Elie Mulhem
INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss (HL) is the second most common disability in the U.S., yet is clinically underdiagnosed. To manage its common adverse psychosocial and cognitive outcomes, early identification of HL must be improved. METHODS: A feasibility study conducted to increase screening for HL and referral of patients aged ≥55 years arriving at two family medicine clinics. Eligible patients were asked to complete a self-administered consent form and the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI)...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826891/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-the-genus-cimicifuga-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Yaqing Guo, Tong Yin, Xiaoming Wang, Fan Zhang, Guixiang Pan, Hong Lv, Xianrui Wang, John Owoicho Orgah, Yan Zhu, Honghua Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of the genus Cimicifuga have long been used as an ethnomedicine in China, Europe, and North America for its high medicinal value and health benefits. Their dried rhizomes are widely used for treating wind-heat headache, toothache, aphtha, sore throat, measles, spot poison, archoptosis, and uterine prolapse. In addition, it is used as a dietary supplement for preventing women menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This paper aims to provide up-to-date information on the genus Cimicifuga, including botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacological research as well as the toxicology...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826870/in-vivo-efficiency-of-the-collagen-coated-nanofibrous-scaffold-and-their-effect-on-growth-factors-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-wound-healing
#12
Giriprasath Ramanathan, Thangavelu Muthukumar, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam
Exploring the importance of nanofibrous scaffold with traditionally important medicine as a wound dressing material prevents infection and aids in faster healing of wounds. In the present study, the Collagen (COL) from the marine fish skin was extracted and employed for coating the Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (P)-Gelatin (G) nanofibrous scaffold with a bioactive Coccinia grandis extract (CPE) fabricated through electrospinning. Further, the fabricated collagen coated nanofibrous scaffold (PG-CPE-COL) applied to the experimental wound of rats and the wound healing was analyzed with by physiochemical and biological techniques...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823018/prevalence-and-nature-of-potential-drug-drug-interactions-among-kidney-transplant-patients-in-a-german-intensive-care-unit
#13
Julia Amkreutz, Alexander Koch, Lukas Buendgens, Anja Muehlfeld, Christian Trautwein, Albrecht Eisert
Background Complex polypharmacotherapy makes kidney transplant patients vulnerable to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Objective To study prevalence and nature of potential DDIs (pDDIs) in kidney transplant patients. Setting Internal medicine ICU, University Hospital RWTH Aachen. Method In this retrospective observational study, pDDIs were identified in the first week after transplant from 1999 to 2010. Patients aged at least 18 years with prescription of at least two drugs were included. Patients with incomplete data were excluded...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822780/global-yellow-fever-vaccination-coverage-from-1970-to-2016-an-adjusted-retrospective-analysis
#14
Freya M Shearer, Catherine L Moyes, David M Pigott, Oliver J Brady, Fatima Marinho, Aniruddha Deshpande, Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, Moritz U G Kraemer, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Joachim Hombach, Sergio Yactayo, Valdelaine E M de Araújo, Aglaêr A da Nóbrega, Jonathan F Mosser, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Stephen S Lim, Simon I Hay, Nick Golding, Robert C Reiner
BACKGROUND: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. METHODS: For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016...
August 16, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822725/berberine-modulates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-generation-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#15
Haijing Zhang, Chunhui Zhao, Guoqiong Cao, Limin Guo, Shuai Zhang, Yuexia Liang, Chunxia Qin, Ping Su, Hang Li, Wensheng Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregates and forms soluble oligomers and insoluble cerebral amyloid plaques, which is widely thought to be the underlying pathogenic mechanism of AD. Therefore, effective regulation of Aβ metabolism is an important aspect of preventing and improving AD. Berberine, which is the main active component of the traditional medicinal herb Coptidis rhizoma, has a positive effect on reducing Aβ levels...
August 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821597/a-randomised-controlled-trial-assessing-the-efficacy-of-an-electronic-discharge-communication-tool-for-preventing-death-or-hospital-readmission
#16
Maria J Santana, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, Danielle A Southern, Ward W Flemons, Maeve O'Beirne, Michael D Hill, Alan J Forster, Deborah E White, William A Ghali
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of an electronic discharge communication tool (e-DCT) for preventing death or hospital readmission, as well as reducing patient-reported adverse events after hospital discharge. The e-DCT assessed has already been shown to yield high-quality discharge summaries with high levels of patient and physician satisfaction. METHODS: This two-arm randomised controlled trial was conducted in a Canadian tertiary care centre's internal medicine medical teaching units...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821459/clinical-multi-omics-strategies-for-the-effective-cancer-management
#17
REVIEW
Byong Chul Yoo, Kyung-Hee Kim, Sang Myung Woo, Jae Kyung Myung
Cancer is a global health issue as a multi-factorial complex disease, and early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are required for more effective cancer management. With the development of systemic analytical -omics strategies, the therapeutic approach and study of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and cancer progression have moved from hypothesis-driven targeted investigations to data-driven untargeted investigations focusing on the integrated diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer in individual patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818281/american-journal-of-preventive-medicine-2016-article-of-the-year
#18
EDITORIAL
Matthew L Boulton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818066/hepatoprotective-and-antioxidant-effects-of-single-clove-garlic-against-ccl4-induced-hepatic-damage-in-rabbits
#19
Khalid Mohammed Naji, Elham Shukri Al-Shaibani, Fatima A Alhadi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq Al-Soudi, Myrene R D'souza
BACKGROUND: The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. METHODS: For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0...
August 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818031/danggui-buxue-decoction-a-classical-formula-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-fails-to-prevent-myelosuppression-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-chemotherapy-a-prospective-study
#20
Jin Hong, Xiaosong Chen, Jiahui Huang, Chunqing Li, Li Zhong, Leying Chen, Jiayi Wu, Ou Huang, Jianrong He, Li Zhu, Weiguo Chen, Yafen Li, Hua Wan, Kunwei Shen
Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has an impact on promoting hematopoiesis. The aim of our study was to determine whether DBD can prevent myelosuppression in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We conducted a phase II randomized prospective controlled clinical study. From December 2013 to February 2015, 106 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to the TCM group and control group. The primary end point was incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia...
September 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
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