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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222510/visuospatial-functioning-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-a-pilot-study
#1
Raffaella Valenti, Andreas Charidimou, Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Grace Riley, Hugo J Kuijf, Yael D Reijmer, Leonardo Pantoni, M Edip Gurol, Sigurros Davidsdottir, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a contributor to cognitive impairment in the elderly. We hypothesized that the posterior cortical predilection of CAA would cause visual-processing impairment. We systematically evaluated visuospatial abilities in 22 non-demented CAA patients. Neurocognitive evaluation demonstrated visuoperceptual impairment (23% on Benton Facial Recognition Test [BFRT] and 13.6% on Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test [BJLO]). BFRT was inversely correlated with white matter hyperintensities volume and BJLO with parietal cerebral microbleeds...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222312/visual-attention-in-violent-offenders-susceptibility-to-distraction
#2
Jantine Slotboom, Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers, Yvonne H A Bouman, Willem In 't Hout, Carmen Sergiou, Stefan van der Stigchel, Jan Theeuwes
Impairments in executive functioning give rise to reduced control of behavior and impulses, and are therefore a risk factor for violence and criminal behavior. However, the contribution of specific underlying processes remains unclear. A crucial element of executive functioning, and essential for cognitive control and goal-directed behavior, is visual attention. To further elucidate the importance of attentional functioning in the general offender population, we employed an attentional capture task to measure visual attention...
February 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222116/the-role-of-short-term-memory-and-visuo-spatial-skills-in-numerical-magnitude-processing-evidence-from-turner-syndrome
#3
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Laurence Rousselle
Most studies on magnitude representation have focused on the visual modality with no possibility of disentangling the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on quantification processes. This study examines this issue in patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by a specific cognitive profile frequently associating poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. In order to identify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical magnitude abilities, twenty female participants with TS and twenty control female participants matched for verbal IQ and education level were administered a series of magnitude comparison tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221996/hierarchical-latent-concept-discovery-for-video-event-detection
#4
Chao Li, Zi Huang, Yang Yang, Jiewei Cao, Xiaoshui Sun, Heng Tao Shen
Semantic information is important for video event detection. How to automatically discover, model and utilize semantic information to facilitate video event detection has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical video event detection model, which deliberately unifies the processes of underlying semantics discovery and event modelling from video data. Specially, different from most approaches based on manually pre-defined concepts, we devise an effective model to automatically uncover video semantics by hierarchically capturing latent static-visual concepts in frame-level and latent activity concepts (i...
February 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221020/a-scalable-approach-to-construct-free-standing-and-flexible-carbon-networks-for-lithium-sulfur-battery
#5
Mengliu Li, Wandi Wahyudi, Pushpendra Kumar, Feng-Yu Wu, Xiulin Yang, Henan Li, Lain-Jong Li, Jun Ming
Reconstructing carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene to a hierarchical network structure is useful in exploring their applications. Herein, a sacrificial template method combined with the casting strategy is developed to prepare highly flexible and free-standing carbon film consisting of CNTs, graphene, or both. The scalable size, ultralight and binder-free characteristics, as well as the tunable process/property are promising for their large-scale applications, such as utilizing as interlayers in lithium-sulfur batteries...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220597/a-new-option-for-definitive-burn-wound-closure%C3%A2-%C3%A2-pair-matching-type-of-retrospective-case-control-study-of-hand-burns-in-the-hospitalised-patients-group-in-the-dr-stanislaw-sakiel-centre-for-burn-treatment-between-2009-and-2015
#6
Justyna Glik, Marek Kawecki, Diana Kitala, Agnieszka Klama-Baryła, Wojciech Łabuś, Marek Grabowski, Agata Durdzińska, Mariusz Nowak, Marcelina Misiuga, Aleksandra Kasperczyk
Nearly 80% of all burns include the hands of affected individuals. Skin grafting is the gold standard in burns treatment, but in the case of the burn wound bed, it may require the necessity of utilising skin substitutes to facilitate closure. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a porcine-derived wound dressing (Oasis™) for application to hand burns compared to a synthetic dressing (Suprathel™). Comparative assessments were made, including the time to heal, quality of healing and pain intensity...
