keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

melanocytes

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642245/a-reporter-mouse-model-for-in-vivo-tracing-and-in-vitro-molecular-studies-of-melanocytic-lineage-cells-and-their-diseases
#1
Melissa Crawford, Valerie Leclerc, Lina Dagnino
Alterations in melanocytic lineage cells give rise to a plethora of distinct human diseases, including neurocristopathies, cutaneous pigmentation disorders, loss of vision and hearing, as well as melanoma. Understanding the ontogeny and biology of melanocytic cells, as well as how they interact with their surrounding environment, are key steps in the development of therapies for diseases that involve this cell lineage. Efforts to culture and characterize primary melanocytes from normal or genetically engineered mouse models have at times yielded contrasting observations...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640957/restoration-of-cutaneous-pigmentation-by-transplantation-to-mice-of-isogeneic-human-melanocytes-in-dermal-epidermal-engineered-skin-substitutes
#2
Steven T Boyce, Christopher M Lloyd, Mark C Kleiner, Viki B Swope, Zalfa Abdel-Malek, Dorothy M Supp
Autologous engineered skin substitutes (ESS) containing melanocytes (hM) may restore pigmentation, and photoprotection after grafting to full-thickness skin wounds. In the current study, normal hM were isolated from discard skin, propagated with or without tyrosinase inhibitors, cryopreserved, recovered into culture, and added to ESS (ESS-P) before transplantation. ESS-P were incubated in either UCMC160/161 or UCDM1 medium, scored for hM densities, and grafted to mice. The results showed that: sufficient hM can be propagated to expand donor tissue by 100-fold; incubation of hM in tyrosinase inhibitors reduced pigment levels but did not change hM recovery after cryopreservation; hM densities in ESS-P were greater after incubation in UCDM1 than UCMC160 medium; hM were localized to the dermal-epidermal junction of ESS-P; and UCDM1 medium promoted earlier pigment distribution and density...
June 22, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638859/a-review-of-the-aetiopathogenesis-and-clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#3
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Razia A G Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Oral mucosal melanoma is an uncommon, usually heavily melanin-pigmented, but occasionally amelanotic aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. Despite radical surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, local recurrence and distant metastasis are frequent. Microscopical examination is essential for diagnosis, and routine histological staining must be supplemented by immunohistochemical studies. The aetiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the 5-year survival rate rarely exceeds 30%. In most cases, oral mucosal melanoma arises from epithelial melanocytes in the basal layer of the epithelium and less frequently from immature melanocytes arrested in the lamina propria...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636941/highly-aggressive-metastatic-melanoma-cells-unable-to-maintain-telomere-length
#4
Nikenza Viceconte, Marie-Sophie Dheur, Eva Majerova, Christophe E Pierreux, Jean-François Baurain, Nicolas van Baren, Anabelle Decottignies
Unlimited replicative potential is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. In melanoma, hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) is frequently overexpressed because of activating mutations in its promoter, suggesting that telomerase is necessary for melanoma development. We observed, however, that a subset of melanoma metastases and derived cell lines had no telomere maintenance mechanism. Early passages of the latter displayed long telomeres that progressively shortened and fused before cell death. We propose that, during melanoma formation, oncogenic mutations occur in precursor melanocytes with long telomeres, providing cells with sufficient replicative potential, thereby bypassing the need to re-activate telomerase...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636748/e-cadherin-mediates-uvr-and-calcium-induced-melanin-transfer-in-human-skin-cells
#5
Suman K Singh, Richard Baker, Stephen K Sikkink, Carine Nizard, Sylvianne Schnebert, Robin Kurfurst, Desmond J Tobin
Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal-melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer, that this can be enhanced by filopodial and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can up-regulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca(2+) -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca(2+) , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca(2+) via calcium selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636126/bilateral-diffuse-uveal-melanocytic-proliferation-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Kristian Klemp, Jens Folke Kiilgaard, Steffen Heegaard, Tove Nørgaard, Mette Klarskov Andersen, Jan Ulrik Prause
Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare paraneoplastic intraocular disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients driven by an IgG factor associated with an underlying malignancy. Characteristic ocular findings include exudative retinal detachment, rapid cataract formation and uveal melanocytic tumours. The awareness and documentation of BDUMP has increased during the past decade, and the increasing amount of data collected demonstrates the effect of treatment with plasmapheresis and the value of diagnostic tools in BDUMP such as genetic and immunologic investigations...
