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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875687/scaling-laws-of-flow-rate-vessel-blood-volume-lengths-and-transit-times-with-number-of-capillaries
#1
Mohammad S Razavi, Ebrahim Shirani, Ghassan S Kassab
The structure-function relation is one of the oldest hypotheses in biology and medicine; i.e., form serves function and function influences form. Here, we derive and validate form-function relations for volume, length, flow, and mean transit time in vascular trees and capillary numbers of various organs and species. We define a vessel segment as a "stem" and the vascular tree supplied by the stem as a "crown." We demonstrate form-function relations between the number of capillaries in a vascular network and the crown volume, crown length, and blood flow that perfuses the network...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842843/interval-running-with-self-selected-recovery-physiology-performance-and-perception
#2
Gary McEwan, Rosemary Arthur, Shaun M Phillips, Neil V Gibson, Chris Easton
This study (1) compared the physiological responses and performance during a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session incorporating externally regulated (ER) and self-selected (SS) recovery periods and (2) examined the psychophysiological cues underpinning SS recovery durations. Following an incremental maximal exercise test to determine maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 14 recreationally active males completed 2 HIIT sessions on a non-motorised treadmill. Participants performed 12 × 30 s running intervals at a target intensity of 105% MAS interspersed with 30 s (ER) or SS recovery periods...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746603/intraobserver-and-interobserver-reproducibility-of-m-mode-and-b-mode-acquired-mitral-annular-plane-systolic-excursion-mapse-and-its-dependency-on-echocardiographic-image-quality-in-children
#3
Kai O Hensel, Markus Roskopf, Lucia Wilke, Andreas Heusch
BACKGROUND: Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) is an increasingly used echocardiography technique to assess left ventricular (LV) function. However, reproducibility and dependence on echocardiographic image quality for MAPSE in pediatric patients have not been studied to date. METHODS: We analyzed 284 transthoracic echocardiograms performed on consecutive normotensive children without structural heart disease (mean age 12.6±3.1 years, 50.4% female)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681793/autonomic-and-brain-morphological-predictors-of-stress-resilience
#4
REVIEW
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience . Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677464/improving-the-quality-of-preclinical-research-echocardiography-observations-training-and-guidelines-for-measurement
#5
Daniel G Donner, Helen Kiriazis, Xiao-Jun Du, Thomas H Marwick, Julie R McMullen
Informal training in preclinical research may be a contributor to the poor reproducibility of preclinical cardiology research and low rates of translation into clinical research and practice. Mouse echocardiography is a widely used technique to assess cardiac structure and function in drug intervention studies using disease models. The inter-observer variability (IOV) of clinical echocardiographic measurements has been shown to improve with formalized training, but preclinical echocardiography lacks similarly critical standardization of training...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541481/determinants-of-hospitalization-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-receiving-a-peer-support-intervention-and-jade-integrated-care-the-pearl-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Roseanne O Yeung, Jing-Heng Cai, Yuying Zhang, Andrea O Luk, Jun-Hao Pan, Junmei Yin, Risa Ozaki, Alice P S Kong, Ronald Ma, Wing-Yee So, Chiu Chi Tsang, K P Lau, Edwin Fisher, Williams Goggins, Brian Oldenburg, Julianna Chan
Background: In a randomized controlled trial of 628 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multidisciplinary care in the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Progam, 372 were randomized to receive additional telephone-based peer support (Peer Empowerment And Remote communication Linked by information technology, PEARL) intervention. After 12 months, all-cause hospitalization was reduced by half in the PEARL group especially in those with high Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530064/dynamic-fetal-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-doppler-ultrasound-gating
#7
Fabian Kording, Jin Yamamura, Manuela Tavares de Sousa, Christian Ruprecht, Erik Hedström, Anthony H Aletras, P Ellen Grant, Andrew J Powell, Kai Fehrs, Gerhard Adam, Hendrik Kooijman, Bjoern P Schoennagel
BACKGROUND: Fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging may provide a valuable adjunct to fetal echocardiography in the evaluation of congenital cardiovascular pathologies. However, dynamic fetal CMR is difficult due to the lack of direct in-utero cardiac gating. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a newly developed Doppler ultrasound (DUS) device in humans for fetal CMR gating. METHODS: Fifteen fetuses (gestational age 30-39 weeks) were examined using 1...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477366/pathogenic-mechanism-of-a-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-causing-mutation-in-cardiac-calcium-release-channel-ryr2
#8
Jing Xiong, Xijun Liu, Yunyun Gong, Peng Zhang, Sujing Qiang, Qian Zhao, Rong Guo, Yunyun Qian, Lipeng Wang, Li Zhu, Ruiwu Wang, Zhiyuan Hao, Han Wen, Jingying Zhang, Kai Tang, Wang-Fu Zang, Zhiguang Yuchi, Haijun Chen, S R Wayne Chen, Wenjun Zheng, Shi-Qiang Wang, Ya-Wei Xu, Zheng Liu
