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Tamihiro Kawakami, Akiko Ohgushi, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshinao Soma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Dermatology
Zhongyuan Su, Xiaozi Zheng, Xiaobo Zhang, Yipin Wang, Shanpu Zhu, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
BACKGROUND: The control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. A cell type that illustrates this point particularly well is the neural crest-derived melanocyte, the pigment cell of vertebrates, as melanocytes can be followed easily during development and their pigment is directly visible in the integument of the adult. In mammals, melanocytes undergo physiological cycles of loss and proliferative regeneration during the hair cycle, and their proliferation is also critical during wound healing, repigmentation of depigmented lesions, and in melanoma formation and progression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Shuaiyu Wang, Julie Jacquemyn, Sara Murru, Paola Martinelli, Esther Barth, Thomas Langer, Carien M Niessen, Elena I Rugarli
The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
N Wu, H Qin, M Wang, Y Bian, B Dong, G Sun, W Zhao, G Chang, Q Xu, G Chen
1. Endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) is a paralog of EDNRB, which encodes a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. Previous studies reported that EDNRB was essential for melanoblast migration in mammals and ducks. 2. Muscovy ducks have different plumage colour phenotypes. Variations in EDNRB2 coding sequences (CDSs) and mRNA expression levels were investigated in 4 different Muscovy duck plumage colour phenotypes, including black, black mutant, silver and white head. 3. The EDNRB2 gene from Muscovy duck was cloned; it had a length of 6435 bp and encoded 437 amino acids...
January 18, 2017: British Poultry Science
Poojan Agarwal, Manju Kaushal
Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely uncommon malignancy comprising of less than 10% malignancies of the female genital tract and 0.3% of all melanomas. Melanoblasts are neural crest derivatives and are notorious for causing primary cutaneous neoplasms. However, they involve virtually every organ of the body including eye, intestines and ocular mucosa, probably due to aberrancies in cell migration. Vagina is a rare site and primary melanoma of the vagina occurs in postmenopausal women with vaginal discharge, bleeding, or mass as common presenting complaints...
November 11, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Yaping Huang, Yurong Luo, Jinhui Liu, Saiyu Gui, Mei Wang, Wenbin Liu, Liangyue Peng, Yamei Xiao
Melanocyte stem cells are a population of immature cells which sustain the self-renewal and replenish the differentiated melanocytes. In this research, a light-colored region (LCR) is observed at the heel of caudal fin in juvenile crucian carp. By cutting off the caudal fin, the operated caudal fin can regenerate in accordance with the original pigment pattern from the retained LCR. As markers of stem cells, Oct4 and Sox2 have been found to be highly expressed in the LCR as well as Mitfa, a label of the melanoblasts...
January 2017: Cell Biology International
Tomohisa Hirobe, Tatako Shibata, Kiyoshi Sato
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) elicits harmful effects on human melanocytes such as DNA damage and cell death. On the contrary, H2O2 is known to possess beneficial effects on melanocytes. However, mechanisms of the beneficial effects of H2O2 on melanocytes have not been fully understood, especially the indirect effects on melanocyte proliferation and differentiation from cells constituting surrounding tissue environment such as fibroblasts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether H2O2-treated human fibroblasts affect the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes using serum-free co-culture system...
December 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Joanna Birch, Cassie J Clarke, Andrew D Campbell, Kirsteen Campbell, Louise Mitchell, Dritan Liko, Gabriela Kalna, Douglas Strathdee, Owen J Sansom, Matthew Neilson, Karen Blyth, Jim C Norman
The cell's repertoire of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) has been linked to cancer. Recently, the level of the initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAi(Met)) in stromal fibroblasts has been shown to influence extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion to drive tumour growth and angiogenesis. Here we show that increased tRNAi(Met) within cancer cells does not influence tumour growth, but drives cell migration and invasion via a mechanism that is independent from ECM synthesis and dependent on α5β1 integrin and levels of the translation initiation ternary complex...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Motoki Nakamura, Emi Nishida, Akimichi Morita
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates melanocyte activation and skin tanning. We hypothesized that the AHR also mediates melanoblast-to-melanocyte maturation. In a cloned cell line, NCCmelb4, derived from mouse neural crest cells, we investigated AHR expression in melanoblasts stimulated by UV irradiation and AHR agonists. We irradiated the cells with UV, ranging from 280 to 380 nm in 10-nm increments, using a multiwavelength irradiation spectral apparatus. Tyrosinase expression significantly increased with bimodal peaks at 310 and 360 nm...
August 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Weiming Qiu, Hui Tang, Haiying Guo, Mingxing Lei, Hongtao Yan, Xiaohua Lian, Jinjin Wu
Melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) undergo cyclical activation and quiescence together with hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). This process is strictly controlled by the autonomous and extrinsic signaling environment. However, the modulation of factors important for the activation of McSCs for hair pigmentation remains unclear. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics vital signaling pathways involved in melanocyte growth and melanogenesis in vitro. To investigate whether TPA regulates quiescent McSCs for hair pigmentation, we topically smeared TPA on 7-week-old mouse dorsal skin and found that TPA stimulated hair growth and hair matrix pigmentation...