June 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632878/identification-of-novel-g-protein-coupled-receptor-143-ligands-as-pharmacologic-tools-for-investigating-x-linked-ocular-albinism
#7
Elisabetta De Filippo, Prashiela Manga, Anke C Schiedel
Purpose: GPR143 regulates melanosome biogenesis and organelle size in pigment cells. The mechanisms underlying receptor function remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are excellent pharmacologic targets; thus, we developed and applied a screening approach to identify potential GPR143 ligands and chemical modulators. Methods: GPR143 interacts with β-arrestin; we therefore established a β-arrestin recruitment assay to screen for compounds that modulate activity...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630054/slc45a2-a-melanoma-antigen-with-high-tumor-selectivity-and-reduced-potential-for-autoimmune-toxicity
#8
Jungsun Park, Amjad H Talukder, Seonah Lim, Kwanghee Kim, Ke Pan, Brenda Melendez, Sherille D Bradley, Kyle Jackson, Jahan S Khalili, Junmei Wang, Caitlin Creasy, Bih-Fang Pan, Scott E Woodman, Chantale Bernatchez, David Hawke, Patrick Hwu, Kyung-Mi Lee, Jason Roszik, Gregory Lizee, Cassian Yee
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based immunotherapies have had remarkable success at generating objective clinical responses in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma.  Although the melanocyte differentiation antigens (MDAs) MART-1, PMEL, and tyrosinase were among the first melanoma tumor-associated antigens identified and targeted with immunotherapy, expression within normal melanocytes of the eye and inner ear can elicit serious autoimmune side effects, thus limiting their clinical potential as CTL targets...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629701/a-polymethoxyflavone-mixture-extracted-from-orange-peels-mainly-containing-nobiletin-3-3-4-5-6-7-8-heptamethoxyflavone-and-tangeretin-suppresses-melanogenesis-through-the-acidification-of-cell-organelles-including-melanosomes
#9
Norihiro Yoshizaki, Ron Hashizume, Hitoshi Masaki
BACKGROUND: Skin color is determined by melanin contents and its distribution. Melanin is synthesized in melanosomes of melanocytes, catalyzed by tyrosinase, melanogenic enzymes. Regarding the process of melanin synthesis, melanosomal pH is considered to play an important role, because it has been reported to differ between Caucasian and Black melanocytes. OBJECTIVE: Although polymethoxyflavone (PMF) has many beneficial effects, it has not been reported which PMF suppresses melanogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628691/eruptive-melanocytic-acral-nevi-in-the-setting-of-6-mercaptopurine-therapy
#10
Arpan V Prabhu, Kristin Bibee, Joseph C English
<p>Eruptive melanocytic nevi (EMN) are a rare clinical finding characterized by sudden-onset nevi that often present in a grouped distribution. They have been associated with chemotherapy, immunosuppression, bullous diseases, and medications including multikinase and BRAF inhibitors. It is important for dermatologists to be able to identify patients with sudden development of new melanocytic nevi secondary to particular medications. Herein, we describe a case of eruptive melanocytic acral nevi secondary to 6-mercaptopurine therapy...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627959/two-cases-of-primary-leptomeningeal-melanomatosis-mimicking-subacute-meningitis
#11
Sabina Aslan, Rahsan Gocmen, Nazire Pınar Acar, Farid Khasiyev, Ekim Gumeler, Figen Soylemezoglu, Aslı Tuncer, Ethem Murat Arsava, Mehmet Akif Topçuoglu, Isin Unal Cevik
Primary involvement of leptomeninges with melanocytic tumours is rarely seen and its diagnosis is challenging. Here we summarise two cases of primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis presenting as subacute meningitis. Both cases have pleocytosis and high protein on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and demonstrated atypical cells on cytology. On magnetic resonance imaging, there is diffuse leptomeningal thickening and avid enhancement of intracranial and intraspinal leptomeninges. One of them demonstrates T1 shortening due to magnetic effects of melanin, the other case is amelanotic and shows hypointensity on precontrast T1-weighted images...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626949/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-concurrent-dermal-malignant-melanoma-and-melanocytomas-in-a-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis
#12
Richard A Saunders, Rowena S Killick, Michelle G Barrows, Kelly A Bowlt, Daniella Denk
BACKGROUND: Dermal melanocytic neoplasms are common in some even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla), yet this entity has not been reported in the pygmy hippopotamus to date. Concurrent occurrence of multiple benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms is unusual. Malignant transformation occurs in a small percentage of benign melanocytic tumours in people but this phenomenon has not been well documented in animals. OBJECTIVES: To report the diagnosis and treatment of concurrent dermal melanocytomas and malignant melanomas in a pygmy hippopotamus...
