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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079536/restoration-of-skin-pigmentation-after-deep-partial-or-full-thickness-burn-injury
#1
Niann-Tzyy Dai, Hsin-I Chang, Yi-Wen Wang, Keng-Yen Fu, Tai-Chun Huang, Nien-Chi Huang, Jhen-Kai Li, Pai-Shan Hsieh, Lien-Guo Dai, Chao-Kuei Hsu, Peter K Maitz
Significant skin pigmentation changes occur when patients suffer deep burn injuries. These pigmentation disorders may cause not only cosmetic and psychological issues, but more importantly it increases the risk of skin cancer or photoaging. Severe burns significantly effect on the process of repigmentation as the pigmentation is tightly regulated by cell proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes and melanocyte stem cells which are housing in the epidermis and hair follicles of the skin. In the present review, we discuss the possible mechanisms to replenish the melanocytes from the healthy epidermis and hair follicles surrounding burn wounds...
October 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061525/characterization-of-a-new-inducible-transgenic-mouse-model-with-gfp-expression-in-melanocytes-and-their-precursors
#2
Sandeep S Joshi, Bishal Tandukar, Maira Castaneda, Shunlin Jiang, Ganesh Diwakar, Ronna P Hertzano, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytes are neural crest-derived cells that are responsible for mammalian hair follicle (HF) pigmentation. The Dct-LacZ transgenic mouse is extensively used to study melanocyte biology but lacks conditionally-inducible labelling and fluorescent labelling, enabling specific, viable isolation of melanocytes using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, we have generated a Tet-off bitransgenic mouse model, Dct-H2BGFP, containing Dct-tTA and TRE-H2BGFP transgenes. Characterization of Dct-H2BGFP mice confirmed a pattern of Dct-H2BGFP expression in melanoblasts, melanocyte stem cells (McSCs), and terminally differentiated melanocytes similar to the expression pattern of previously published mouse models Dct-LacZ and iDct-GFP...
October 21, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935865/melanoblast-development-coincides-with-the-late-emerging-cells-from-the-dorsal-neural-tube-in-turtle-trachemys-scripta
#3
Ritva Rice, Judith Cebra-Thomas, Maarja Haugas, Juha Partanen, David P C Rice, Scott F Gilbert
Ectothermal reptiles have internal pigmentation, which is not seen in endothermal birds and mammals. Here we show that the development of the dorsal neural tube-derived melanoblasts in turtle Trachemys scripta is regulated by similar mechanisms as in other amniotes, but significantly later in development, during the second phase of turtle trunk neural crest emigration. The development of melanoblasts coincided with a morphological change in the dorsal neural tube between stages mature G15 and G16. The melanoblasts delaminated and gathered in the carapacial staging area above the neural tube at G16, and differentiated into pigment-forming melanocytes during in vitro culture...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755520/genetic-variation-in-irf4-expression-modulates-growth-characteristics-tyrosinase-expression-and-interferon-gamma-response-in-melanocytic-cells
#4
Yash Chhabra, Hilary X L Yong, Mitchell E Fane, Arish Soogrim, Wen Lim, Dayana Nur Mahiuddin, Reuben S Q Kim, Melinda Ashcroft, Scott A Beatson, Stephen A Ainger, Darren J Smit, Kasturee Jagirdar, Graeme J Walker, Richard A Sturm, Aaron G Smith
A SNP within intron4 of the interferon regulatory factor4 (IRF4) gene, rs12203592*C/T, has been independently associated with pigmentation and age-specific effects on naevus count in European-derived populations. We have characterized the cis-regulatory activity of this intronic region and using human foreskin-derived melanoblast strains, we have explored the correlation between IRF4 rs12203592 homozygous C/C and T/T genotypes with TYR enzyme activity, supporting its association with pigmentation traits. Further, higher IRF4 protein levels directed by the rs12203592*C allele were associated with increased basal proliferation but decreased cell viability following UVR, an etiological factor in melanoma development...