November 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Haoyuan Han, Chunchun Mao, Ningbo Chen, Xianyong Lan, Hong Chen, Chuzhao Lei, Ruihua Dang
Kit gene is a genetic determinant of horse white coat color which has been a highly valued trait in horses for at least 2,000 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Kit are of importance due to their strong associations with melanoblast survival during embryonic development. In this study, a mutation analysis of all 21 Kit exons in 14 Chinese domestic horse breeds revealed six SNPs (g.91214T>G, g.143245T>G, g.164297C>T, g.170189C>T, g.171356C>G, and g.171471G>A), which located in 5'-UTR region, intron 6, exon 15, exon 20, intron 20, and exon 21 of the equine Kit gene, respectively...
February 2016: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
Tomohisa Hirobe, Tatako Shibata, Rumiko Fujiwara, Kiyoshi Sato
BACKGROUND: Although many kinds of keratinocyte-derived factors are known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes, it is not well defined whether dermis-derived factors work in a similar way. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify whether dermal factors are involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes. METHODS: Human epidermal melanoblasts were cultured serially in a serum-free growth medium...
September 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Valérie Petit, Lionel Larue
Melanocytes arise from the fourth embryonic layer, the neural crest. They emerge from the roof plate of the neural tube and migrate throughout the body. In mammals, these cells have the capacity to migrate in any type of environment and use various pathways and mechanisms to colonize the skin and hair, and for their maintenance throughout the life of the animal.
September 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Christoph Schwab, Werner Wackernagel, Petra Grinninger, Christoph Mayer, Katharina Schwab, Gerald Langmann, Erika Richtig, Andreas Wedrich, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Iris Zalaudek
Pigmented cells are derived from neural crest cells, which migrate along the peripheral nerve sheets into their specific final region. During their migration, cells progressively acquire pigment-producing capabilities, maturation, and the shape of melanocytes. These insights, along with specific clinical characteristics of melanocytic nevi, have led to new concepts of cutaneous, periocular, and iris nevogenesis. To further elucidate the specific ocular embryogenic melanoblast distribution and dissemination - that could explain the distinct distribution of uveal melanocytic neoplasms - we investigated the ocular pigmentation of dogs affected by a specific mutation called Merle, which results in either pigment- (wild type) or non-pigment- (mutated type) producing cells...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Kazuhisa Takeda, Hiroki Hozumi, Koji Ohba, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Shigeki Shibahara
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a key regulator for differentiation of melanoblasts, precursors to melanocytes. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitfmi-bw) allele is characterized by the white-coat color and deafness with black eyes due to the lack of melanocytes. The Mitfmi-bw allele carries LINE-1, a retrotransposable element, which results in the Mitf deficiency. Here, we have established the black spotting mouse that was spontaneously arisen from the homozygous Mitfmi-bw mouse lacking melanocytes...
2016: PloS One
Malkiel A Cohen, Katherine J Wert, Johanna Goldmann, Styliani Markoulaki, Yosef Buganim, Dongdong Fu, Rudolf Jaenisch
The neural crest (NC) represents multipotent cells that arise at the interphase between ectoderm and prospective epidermis of the neurulating embryo. The NC has major clinical relevance because it is involved in both inherited and acquired developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental platform that would allow for the integration of human NC cells (hNCCs) into the gastrulating mouse embryo. NCCs were derived from pluripotent mouse, rat, and human cells and microinjected into embryonic-day-8...
February 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natsuki Watanabe, Tsutomu Motohashi, Masahiro Nishioka, Norito Kawamura, Tomohisa Hirobe, Takahiro Kunisada
BACKGROUND: Melanoblasts (MBs), derived from neural crest cells, only differentiate into melanocytes (Ms) in vivo. We previously showed that MBs isolated from mouse skin were multipotent, generating neurons (Ns) and glial cells (Gs) together with Ms. Using Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and mouse embryonic stem cells, we investigated how MBs expressed their multipotency. RESULTS: MBs generated colonies containing Ns, Gs, and Ms in the presence of ST2 stromal cells, but they generated only M colonies when incubated with keratinocytes or ST2 culture supernatant, thus showing that MBs required contact with ST2 stromal cells for expression of their multipotency...
April 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
John E Harris
Melanocytes in patients with vitiligo possess intrinsic abnormalities that contribute to its pathogenesis. Regazzetti et al. report that CXCL10 expression reflects subtle inflammation in normal-appearing skin but not in stable depigmented lesions, supporting the hypothesis that melanocytes themselves initiate autoimmune inflammation prior to clinically evident disease. In addition, they find that oxidative stress in melanocytes impairs WNT signaling and that targeting this pathway induces melanoblast differentiation...
December 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
M Böhm
Hypomelanoses of the skin encompass a wide spectrum of congenital and acquired alterations in melanin pigmentation. These diseases can be localized or universal. The pathobiology of cutaneous hypomelanoses is heterogeneous and includes defects in melanoblast migration from the neural crest to the epidermis, alterations in melanogenesis and melanin transfer to keratinocytes, and destruction of pigment cells by autoimmune and inflammatory processes. Importantly, some congenital forms of universal hypomelanoses are associated with involvement of internal organs (e...
December 2015: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
L Pan, X Ma, B Wen, Z Su, X Zheng, Y Liu, H Li, Y Chen, J Wang, F Lu, J Qu, L Hou
OBJECTIVES: Control of cell proliferation is critical for accurate cell differentiation and tissue formation, during development and regeneration. Here, we have analysed the role of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor MITF and its direct target, T-box factor TBX2, in regulating proliferation of mammalian neural crest-derived melanocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine spatial and temporal expression of TBX2 in melanocytes in vivo...
December 2015: Cell Proliferation
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