February 21, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220468/the-hair-shedding-visual-scale-a-quick-tool-to-assess-hair-loss-in-women
#7
María Abril Martínez-Velasco, Norma Elizabeth Vázquez-Herrera, Austin John Maddy, Daniel Asz-Sigall, Antonella Tosti
INTRODUCTION: Hair shedding is a common consequence of the normal hair cycle that changes with internal and external factors. Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is difficult to assess in terms of shedding severity as the conscious perception of hair shedding varies according to each individual, and most utilized methods are semi-invasive or very time consuming. In this study, we establish and validate a hair-shedding scale for women with thick hair of different lengths. METHODS: A visual analog scale was developed for thick hair of short, medium, and long lengths by dividing a bundle of hairs of each length into nine piles of increasing hair amount that were then photographed and arranged in order of size...
February 20, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220378/glaucoma-and-driving-are-we-documenting-driving-status-and-advising-patients-with-glaucoma-appropriately-about-their-driving
#8
Amun Sachdev, Mazen Tahhan, Velota Ching Tak Sung
PURPOSE: Guidelines from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) in the UK state that patients with bilateral glaucomatous visual field defects must stop driving unless confirmed able to meet minimum visual field requirements. Guidelines from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists state that ophthalmologists must consider driving status in every consultation, provide appropriate information if visual problems may affect driving and document any advice that has been given. The authors aimed to investigate whether in glaucoma clinics: (1) driving status is being documented, (2) appropriate patients have been advised to inform DVLA and (3) there is documentation that this advice was provided...
February 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220085/peripheral-visual-reaction-time-is-faster-in-deaf-adults-and-british-sign-language-interpreters-than-in-hearing-adults
#9
Charlotte J Codina, Olivier Pascalis, Heidi A Baseler, Alexandra T Levine, David Buckley
Following auditory deprivation, the remaining sense of vision has shown selective enhancement in visual cognition, especially in the area of near peripheral vision. Visual acuity is poor in the far periphery and may be an area where sound confers the greatest advantage in hearing persons. Experience with a visuospatial language such as British Sign Language (BSL) makes additional demands on the visual system. To test the different and separable effects of deafness and use of a visuo-spatial language on far peripheral visual processing, we investigated visual reaction times (RTs) and response accuracy to visual stimuli, between 30° and 85° along the four cardinal and four inter-cardinal meridians...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220075/visual-equivalence-and-amodal-completion-in-cuttlefish
#10
I-Rong Lin, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219776/deactivation-in-the-posterior-mid-cingulate-cortex-reflects-perceptual-transitions-during-binocular-rivalry-evidence-from-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#11
Abhrajeet Roy, Keith Jamison, Sheng He, Steve Engel, Bin He
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes' images were tagged with different temporal frequencies so that eye specific steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals could be extracted from the EEG data for direct comparison with changes in fMRI BOLD activity associated with binocular rivalry...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219725/planar-implantable-sensor-for-in-vivo-measurement-of-cellular-oxygen-metabolism-in-brain-tissue
#12
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Fatih Akkenti, Elena Pumbo, Qinggong Tang, Yu Chen, Reha S Erzurumlu, Dmitri B Papkovsky
BACKGROUND: Brain imaging methods are continually improving. Imaging of the cerebral cortex is widely used in both animal experiments and charting human brain function in health and disease. Among the animal models, the rodent cerebral cortex has been widely used because of patterned neural representation of the whiskers on the snout and relative ease of activating cortical tissue with whisker stimulation. NEW METHOD: We tested a new planar solid-state oxygen sensor comprising a polymeric film with a phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive coating on the working side, to monitor dynamics of oxygen metabolism in the cerebral cortex following sensory stimulation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219258/competent-and-warm
#13
Karolina Hansen, Tamara Rakić, Melanie C Steffens
Most research on ethnicity has focused on visual cues. However, accents are strong social cues that can match or contradict visual cues. We examined understudied reactions to people whose one cue suggests one ethnicity, whereas the other cue contradicts it. In an experiment conducted in Germany, job candidates spoke with an accent either congruent or incongruent with their (German or Turkish) appearance. Based on ethnolinguistic identity theory, we predicted that accents would be strong cues for categorization and evaluation...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218796/brain-activity-from-stimuli-that-are-not-perceived-visual-mismatch-negativity-during-binocular-rivalry-suppression
#14
Bradley N Jack, Andreas Widmann, Robert P O'Shea, Erich Schröger, Urte Roeber
Predictive coding explains visual perception as the result of an interaction between bottom-up sensory input and top-down generative models at each level of the visual hierarchy. Evidence for this comes from the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): a more negative ERP for rare, unpredictable visual stimuli-deviants, than for frequent, predictable visual stimuli-standards. Here, we show that the vMMN does not require conscious experience. We measured the vMMN from monocular luminance-decrement deviants that were either perceived or not during binocular rivalry dominance or suppression, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217786/cavitation-clusters-in-lipid-systems-surface-effects-local-heating-and-streamer-formation
#15
P R Birkin, T M Foley, T T Truscott, A Merritt, S Martini
Cavitation clusters and streamers are characterised in lipid materials (specifically sunflower oil) and compared to water systems. The lipid systems, which are important in food processing, are studied with high-speed camera imaging, laser scattering and pressure measurements. In these oils, clusters formed at an aged (roughened) tip of the sound source (a piston like emitter, PLE) are shown to collapse with varied periodicity in relation to the drive amplitude employed. A distinct streamer (an area of increased flow emanating from the cavitation cluster) is seen in the lipid media which is collimated directly away from the tip of the PLE source whereas in water the cavitation plume is visually less distinct...