July 29, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658273/a-structural-variant-in-the-5-flanking-region-of-the-twist2-gene-affects-melanocyte-development-in-belted-cattle
#5
Nivedita Awasthi Mishra, Cord Drögemüller, Vidhya Jagannathan, Irene Keller, Daniel Wüthrich, Rémy Bruggmann, Julia Beck, Ekkehard Schütz, Bertram Brenig, Steffi Demmel, Simon Moser, Heidi Signer-Hasler, Aldona Pieńkowska-Schelling, Claude Schelling, Marcos Sande, Ronald Rongen, Stefan Rieder, Robert N Kelsh, Nadia Mercader, Tosso Leeb
Belted cattle have a circular belt of unpigmented hair and skin around their midsection. The belt is inherited as a monogenic autosomal dominant trait. We mapped the causative variant to a 37 kb segment on bovine chromosome 3. Whole genome sequence data of 2 belted and 130 control cattle yielded only one private genetic variant in the critical interval in the two belted animals. The belt-associated variant was a copy number variant (CNV) involving the quadruplication of a 6 kb non-coding sequence located approximately 16 kb upstream of the TWIST2 gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639704/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-potential-regulatory-genes-for-eumelanin-pigmentation-in-chicken-plumage
#6
L Yang, X Du, S Wei, L Gu, N Li, Y Gong, S Li
Plumage color in chicken is determined by the proportion of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigmentation. As the main ingredient in plumage melanin, eumelanin plays a key role in the dark black, brown and grey coloration. However, very few studies have been performed to identify the related genes and mutations on a genome-wide scale. Herein, a resource family consisting of one backcross population and two F2 cross populations between a black roster and Yukou Brown I parent stockbreed was constructed for identification of genes related to eumelanin pigmentation...
October 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581208/melanocyte-differentiation-beyond-the-master-regulator
#7
Erna Magnúsdóttir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540108/scalpel-depigmentation-and-surgical-crown-lengthening-to-improve-anterior-gingival-esthetics
#8
K C Chethana, K Pradeep
A smile is a mesmerizing expression of joy, success, courtesy and reveals self-confidence. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, position and the color of teeth, but also by the gingival architecture. Gingival tissues form an important part of what we can consider to be a pleasing smile. The elegance of this pleasant smile could be, affected by highly pigmented gingiva. This gingival pigmentation occurs as a result of melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblast. Although melanin pigmentation does not present a medical problem, demand for cosmetic therapy is commonly sort by people with moderately pigmented gingiva...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431046/brg1-interacts-with-sox10-to-establish-the-melanocyte-lineage-and-to-promote-differentiation
#9
Himangi G Marathe, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Matthias Weider, Alana Hoffmann, Gaurav Mehta, Archit Trivedi, Shweta Aras, Tupa Basuroy, Aanchal Mehrotra, Dorothy C Bennett, Michael Wegner, William J Pavan, Ivana L de la Serna
Mutations in SOX10 cause neurocristopathies which display varying degrees of hypopigmentation. Using a sensitized mutagenesis screen, we identified Smarca4 as a modifier gene that exacerbates the phenotypic severity of Sox10 haplo-insufficient mice. Conditional deletion of Smarca4 in SOX10 expressing cells resulted in reduced numbers of cranial and ventral trunk melanoblasts. To define the requirement for the Smarca4 -encoded BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, we employed in vitro models of melanocyte differentiation in which induction of melanocyte-specific gene expression is closely linked to chromatin alterations...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319285/colour-doppler-ultrasound-early-diagnoses-simulator-of-proliferative-nodule-in-congenital-melanocytic-nevus
#10
LETTER
P Giavedoni, L Aranibar, X Wortsman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238662/coordination-by-cdc42-of-actin-contractility-and-adhesion-for-melanoblast-movement-in-mouse-skin
#11
Emma F Woodham, Nikki R Paul, Benjamin Tyrrell, Heather J Spence, Karthic Swaminathan, Michelle R Scribner, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ann Hedley, William Clark, Frieda Kage, Daniel J Marston, Klaus M Hahn, Stephen W G Tait, Lionel Larue, Cord H Brakebusch, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052446/analysis-of-the-effects-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-on-human-melanocytes-and-melanoblasts-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Tamihiro Kawakami, Akiko Ohgushi, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshinao Soma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955842/sox10-regulates-skin-melanocyte-proliferation-by-activating-the-dna-replication-licensing-factor-mcm5
#13
Zhongyuan Su, Xiaozi Zheng, Xiaobo Zhang, Yipin Wang, Shanpu Zhu, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
BACKGROUND: The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression...
