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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329595/pigmented-lesion-of-the-nipple-a-clinicopathological-challenge
#1
Júlia Vide, Artur César, Pedro Rodrigues Pereira, Filomena Azevdo
Differential diagnoses of pigmented lesions of the nipple include melanocytic nevus, melanosis of the nipple, seborrheic keratosis, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and Paget disease. The histologic exam with appropriate immunohistochemistry is a fundamental tool to achieve a correct diagnosis. We present a patient with a pigmented lesion of her right nipple revealing mammary Paget disease and elucidate diagnostic obstacles and prognostic importance of early breast cancer detection.
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329507/giant-benign-intradermal-melanocytic-nevus-of-rapid-onset
#2
Sarah J Coates, Andrew Avarbock, Garrett T Desman
Benign melanocytic nevi are slowly growing acquiredor congenital tumors with varied morphology,commonly encountered in dermatology clinics. Anytumor with rapid clinical growth must be assessedcarefully in order to exclude malignancy. We report awoman with a histopathologically benign intradermalnevus that presented as a rapidly evolving largecutaneous mass on the ear. Owing to the discrepancybetween the clinical and histopathological findings,an extensive histopathological work-up involvingmany deeper sections, immunohistochemical stains,and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysiswas conducted in order to rule out malignancy...
February 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329489/acquired-blue-nevus-of-the-nail-bed
#3
Daniel M Klufas, Syril Keena T Que, Adrienne Berke, Brett Sloan Maryland
Blue nevi are benign proliferations of melaninproducingdendritic melanocytes located in thedermis. These nevi tend to occur mostly on the skin,predominantly on the head and neck, dorsal aspectsof the distal extremities, and the sacral area, butcan also occasionally appear on mucosal surfaces.Blue nevi of the nail apparatus are uncommon. Themajority originate in the nail matrix where there is ahigher density of melanocytes. Herein we report ona 47-year-old man with a rare common blue nevus ofthe nail bed, an area with low melanocyte density...
February 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325390/patterns-of-distribution-of-giant-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-gcmn-the-6b-rule
#4
Vanessa P Martins da Silva, Ashfaq Marghoob, Ramon Pigem, Cristina Carrera, Paula Aguilera, Joan A Puig-Butillé, Susana Puig, Josep Malvehy
BACKGROUND: Garment-related terms have been used to describe the pattern of distribution of giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN). OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe patterns of distribution of GCMN and propose a classification scheme. METHODS: Photographic records of patients with GCMN from the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were analyzed and a classification based on observed GCMN distribution patterns was created. The classification was independently applied by 8 observers to cases found in the literature...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325364/retroperitoneal-lymphangioleiomyoma-with-lymph-node-involvement-a-pathologic-radiologic-correlation-of-a-rare-form-of-myomelanocytic-tumor
#5
Amrou Abdelkader, Cesar A Lam, Kaushik S Shahir, Kathleen Christians, Saul M Suster
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare and slowly progressive disorder that usually arises in the lung, affects exclusively women in their childbearing years, and typically presents with progressive dyspnea on exertion and pneumothorax. Infrequently, extra-pulmonary LAM can occur in the retroperitoneum, uterine wall, mediastinum and intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Histologically, LAM is characterized by a proliferation of perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC) that express markers for both melanocytes and smooth muscle cells...
April 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321929/the-effect-of-butin-on-the-vitiligo-mouse-model-induced-by-hydroquinone
#6
Shi-Xia Huo, Qiong Wang, Xin-Min Liu, Chun-Hui Ge, Li Gao, Xiao-Ming Peng, Ming Yan
Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd has been traditionally used in the treatment of vitiligo in Uyghur medicine. This study used butin, the main component of V. anthelmintica, to study the influence on hydroquinone-induced vitiligo in mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 4.25 mg/kg), and butin (0.425, 4.25, and 42.5 mg/kg) groups. The number of melanin-containing hair follicles, basal layer melanocytes, melanin-containing epidermal cells, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), the malondialdehyde (MDA), and cholinesterase (CHE) activity in serum were measured...
