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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145671/distinct-cerebellar-contributions-to-cognitive-perceptual-dynamics-during-natural-viewing
#1
Vinh Thai Nguyen, Saurabh Sonkusare, Jane Stadler, Xintao Hu, Michael Breakspear, Christine Cong Guo
The crucial role of the cerebellum in motor learning and coordination is very well known. Considerable interest has recently shifted toward its contribution to nonmotor tasks, such as working memory, emotion, and language. However, the cognitive role and functional subdivisions of the cerebellum, particularly in dynamic, ecologically realistic contexts, are not yet established. By analyzing functional neuroimaging data acquired while participants viewed a short dramatic movie, we found that posterior and inferior cerebellar regions are reliably engaged in dynamic perceptual and affective processes with no explicit motor component...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145615/iptmnet-an-integrated-resource-for-protein-post-translational-modification-network-discovery
#2
Hongzhan Huang, Cecilia N Arighi, Karen E Ross, Jia Ren, Gang Li, Sheng-Chih Chen, Qinghua Wang, Julie Cowart, K Vijay-Shanker, Cathy H Wu
Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play a pivotal role in numerous biological processes by modulating regulation of protein function. We have developed iPTMnet (http://proteininformationresource.org/iPTMnet) for PTM knowledge discovery, employing an integrative bioinformatics approach-combining text mining, data mining, and ontological representation to capture rich PTM information, including PTM enzyme-substrate-site relationships, PTM-specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and PTM conservation across species...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#3
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#4
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145000/proopiomelanocortin-processing-and-prohormone-convertase-1-level-in-dogs-with-pituitary-corticotroph-tumors
#5
G Benchekroun, P de Fornel-Thibaud, D Rosenberg
Preliminary data suggest that prohormone convertase 1 (PC1/3) protein expression and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) processing are altered in large corticotroph tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the levels of ACTH precursors and PC1/3 protein in small and large corticotroph tumors of dogs with Cushing's disease. Pituitary tumors of dogs with Cushing's disease were collected postmortem 30 min to 12h after natural death or euthanasia, and classified as small or large. POMC, pro-ACTH, and PC1/3 were detected by Western blotting...
October 13, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144422/atypical-processing-of-novel-distracters-in-a-visual-oddball-task-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Irma Khachidze, Manuel F Casanova
Several studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormalities in P3b to targets in standard oddball tasks. The present study employed a three-stimulus visual oddball task with novel distracters that analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) to both target and non-target items at frontal and parietal sites. The task tested the hypothesis that children with autism are abnormally orienting attention to distracters probably due to impaired habituation to novelty. We predicted a lower selectivity in early ERPs to target, frequent non-target, and rare distracters...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144420/visual-positioning-indoors-human-eyes-vs-smartphone-cameras
#7
Dewen Wu, Ruizhi Chen, Liang Chen
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies and their related applications are now developing at a rapid pace. Indoor positioning will be one of the core technologies that enable AI applications because people spend 80% of their time indoors. Humans can locate themselves related to a visually well-defined object, e.g., a door, based on their visual observations. Can a smartphone camera do a similar job when it points to an object? In this paper, a visual positioning solution was developed based on a single image captured from a smartphone camera pointing to a well-defined object...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144168/the-effects-of-extended-nap-periods-on-cognitive-physiological-and-subjective-responses-under-simulated-night-shift-conditions
#8
Jonathan Davy, Matthias Göbel
Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143772/fault-detection-of-bearing-systems-through-eemd-and-optimization-algorithm
#9
Dong-Han Lee, Jong-Hyo Ahn, Bong-Hwan Koh
This study proposes a fault detection and diagnosis method for bearing systems using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based feature extraction, in conjunction with particle swarm optimization (PSO), principal component analysis (PCA), and Isomap. First, a mathematical model is assumed to generate vibration signals from damaged bearing components, such as the inner-race, outer-race, and rolling elements. The process of decomposing vibration signals into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and extracting statistical features is introduced to develop a damage-sensitive parameter vector...
October 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143248/what-do-dogs-canis-familiaris-see-a-review-of-vision-in-dogs-and-implications-for-cognition-research
#10
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Philippe A Chouinard, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
Over the last 20 years, a large amount of research has been conducted in an attempt to uncover the cognitive abilities of the domestic dog. While substantial advancements have been made, progress has been impeded by the fact that little is known about how dogs visually perceive their external environment. It is imperative that future research determines more precisely canine visual processing capabilities, particularly considering the increasing number of studies assessing cognition via paradigms requiring vision...