March 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911893/the-mitochondrial-m-aaa-protease-prevents-demyelination-and-hair-greying
#14
Shuaiyu Wang, Julie Jacquemyn, Sara Murru, Paola Martinelli, Esther Barth, Thomas Langer, Carien M Niessen, Elena I Rugarli
The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879145/variations-in-endothelin-receptor-b-subtype-2-ednrb2-coding-sequences-and-mrna-expression-levels-in-4-muscovy-duck-plumage-colour-phenotypes
#15
N Wu, H Qin, M Wang, Y Bian, B Dong, G Sun, W Zhao, G Chang, Q Xu, G Chen
1. Endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) is a paralog of EDNRB, which encodes a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. Previous studies reported that EDNRB was essential for melanoblast migration in mammals and ducks. 2. Muscovy ducks have different plumage colour phenotypes. Variations in EDNRB2 coding sequences (CDSs) and mRNA expression levels were investigated in 4 different Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes, including black, black mutant, silver and white head. 3. The EDNRB2 gene from Muscovy duck was cloned; it had a length of 6435 bp and encoded 437 amino acids...
April 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863187/cytology-of-primary-vaginal-melanoma-an-unusual-report-on-fine-needle-aspiration
#16
Poojan Agarwal, Manju Kaushal
Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely uncommon malignancy comprising of less than 10% malignancies of the female genital tract and 0.3% of all melanomas. Melanoblasts are neural crest derivatives and are notorious for causing primary cutaneous neoplasms. However, they involve virtually every organ of the body including eye, intestines and ocular mucosa, probably due to aberrancies in cell migration. Vagina is a rare site and primary melanoma of the vagina occurs in postmenopausal women with vaginal discharge, bleeding, or mass as common presenting complaints...
March 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797132/a-light-colored-region-of-caudal-fin-a-niche-of-melanocyte-progenitors-in-crucian-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#17
Yaping Huang, Yurong Luo, Jinhui Liu, Saiyu Gui, Mei Wang, Wenbin Liu, Liangyue Peng, Yamei Xiao
Melanocyte stem cells are a population of immature cells which sustain the self-renewal and replenish the differentiated melanocytes. In this research, a light-colored region (LCR) is observed at the heel of caudal fin in juvenile crucian carp. By cutting off the caudal fin, the operated caudal fin can regenerate in accordance with the original pigment pattern from the retained LCR. As markers of stem cells, Oct4 and Sox2 have been found to be highly expressed in the LCR as well as Mitfa, a label of the melanoblasts...
January 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692799/human-fibroblasts-treated-with-hydrogen-peroxide-stimulate-human-melanoblast-proliferation-and-melanocyte-differentiation-but-inhibit-melanocyte-proliferation-in-serum-free-co-culture-system
#18
Tomohisa Hirobe, Tatako Shibata, Kiyoshi Sato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) elicits harmful effects on human melanocytes such as DNA damage and cell death. On the contrary, H2O2 is known to possess beneficial effects on melanocytes. However, mechanisms of the beneficial effects of H2O2 on melanocytes have not been fully understood, especially the indirect effects on melanocyte proliferation and differentiation from cells constituting surrounding tissue environment such as fibroblasts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether H2O2-treated human fibroblasts affect the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes using serum-free co-culture system...
December 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543055/the-initiator-methionine-trna-drives-cell-migration-and-invasion-leading-to-increased-metastatic-potential-in-melanoma
#19
Joanna Birch, Cassie J Clarke, Andrew D Campbell, Kirsteen Campbell, Louise Mitchell, Dritan Liko, Gabriela Kalna, Douglas Strathdee, Owen J Sansom, Matthew Neilson, Karen Blyth, Jim C Norman
The cell's repertoire of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) has been linked to cancer. Recently, the level of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAi(Met)) in stromal fibroblasts has been shown to influence extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion to drive tumour growth and angiogenesis. Here we show that increased tRNAi(Met) within cancer cells does not influence tumour growth, but drives cell migration and invasion via a mechanism that is independent from ECM synthesis and dependent on α5β1 integrin and levels of the translation initiation ternary complex...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539901/action-spectrum-of-melanoblast-maturation-and-involvement-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#20
Motoki Nakamura, Emi Nishida, Akimichi Morita
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates melanocyte activation and skin tanning. We hypothesized that the AHR also mediates melanoblast-to-melanocyte maturation. In a cloned cell line, NCCmelb4, derived from mouse neural crest cells, we investigated AHR expression in melanoblasts stimulated by UV irradiation and AHR agonists. We irradiated the cells with UV, ranging from 280 to 380 nm in 10-nm increments, using a multiwavelength irradiation spectral apparatus. Tyrosinase expression significantly increased with bimodal peaks at 310 and 360 nm...
August 2016: Experimental Dermatology
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