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Structural heart inter

Jamilah Abdur-Rahim, Yoichi Morales, Pankaj Gupta, Ichiro Umata, Atsushi Watanabe, Jani Even, Takayuki Suyama, Shin Ishii
This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional state detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of "loss of controllability", change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional state detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding)...
2016: PloS One
James A Letts, Gianluca Degliesposti, Karol Fiedorczuk, Mark Skehel, Leonid A Sazanov
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (~1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Due to the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium-resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bi Xia Ngooi, Tanya L Packer, George Kephart, Grace Warner, Karen Wei Ling Koh, Raymond Ching Chiew Wong, Serene Peiying Lim
PURPOSE: The Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) measures patients' knowledge, skill, and confidence in chronic condition self-management. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of PAM-13 (English version) among English-speaking adults with cardiac conditions in Singapore. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenient sample of 270 heart clinic patients. Using the unitary concept of validity, evidence of (1) internal structure via data quality, unidimensionality, differential item functioning, and internal consistency, (2) response process through item difficulty and item fit using Rasch modeling, and (3) relationship to other variables via correlations with depression and self-efficacy were examined...
September 19, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Sylvère Störmann, Melanie Stankiewicz, Patricia Raes, Christina Berchtold, Yvonne Kosanke, Gabrielle Illes, Peter Loose, Matthias W Angstwurm
INTRODUCTION: The clinical examination and other practical clinical skills are fundamental to guide diagnosis and therapy. The teaching of such practical skills has gained significance through legislative changes and adjustments of the curricula of medical schools in Germany. We sought to find out how well final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills. METHODS: We conducted a formative 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) focused on practical clinical skills during the final year of undergraduate medical education...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, E Albert Reece, Fang Wang, Amnon Bar-Shir, Chris Harman, Ozhan M Turan, Peixin Yang, Sifa Turan
BACKGROUND: The mouse embryo is ideal for studying human cardiac development. However, laboratory discoveries do not easily translate into clinical findings partially because of histological diagnostic techniques that induce artifacts and lack standardization. AIM: To present a step-wise approach using 17.6T MRI, for evaluation of mice embryonic heart and accurate identification of congenital heart defects. SUBJECTS: 17.5-embryonic days embryos from low-risk (non-diabetic) and high-risk (diabetic) model dams...
August 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
D Lambert, P-Y Marie, P Lacolley, A Benetos, L Joly
OBJECTIVE: Aging led to the development of a proinflammatory phenotype and organ dysfunction. In situations of metabolic syndrome, it is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness and blood pressure.The main objective of this project is to establish a link between inflammation and arterial aging in a situation of metabolic syndrome in arterial and heart levels. DESIGN AND METHOD: The animal model chosen was a murine model developing metabolic syndrome. Mice received during a year, a high fat diet or a control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Márta Sárközy, Gergő Szűcs, Veronika Fekete, Márton Pipicz, Katalin Éder, Renáta Gáspár, Andrea Sója, Judit Pipis, Péter Ferdinandy, Csaba Csonka, Tamás Csont
BACKGROUND: There is a spectacular rise in the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. However, a significant proportion of T2DM patients are non-obese and they also have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. As the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a well-known model of non-obese T2DM, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of non-obese T2DM on cardiac alterations of the transcriptome in GK rats. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and cholesterol levels were measured at 7, 11, and 15 weeks of age in male GK and control rats...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
R Akhtar, H K Graham, B Derby, M J Sherratt, A W Trafford, R S Chadwick, N Gavara
Age-related aortic stiffening is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The mechanical functions of the main structural components of the aorta, such as collagen and elastin, are determined in part by their organisation at the micrometer length scale. With age and disease both components undergo aberrant remodelling, hence, there is a need for accurate characterisation of the biomechanical properties at this length scale. In this study we used a frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) technique on a model of ageing in female sheep aorta (young: ~18 months, old: >8 years) to measure the micromechanical properties of the medial layer of the ascending aorta...