November 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143125/rapid-temporal-recalibration-to-visuo-tactile-stimuli
#11
Joachim Lange, Katharina Kapala, Holger Krause, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler
For a comprehensive understanding of the environment, the brain must constantly decide whether the incoming information originates from the same source and needs to be integrated into a coherent percept. This integration process is believed to be mediated by temporal integration windows. If presented with temporally asynchronous stimuli for a few minutes, the brain adapts to this new temporal relation by recalibrating the temporal integration windows. Such recalibration can occur even more rapidly after exposure to just a single trial of asynchronous stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142808/analyzing-microtomography-data-with-python-and-the-scikit-image-library
#12
Emmanuelle Gouillart, Juan Nunez-Iglesias, Stéfan van der Walt
The exploration and processing of images is a vital aspect of the scientific workflows of many X-ray imaging modalities. Users require tools that combine interactivity, versatility, and performance. scikit-image is an open-source image processing toolkit for the Python language that supports a large variety of file formats and is compatible with 2D and 3D images. The toolkit exposes a simple programming interface, with thematic modules grouping functions according to their purpose, such as image restoration, segmentation, and measurements...
2017: Advanced Structural and Chemical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142351/development-of-a-simple-image-processing-application-that-makes-abdominopelvic-tumor-visible-on-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-image
#13
Anil Kumar Pandey, Kartik Saroha, Param Dev Sharma, Chetan Patel, Chandrashekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
Introduction: In this study, we have developed a simple image processing application in MATLAB that uses suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) and helps the user to visualize abdominopelvic tumor on the exported prediuretic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images. Methods: A brainstorming session was conducted for requirement analysis for the program. It was decided that program should load the screen captured PET/CT images and then produces output images in a window with a slider control that should enable the user to view the best image that visualizes the tumor, if present...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142279/modifying-response-times-in-the-simon-task-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#14
James Robert McIntosh, Carsten Mehring
Perceptual decisions pervade our every-day lives, and can align or conflict with inbuilt biases. We investigated these conflicting biases by applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) while subjects took part in a visual Simon task - a paradigm where irrelevant spatial cues influence the response times of subjects to relevant colour cues. We found that tRNS reduces the response time of subjects independent of the congruence between spatial and colour cues, but dependent on the baseline response time, both between subjects and across conditions within subjects...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142247/visual-processing-silent-motion-detectors
#15
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142231/evaluation-of-critical-flicker-fusion-frequency-measurement-methods-for-the-investigation-of-visual-temporal-resolution
#16
Auria Eisen-Enosh, Nairouz Farah, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash, Uri Polat, Yossi Mandel
Recent studies highlight the importance of the temporal domain in visual processing. Critical Flicker-Fusion Frequency (CFF), the frequency at which a flickering light is perceived as continuous, is widely used for evaluating visual temporal processing. However, substantial variability in the psychophysical paradigms, used for measuring CFF, leads to substantial variability in the reported results. Here, we report on a comprehensive comparison of CFF measurements through three different psychophysical paradigms: methods of limits; method of constant stimuli, and staircase method...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142100/abnormal-visual-gain-control-and-excitotoxicity-in-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease-drosophila-models
#17
Marc Mason Himmelberg, Ryan J H West, Christopher J H Elliott, Alex R Wade
The excitotoxic theory of Parkinson's disease (PD) hypothesises that a pathophysiological degeneration of dopaminergic neurons stems from neural hyperactivity at early stages of disease, leading to mitochondrial stress and cell death. Recent research has harnessed the visual system of Drosophila PD models to probe this hypothesis. Here, we investigate whether abnormal visual sensitivity and excitotoxicity occur in early-onset PD Drosophila models DJ-1Δ72, DJ1-Δ93, and PINK15. We used an electroretinogram to record steady state visually evoked potentials driven by temporal contrast stimuli...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#18
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#19
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141494/influence-of-script-direction-on-word-processing-modes-in-left-and-right-visual-fields
#20
Eric Siéroff, Yael Slama
Word processing in left (LVF) and right (RVF) visual fields may be affected by left hemisphere activation during reading and by script direction. We evaluated the effect of script direction by presenting words in left-to-right (French) and right-to-left (Hebrew) scripts to bilingual French participants. Words of different lengths were presented in the LVF and the RVF in a naming task. Results showed (1) a stronger word length effect in the LVF than in the RVF in French, and no difference of word length effect between LVF and RVF in Hebrew; (2) a first-letter advantage only in the LVF in French and in the RVF in Hebrew, showing an effect of script direction on letter processing; and (3) a stronger advantage of external over internal letters in words presented in the LVF than in the RVF for both languages, showing a left hemisphere influence on letter activation...
November 15, 2017: Laterality
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