June 18, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#13
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625749/preclinical-evaluation-of-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1-r-specific-68-ga-and-44-sc-labeled-dota-napamide-in-melanoma-imaging
#14
Gábor Nagy, Noémi Dénes, Adrienn Kis, Judit P Szabó, Ervin Berényi, Ildikó Garai, Péter Bai, István Hajdu, Dezső Szikra, György Trencsényi
PURPOSE: Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) enhances melanogenesis in melanoma malignum by binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1-R). Earlier studies demonstrated that alpha-MSH analog NAPamide molecule specifically binds to MC1-R receptor. Radiolabeled NAPamide is a promising radiotracer for the non-invasive detection of melanin producing melanoma tumors by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this present study the MC1-R selectivity of the newly developed Sc-44-labeled DOTA-NAPamide was investigated in vitro and in vivo using melanoma tumors...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623268/ascorbate-induces-apoptosis-in-melanoma-cells-by-suppressing-clusterin-expression
#15
Sushmita Mustafi, David W Sant, Zhao-Jun Liu, Gaofeng Wang
Pharmacological levels of ascorbate have long been suggested as a potential treatment of cancer. However, we observed that EC50 of ascorbate was at a similar level for cultured healthy melanocytes and melanoma cells, suggesting a limit of pharmacological ascorbate in treating cancer. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) is an epigenetic hallmark of cancer and ascorbate promotes 5 hmC generation by serving as a cofactor for TET methylcytosine dioxygenases. Our previous work demonstrated that ascorbate treatment at physiological level (100 μM) increased 5 hmC content in melanoma cells toward the level of healthy melanocytes...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623131/fgf21-regulates-melanogenesis-in-alpaca-melanocytes-via-erk1-2-mediated-mitf-downregulation
#16
Ruiwei Wang, Tianzhi Chen, Bingling Zhao, Ruiwen Fan, Kaiyuan Ji, Xiuju Yu, Xianjun Wang, Changsheng Dong
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a metabolic regulator to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the underlying mechanism of FGF21 on melanin synthesis remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of FGF21 on melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. We transfected the FGF21 into alpaca melanocytes, then detected the melanin contents, protein and mRNA levels of pigmentation-related genes in order to determine the melanogenesis-regulating pathway of FGF21. The results showed that FGF21 overexpression suppressed melanogenesis and decreased the expression of the major target genes termed microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream genes, including tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623128/targeting-pi3k-akt-mtor-by-ly3023414-inhibits-human-skin-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Ying Zou, Minggai Ge, Xuemin Wang
Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622423/-congenital-dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-clinically-mimicking-a-melanocytic-nevus-treated-with-serial-excisions
#18
J Laske, M Sergon, T Mentzel, S Beissert, J Maschke
A 9-year-old female patient was referred to our department with the clinical diagnosis of a congenital melanocytic nevus on the back for serial excisions. The child's parents confirmed that the lesion existed since birth. Only little changes in color and size were observed over the years. The lesion was painless. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 16, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621264/dna-methylation-hydroxymethylation-in-melanoma
#19
REVIEW
Siqi Fu, Haijing Wu, Huiming Zhang, Christine G Lian, Qianjin Lu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and is considered to be the most aggressive cancer among all skin diseases. The pathogenesis of melanoma has not been well documented, which may restrict the research and development of biomarkers and therapies. To date, several genetic and epigenetic factors have been identified as contributing to the development and progression of melanoma. Besides the findings on genetic susceptibilities, the recent progress in epigenetic studies has revealed that loss of the DNA hydroxymethylation mark, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), along with high levels of DNA methylation at promoter regions of several tumor suppressor genes in melanoma, may serve as biomarkers for melanoma...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619550/new-discoveries-in-the-pathogenesis-and-classification-of-vitiligo
#20
REVIEW
Michelle Rodrigues, Khaled Ezzedine, Iltefat Hamzavi, Amit G Pandya, John E Harris
Vitiligo is a common autoimmune disease that progressively destroys melanocytes in the skin, resulting in the appearance of patchy depigmentation. This disfiguring condition frequently affects the face and other visible areas of the body, which can be psychologically devastating. The onset of vitiligo often occurs in younger individuals and progresses for life, resulting in a heavy burden of disease and decreased quality of life. Presentation patterns of vitiligo vary, and recognition of these patterns provides both diagnostic and prognostic clues...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
keyword
keyword
78868
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"