March 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320420/malignant-gastrointestinal-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Mohammed J Alyousef, Jumana A Alratroot, Tarek ElSharkawy, Mohamed A Shawarby, Mohammad A Al Hamad, Tarek M Hashem, Ahmed Alsayyah
BACKGROUND: Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an extremely rare entity that was first described by Zambrano et al. in 2003 as "Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract". It shares some of the histological features of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) but lacks the immunohistochemical reactivity for melanocytic markers. We report a case of GNET that was initially misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Recognizing this entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis...
March 20, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319285/color-doppler-ultrasound-early-diagnoses-simulator-of-proliferative-nodule-in-congenital-melanocytic-nevus
#8
P Giavedoni, L Aranibar, X Wortsman
Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a benign proliferation of cutaneous melanocytes that arises as the result of abnormal growth, development, or migration of melanoblasts (1) . They are clinically evident at birth and usually produce a high degree of stress among physicians and parents due to the risk of malignant transformation. In spite that the actual lifetime risk of developing melanoma from a small or medium-sized CMN is unknown, and some reports estimate this risk to be less than 5%, any recent-onset palpable nodule in a CMN may be worrisome...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318774/-epithelioid-angiomyolipoma-of-the-kidney-about-one-case-and-malignant-features-evaluation
#9
Pierre-Marie Lavrut, Philippe Paparel, Myriam Decaussin-Petrucci
Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (E-AML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the kidney included in the family of tumor with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas) and is frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Since its clinical and radiological features are not specific, the diagnosis remained mostly pathological. Microscopically, E-AML demonstrate proliferation of more than 80% of epithelioid cells with atypia, often associated with necrosis, hemorrhage, mitotic activity and vascular invasion...
March 16, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317534/vitiligo-pathogenesis-and-emerging-treatments
#10
REVIEW
Mehdi Rashighi, John E Harris
The pathogenesis of vitiligo involves interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic melanocyte defects, innate immune inflammation, and T-cell-mediated melanocyte destruction. The goal of treatment is to not only halt disease progression but also promote repigmentation through melanocyte regeneration, proliferation, and migration. Treatment strategies that address all aspects of disease pathogenesis and repigmentation are likely to have greatest efficacy, a strategy that may require combination therapies. Current treatments generally involve nontargeted suppression of autoimmunity, whereas emerging treatments are likely to use a more targeted approach based on in-depth understanding of disease pathogenesis, which may provide higher efficacy with a good safety profile...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317533/genetics-of-vitiligo
#11
REVIEW
Richard A Spritz, Genevieve H L Andersen
Vitiligo reflects simultaneous contributions of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Genomewide association studies have discovered approximately 50 genetic loci contributing to vitiligo risk. At many vitiligo susceptibility loci, the relevant genes and DNA sequence variants are identified. Many encode proteins involved in immune regulation, several play roles in cellular apoptosis, and others regulate functions of melanocytes. Although many of the specific biologic mechanisms need elucidation, it is clear that vitiligo is an autoimmune disease involving a complex relationship between immune system programming and function, aspects of the melanocyte autoimmune target, and dysregulation of the immune response...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317529/repigmentation-through-melanocyte-regeneration-in-vitiligo
#12
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Nathaniel B Goldstein, David A Norris
Repigmentation in vitiligo is the process that replaces, in the epidermal basal layer of vitiligo skin, the mature melanocytes that have been killed by cytotoxic T cells specific for melanocyte antigens. It consists of mobilization of melanocyte precursors in the hair follicle bulge and infundibulum to proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes, moving from the hair follicle bulge to the interfollicular epidermis. The most common clinical presentation of repigmentation in vitiligo is the perifollicular pattern...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317527/phototherapy-and-combination-therapies-for-vitiligo
#13
REVIEW
Samia Esmat, Rehab A Hegazy, Suzan Shalaby, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Cheng-Che E Lan