February 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216791/molecular-processes-leading-to-necking-in-extensional-flow-of-polymer-solutions-using-microfluidics-and-single-dna-imaging
#16
Shaurya Sachdev, Aswin Muralidharan, Pouyan E Boukany
We study the necking and pinch-off dynamics of liquid droplets that contain a semidilute polymer solution of polyacrylamide close to overlap concentration by combining microfluidics and single DNA observation. Polymeric droplets are stretched by passing them through the stagnation point of a T-shaped microfluidic junction. In contrast with the sudden breakup of Newtonian droplets, a stable neck is formed between the separating ends of the droplet which delays the breakup process. Initially, polymeric filaments experience exponential thinning by forming a stable neck with extensional flow within the filament...
December 27, 2016: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216497/-visual-evoked-functional-connectivity-before-and-after-smoking-cessation-based-on-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Shaofeng Mo, Xiaokai Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Jingtian Tang
To explore differences in visual information processing for smoking addicts between before and after smoking cessation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging technology.
 Methods: Seventeen volunteers, with heavy dependence on nicotine, agreed to give up smoking and to complete the test. The primary visual network and secondary visual network were extracted by independent component analysis technology. The region of interest was defined as the region with significant difference between before and after smoking cessation...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216314/visual-working-memory-requires-permissive-and-instructive-no-cgmp-signaling-at-presynapses-in-the-drosophila-central-brain
#18
Sara Kuntz, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
The gaseous second messenger nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to regulate memory formation by activating retrograde signaling cascades from post- to presynapse that involve cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production to induce synaptic plasticity and transcriptional changes. In this study, we analyzed the role of NO in the formation of a visual working memory that lasts only a few seconds. This memory is encoded in a subset of ring neurons that form the ellipsoid body in the Drosophila brain. Using genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we show that NO signaling is required for cGMP-mediated CREB activation, leading to the expression of competence factors like the synaptic homer protein...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216241/temporal-and-identity-prediction-in-visual-auditory-events-electrophysiological-evidence-from-stimulus-omissions
#19
Thijs van Laarhoven, Jeroen J Stekelenburg, Jean Vroomen
A rare omission of a sound that is predictable by anticipatory visual information induces an early negative omission response (oN1) in the EEG during the period of silence where the sound was expected. It was previously suggested that the oN1 was primarily driven by the identity of the anticipated sound. Here, we examined the role of temporal prediction in conjunction with identity prediction of the anticipated sound in the evocation of the auditory oN1. With incongruent audiovisual stimuli (a video of a handclap that is consistently combined with the sound of a car horn) we demonstrate in Experiment 1 that a natural match in identity between the visual and auditory stimulus is not required for inducing the oN1, and that the perceptual system can adapt predictions to unnatural stimulus events...
February 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215868/libyostrongylus-douglassii-strongylida-trichostrongylidae-in-ostrich-struthio-camelus-farms-from-colombia
#20
Guillermo A Mariño-González, Alejandro Ramírez-Hernández, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino
Ostrich farming is an important livestock industry in different world regions with a diverse offer of products and services. In Colombia, as in other countries, this market led the importation of animals from countries like Canada, United States of America and South Africa for breeding objectives. With the animals, specific pathogens for these ratites could be introduced. Libyostrongylus spp. is a strongylid nematode with worldwide distribution, which can induce a severe disease and mortality in infected animals...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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