December 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Vanessa Cabra, Takashi Murayama, Montserrat Samsó
In heart, type-2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) forms discrete supramolecular clusters in the sarcoplasmic reticulum known as calcium release units (CRUs), which are responsible for most of the Ca(2+) released for muscle contraction. To learn about the substructure of the CRU, we sought to determine whether RyR2s have the ability to self-associate in the absence of other factors and if so, whether they do it in a specific manner. Purified RyR2 was negatively stained and imaged on the transmission electron microscope, and RyR2 particles closely associated were further analyzed using bias-free multivariate statistical analysis and classification...
June 21, 2016: Biophysical Journal
T Kairn, S B Crowe, C M Langton, J V Trapp
This study provides a bulk, retrospective analysis of 151 breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatment plans, as a small-scale demonstration of the potential breadth and value of the information that may be obtained from clinical data mining. The treatments were planned at three centres belonging to one organisation over a period of 3 months. All 151 plans were used to evaluate inter-centre consistency and compliance with a local planning protocol. A subset of 79 plans, from one centre, were used in a more detailed evaluation of the effects of anatomical asymmetry on heart and lung dose, the effects of a metallic temporary tissue expander port on dose homogeneity and the overall conformity and homogeneity achieved in routine breast treatment planning...
September 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Vicky Wang, Christopher Casta, Yue-Min Zhu, Brett Cowan, Pierre Croisille, Alistair Young, Patrick Clarysse, Martyn Nash
Cardiac myofibre deformation is an important determinant of the mechanical function of the heart. Quantification of myofibre strain relies on 3D measurements of ventricular wall motion interpreted with respect to the tissue microstructure. In this study, we estimated in vivo myofibre strain using 3D structural and functional atlases of the human heart. A finite element modelling framework was developed to incorporate myofibre orientations of the left ventricle (LV) extracted from 7 explanted normal human hearts imaged ex-vivo with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) and kinematic measurements from 7 normal volunteers imaged in vivo with tagged MRI...
June 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Chung-Lieh Hung, Chun-Ho Yun, Yau-Huei Lai, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Hiram G Bezerra, Jen-Yuan Kuo, Charles Jia-Yin Hou, Tze-Fan Chao, Bernard E Bulwer, Hung-I Yeh, Shou-Chuan Shih, Shing-Jong Lin, Ricardo C Cury
Excessive visceral adiposity, hypothesized to be a key mediator in metabolic derangements, has recently been shown to exert toxic effects on cardiac structure and function. Data regarding the mechanistic link between regional adiposity, left atrial (LA) electromechanical remodeling, and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been lacking.Various visceral adiposity measures, including pericardial fat (PCF), thoracic periaortic (TAT) fat, regional inter-atrial fat (IAF), and atrioventricular groove fat (AV Groove Fat), were assessed by multidetector computed tomography in 2 study cohorts (an annual health survey cohort and an outpatient cohort)...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sachita P Shah, Sachin P Shah, Reginald Fils-Aime, Walkens Desir, Joanel Joasil, David M Venesy, Krithika Meera Muruganandan
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of acutely dyspneic patients in resource-limited developing world settings poses a particular challenge. Focused cardiopulmonary ultrasound (CPUS) may assist in the emergency diagnosis and management of patients with acute dyspnea by identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, interstitial pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion. We sought to assess the accuracy of emergency providers performing CPUS after a training intervention in a limited-resource setting; a secondary objective was to assess the ability of CPUS to affect change of clinician diagnostic assessment and acute management in patients presenting with undifferentiated dyspnea...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
Célia Amorim-Costa, Cristina Costa-Santos, Diogo Ayres-de-Campos, João Bernardes
INTRODUCTION: The longitudinal cardiotocographic (CTG) changes throughout pregnancy in normal fetuses have never been fully described. We aimed at characterizing the evolution of CTG parameters in healthy fetuses, from 24 to 41 weeks of gestation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in singleton fetuses without structural abnormalities on second-trimester ultrasound. At least one CTG was performed in each of the following intervals: 24-26 weeks(+6d) , 27-29 weeks(+6d) , 30-32 weeks(+6d) , 33-35 weeks(+6d) , 36-38 weeks(+6d) and ≥39 weeks; tracings were analyzed by the OMNIVIEW-SISPORTO 3...