Vitiligo is a disease characterized by disappearance of melanocytes from the skin. It can negatively influence the physical appearance of affected individuals, and may profoundly affect a person's psychosocial function and quality of life. Therefore, vitiligo should not be considered as merely a condition that affects a patient's appearance, but needs to be actively treated in patients who seek medical help. Phototherapy has been used as the main treatment modality for patients with vitiligo. Different forms of phototherapy for vitiligo include broadband UVB, narrowband UVB, excimer light and excimer laser, and psoralen plus UVA...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317526/medical-and-maintenance-treatments-for-vitiligo
#14
REVIEW
Thierry Passeron
Medical treatments alone, or in combination with phototherapy, are key approaches for treating nonsegmental vitiligo and, to a lesser extent, segmental vitiligo. The treatments are useful for halting disease progression and have been proven effective for inducing repigmentation and decreasing risk of relapses. Although the treatments have side effects and limitations, vitiligo often induces a marked decrease in quality of life and in most cases the risk:benefit ratio is in favor of an active approach. Systemic and topical agents targeting the pathways involved in loss of melanocytes and in differentiation of melanocyte stem cells should provide more effective approaches in the near future...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317525/chemical-induced-vitiligo
#15
REVIEW
John E Harris
Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for more than 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from nonchemically induced vitiligo, and because these chemicals appear to induce melanocyte autoimmunity, this phenomenon should be known as "chemical-induced vitiligo," rather than less accurate terms that have been previously used...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317524/segmental-vitiligo
#16
REVIEW
Nanja van Geel, Reinhart Speeckaert
Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317165/dermoscopic-findings-of-an-unusual-acral-nevus-on-the-hand-of-a-child
#17
Tracey N Liebman, Marla N Diakow, Sharon A Glick
Distinguishing benign acral nevi from small early acral melanomas may be challenging in certain cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that can help clinicians better visualize deeper lesion structures and thus more easily differentiate benign nevi from melanoma. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with a changing dark brown to black macule with a central papular component on the volar surface of the right third finger. Dermoscopy revealed asymmetrically distributed irregular black blotches on a bluish-black background...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315422/sfpq-psf-tfe3-renal-cell-carcinoma-rcc-a-clinicopathologic-study-emphasizing-extended-morphology-and-reviewing-the-differences-between-sfpq-tfe3-rcc-and-the-corresponding-mesenchymal-neoplasm-despite-an-identical-gene-fusion
#18
Xiao-Tong Wang, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Hao Ni, Sheng-Bing Ye, Rui Li, Xuan Wang, Shan-Shan Shi, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Qiu Rao
Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion is a rare epithelial tumor. Of note, the appearance of the gene fusion does not necessarily mean that it is renal cell carcinoma. The corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation, TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer, can also harbor the identical gene fusion. However, the differences between Xp11 translocation RCC and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm have only recently been described...
March 14, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314912/differences-in-the-melanosome-distribution-within-the-epidermal-melanin-units-and-its-association-with-the-impairing-background-of-leukoderma-in-vitiligo-and-halo-nevi-a-retrospective-study
#19
Xi-Xi Xiong, Gao-Zhong Ding, Wen-E Zhao, Xue Li, Yu-Ting Ling, Li Sun, Qing-Li Gong, Yan Lu
Skin color is determined by the number of melanin granules produced by melanocytes that are transferred to keratinocytes. Melanin synthesis and the distribution of melanosomes to keratinocytes within the epidermal melanin unit (EMU) within the skin of vitiligo patients have been poorly studied. The ultrastructure and distribution of melanosomes in melanocytes and surrounding keratinocytes in perilesional vitiligo and normal skin were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of melanosome distribution within the EMUs with scatter plot...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314272/immunohistochemical-study-of-vasculogenic-mimicry-and-angiogenesis-in-melanocytic-tumors-of-the-eye-and-the-periocular-area
#20
Konstantinos Spiliopoulos, Dimitrios Peschos, Anna Batistatou, Ioannis Ntountas, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Aikaterini Zioga, Niki Agnantis, Georgios Kitsos
BACKGROUND/AIM: The ability of a tumor to grow requires a sufficient blood supply. Microvascular density is considered the standard for assessing the neovasculature. Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry refers to the formation of tumor cell-lined vessels that contribute to tumor neovascularization. The aim of the present work was to study angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in benign and malignant melanocytic tumors of the eye and the periocular region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Histological sections from 118 patients were studied...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
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