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a condition that is characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm in response to physical or emotional stress. The majority CPVT patients carry mutations in the RYR2 gene that encodes the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in cardiomyocytes. The pathogenic mechanisms that account for the clinical phenotypes of CPVT are still elusive. We have identified a de novo mutation, A165D, from a CPVT patient. We found that CPVT phenotypes are recapitulated in A165D knock-in mice...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420474/enhancer-redundancy-provides-phenotypic-robustness-in-mammalian-development
#9
Marco Osterwalder, Iros Barozzi, Virginie Tissières, Yoko Fukuda-Yuzawa, Brandon J Mannion, Sarah Y Afzal, Elizabeth A Lee, Yiwen Zhu, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Catherine S Pickle, Momoe Kato, Tyler H Garvin, Quan T Pham, Anne N Harrington, Jennifer A Akiyama, Veena Afzal, Javier Lopez-Rios, Diane E Dickel, Axel Visel, Len A Pennacchio
Distant-acting tissue-specific enhancers, which regulate gene expression, vastly outnumber protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes, but the functional importance of this regulatory complexity remains unclear. Here we show that the pervasive presence of multiple enhancers with similar activities near the same gene confers phenotypic robustness to loss-of-function mutations in individual enhancers. We used genome editing to create 23 mouse deletion lines and inter-crosses, including both single and combinatorial enhancer deletions at seven distinct loci required for limb development...
February 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305642/feasibility-and-validity-of-printing-3d-heart-models-from-rotational-angiography
#10
Manoj Parimi, John Buelter, Vignan Thanugundla, Sri Condoor, Nadeem Parkar, Saar Danon, Wilson King
Rotational angiography (RA) has proven to be an excellent method for evaluating congenital disease (CHD) in the cardiac cath lab, permitting acquisition of 3D datasets with superior spatial resolution. This technique has not been routinely implemented for 3D printing in CHD. We describe our case series of models printed from RA and validate our technique. All patients with models printed from RA were selected. RA acquisitions from a Toshiba Infinix-I system were postprocessed and printed with a Stratasys Eden 260...
April 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297330/surface-structure-feature-matching-algorithm-for-cardiac-motion-estimation
#11
Zhengrui Zhang, Xuan Yang, Cong Tan, Wei Guo, Guoliang Chen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac diseases represent the leading cause of sudden death worldwide. During the development of cardiac diseases, the left ventricle (LV) changes obviously in structure and function. LV motion estimation plays an important role for diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases. To estimate LV motion accurately for cine magnetic resonance (MR) cardiac images, we develop an algorithm by combining point set matching with surface structure features of myocardium. METHODS: The structure features of myocardial wall are described by estimating the normal directions of points locating on the myocardium contours using an approximation approach...
December 20, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240546/the-psychosocial-themes-of-children-with-a-congenital-heart-defect
#12
Ronél van der Watt, Carina Pheiffer, Stephen Brown
Children living with a congenital heart defect (CHD) carry the burden of a condition affecting their biological, psychological, and social functioning. Even though the physical heartbeats of these children might be inaudible and defective, their intra- and inter-personal 'stories in sound' need to be heard and understood. The aim of this research study was to explore these 'stories in sound' in children diagnosed with CHD. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study using thematic analysis was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six boys and three girls between the ages of eight and fourteen years, who were diagnosed with CHD...
November 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222390/sodium-channel-remodeling-in-subcellular-microdomains-of-murine-failing-cardiomyocytes
#13
Mathilde R Rivaud, Esperanza Agullo-Pascual, Xianming Lin, Alejandra Leo-Macias, Mingliang Zhang, Eli Rothenberg, Connie R Bezzina, Mario Delmar, Carol Ann Remme
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sodium channel (NaV1.5) dysfunction contributes to arrhythmogenesis during pathophysiological conditions. Nav1.5 localizes to distinct subcellular microdomains within the cardiomyocyte, where it associates with region-specific proteins, yielding complexes whose function is location specific. We herein investigated sodium channel remodeling within distinct cardiomyocyte microdomains during heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were subjected to 6 weeks of transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=32) to induce heart failure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215142/cortical-thickness-resting-state-heart-rate-and-heart-rate-variability-in-female-adolescents
#14
Julian Koenig, Peter Parzer, Corinna Reichl, Ayaka Ando, Julian F Thayer, Romuald Brunner, Michael Kaess
Resting state heart rate variability (HRV) is a psychophysiological marker that has gained increasing research interest, in particular in developmental neuroscience. HRV has been shown to be associated with mental and physical health, beyond simple measures of heart rate (HR) and shows inter- and intraindividual variance across aging. Recently, three studies reported on a positive correlation between resting state HRV and cortical thickness in selected regions of interest (ROIs) in adult samples. Structural thickness, HRV, and HR change during the sensitive period of adolescence...