October 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Nir Qvit, Marie-Hélène Disatnik, Eiketsu Sho, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Protein kinases regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, metabolism, and cell death. Because the primary sequence and the three-dimensional structure of many kinases are highly similar, the development of selective inhibitors for only one kinase is challenging. Furthermore, many protein kinases are pleiotropic, mediating diverse and sometimes even opposing functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates. Here, we set out to develop an inhibitor of a selective protein kinase phosphorylation of only one of its substrates...
June 22, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yasuhiro Kotani, Shingo Kasahara, Yasuhiro Fujii, Takahiro Eitoku, Kenji Baba, Shin-Ichi Otsuki, Yosuke Kuroko, Sadahiko Arai, Shunji Sano
OBJECTIVES: To achieve the growth of right-sided heart structures, our choice of the first palliation for patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS) includes a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) with pulmonary valvotomy. We sought to analyse the impact of the first palliation on the growth of right-sided heart structures and factors associated with a choice of definitive surgical procedure. METHODS: Fifty patients with PA-IVS who underwent a staged surgical approach from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed...
August 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Simon Golosheykin, Julia D Grant, Olga V Novak, Andrew C Heath, Andrey P Anokhin
Heart rate variability (HRV) is the variation of cardiac inter-beat intervals over time resulting largely from the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Individual differences in HRV are associated with emotion regulation, personality, psychopathology, cardiovascular health, and mortality. Previous studies have shown significant heritability of HRV measures. Here we extend genetic research on HRV by investigating sex differences in genetic underpinnings of HRV, the degree of genetic overlap among different measurement domains of HRV, and phenotypic and genetic relationships between HRV and the resting heart rate (HR)...
April 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Serena Cerritelli, Stefan Hirschberg, Rob Hill, Nina Balthasar, Anthony E Pickering
Opioids are widely used medicinally as analgesics and abused for hedonic effects, actions that are each complicated by substantial risks such as cardiorespiratory depression. These drugs mimic peptides such as β-endorphin, which has a key role in endogenous analgesia. The β-endorphin in the central nervous system originates from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Relatively little is known about the NTSPOMC neurons but their position within the sensory nucleus of the vagus led us to test the hypothesis that they play a role in modulation of cardiorespiratory and nociceptive control...
2016: PloS One
Yu Wang, Hai-yan Cao, Ming-xing Xie, Lin He, Wei Han, Liu Hong, Yuan Peng, Yun-fei Hu, Ben-cai Song, Jing Wang, Bin Wang, Cheng Deng
To investigate the application and effectiveness of vascular corrosion technique in preparing fetal cardiovascular cast models, 10 normal fetal heart specimens with other congenital disease (control group) and 18 specimens with severe congenital heart disease (case group) from induced abortions were enrolled in this study from March 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital. Cast models were prepared by injecting casting material into vascular lumen to demonstrate real geometries of fetal cardiovascular system. Casting effectiveness was analyzed in terms of local anatomic structures and different anatomical levels (including overall level, atrioventricular and great vascular system, left-sided and right-sided heart), as well as different trimesters of pregnancy...
April 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Zizhao Yang, Lu Wang, Mingcheng Xu, Jingkai Gu, Lushan Yu, Su Zeng
A rapid and sensitive bioassay was established and validated to simultaneously determine gemfibrozil, morphine, morphine-3β-glucuronide, and morphine-6β-glucuronide in mouse cerebrum, epencephalon, and hippocampus based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The deuterated internal standard, M6G-d3, was mixed with the prepared samples at 10 ng/mL as the final concentration. The samples were transferred into the C18 solid-phase extraction columns with gradient elution for solid-phase extraction...
June 2016: Journal of Separation Science
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