May 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175411/mechanistic-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-model-of-the-heart-accounting-for-inter-individual-variability-development-and-performance-verification
#15
Zofia Tylutki, Aleksander Mendyk, Sebastian Polak
Modern model-based approaches to cardiac safety and efficacy assessment require accurate drug concentration-effect relationship establishment. Thus, knowledge of the active concentration of drugs in heart tissue is desirable along with inter-subject variability influence estimation. To that end, we developed a mechanistic physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of the heart. The models were described with literature-derived parameters and written in R, v.3.4.0. Five parameters were estimated. The model was fitted to amitriptyline and nortriptyline concentrations after an intravenous infusion of amitriptyline...
April 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138508/fetal-cardiac-cine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-utero
#16
Jerome Chaptinel, Jerome Yerly, Yvan Mivelaz, Milan Prsa, Leonor Alamo, Yvan Vial, Gregoire Berchier, Chantal Rohner, François Gudinchet, Matthias Stuber
Fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) led to the emergence of 'cine MRI' techniques, which enable the visualization of the beating heart and the assessment of cardiac morphology and dynamics. However, established cine MRI methods are not suitable for fetal heart imaging in utero, where anatomical structures are considerably smaller and recording an electrocardiogram signal for synchronizing MRI data acquisition is difficult. Here we present a framework to overcome these challenges. We use methods for image acquisition and reconstruction that robustly produce images with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to detect the heart contractions of the fetus, enabling a retrospective gating of the images and thus the generation of images of the beating heart...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096125/biaxial-mechanical-behavior-of-bovine-saphenous-venous-valve-leaflets
#17
Jiaqi Lu, Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang
Chronic venous disease is caused by chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), which results in significant symptoms such as venous ulcers, ankle eczema, leg swelling, etc. Venous valve incompetence is a major cause of CVI. When the valves of veins in the leg become incompetent (i.e., do not close properly), blood is able to flow backwards (i.e., reflux), which results in blood pooling in the lower extremities, distal venous hypertension, and CVI. Current clinical therapies, such as surgical venous valve reconstruction and bioprosthetic venous valve replacement, are highly invasive and only moderately successful...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964115/highly-trabeculated-structure-of-the-human-endocardium-underlies-asymmetrical-response-to-low-energy-monophasic-shocks
#18
Adam Connolly, Matthew D Robson, Jürgen Schneider, Rebecca Burton, Gernot Plank, Martin J Bishop
Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934404/organizational-and-managerial-factors-associated-with-clinical-practice-guideline-adherence-a-simulation-based-study-in-36-french-hospital-wards
#19
Florence Saillour-Glénisson, Marion Kret, Sandrine Domecq, Matthieu Sibé, Valentin Daucourt, Virginie Migeot, David Veillard, Philippe Michel
Objectives: To identify managerial and organizational characteristics of multi-specialty medicine wards and individual characteristics of health professionals that are most strongly associated with clinical practice guidelines (CPG) adherence. Design: Cross-sectional stratified cluster sample design. Setting: Data were gathered from 36 randomly selected multi-specialty medicine wards. Participants: The study population included all health professionals involved in patient care working in the participating wards...
August 1, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874934/emergency-physician-performed-transesophageal-echocardiography-in-simulated-cardiac-arrest
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Don V Byars, Jordan Tozer, John M Joyce, Michael J Vitto, Lindsay Taylor, Turan Kayagil, Matt Jones, Matthew Bishop, Barry Knapp, David Evans
INTRODUCTION: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a well-established method of evaluating cardiac pathology. It has many advantages over transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), including the ability to image the heart during active cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This prospective simulation study aims to evaluate the ability of emergency medicine (EM) residents to learn TEE image acquisition techniques and demonstrate those techniques to identify common pathologic causes of cardiac arrest...
August 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
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