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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944813/transparent-amorphous-strontium-titanate-resistive-memories-with-transient-photo-response
#1
Taimur Ahmed, Sumeet Walia, Jeeson Kim, Hussein Nili, Rajesh Ramanathan, Edwin L H Mayes, Desmond W M Lau, Omid Kavehei, Vipul Bansal, Madhu Bhaskaran, Sharath Sriram
Transparent non-volatile memory devices are desirable for realizing visually-clear integrated systems for information storage. Optical transparency provides advantages in applications such as smart glass electronic devices and wearable electronics. However, achieving high transparency limits the choice of active layers as well as the electrodes; thereby, constraining device processing and performance. Here, we demonstrate bilayer transparent memory cells using room temperature deposited amorphous strontium titanate as the functional material and indium tin oxide electrodes...
September 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944520/human-activities-as-a-driver-of-spatial-variation-in-the-trophic-structure-of-fish-communities-on-pacific-coral-reefs
#2
Jonathan L W Ruppert, Laurent Vigliola, Michel Kulbicki, Pierre Labrosse, Marie-Josée Fortin, Mark G Meekan
Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, pollution and fishing impact the trophic structure of coral reef fishes, which can influence ecosystem health and function. Although these impacts may be ubiquitous, they are not consistent across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Using an extensive database of fish biomass sampled using underwater visual transects on coral reefs, we modelled the impact of human activities on food webs at Pacific-wide and regional (1,000s-10,000s km) scales. We found significantly lower biomass of sharks and carnivores, where there were higher densities of human populations (hereafter referred to as human activity); however, these patterns were not spatially consistent as there were significant differences in the trophic structures of fishes among biogeographic regions...
September 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944503/global-quantification-of-phosphoproteins-combining-metabolic-labeling-and-gel-based-proteomics-in-b-pumilus
#3
Christian Hentschker, Carolin Dewald, Andreas Otto, Knut Büttner, Michael Hecker, Dörte Becher
Differential proteomics targeting the protein abundance is commonly used to follow changes in biological systems. Differences in localization and degree of posttranslational modifications of proteins including phosphorylations are of tremendous interest due to the anticipated role in molecular regulatory processes. Because of their particular low abundance in prokaryotes, identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation is traditionally performed by either comparison of spot intensities on two-dimensional gels after differential phosphoprotein staining or gel-free by stable isotope labeling, sequential phosphopeptide enrichment and following LC-MS analysis...
September 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944054/picturing-waters-a-review-of-photovoice-and-similar-participatory-visual-research-on-water-governance
#4
REVIEW
Emanuele Fantini
Seeing is one of the main sensory experiences for knowing water and for generating meanings of it. To acknowledge this, visual research methods are increasingly popular in social sciences. In this paper, research using Photovoice or similar participatory visual methods is reviewed in order to assess their potential contribution to the study of water governance. A total of 23 articles related to 20 projects on (1) water, health, and sanitation; (2) participation in water management; (3) landscapes and water spaces; and (4) domestic urban waters, were identified...
September 2017: WIREs. Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943935/identification-of-key-genes-associated-with-the-effect-of-osmotic-stimuli-on-intervertebral-discs-using-microarray-analysis
#5
Guangxiao Ni, Guobin Liu, Kunlun Yu
The present study aimed to explore the effect of osmotic stimuli on intervertebral discs (IVDs) using microarray analysis. Gene expression dataset GSE1648 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. There were 11 IVD cell samples in this dataset, which included 4 hyperosmotic stimuli samples, 3 hypoosmotic stimuli samples and 4 isosmotic stimuli samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic IVD cells (designated DEGs-hyper or DEGs-hypo) were identified, compared with isosmotic cells, using the limma package of R software...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943905/screening-the-key-genes-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-via-microarray-analysis-of-dna-expression-and-methylation-profiles
#6
Dan Liu, Pengfei Liu, Liye Cao, Quan Zhang, Yaqing Chen
The aim of the present study was to identify the biomarkers involved in the development of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) through integrated analysis of gene expression and methylation microarray. The microarray dataset GSE7473, containing HNF1α-mutated HCA and their corresponding non-tumor livers, 5 HNF1α-mutated HCA and 4 non-related non-tumor livers, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The DNA methylation profile GSE43091, consisting of 50 HCA and 4 normal liver tissues, was also downloaded from the GEO database...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943885/decision-trees-in-epidemiological-research
#7
Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam, Julian Wolfson, Nathan Mitchell, Timothy Barnes, Meghan JaKa, Simone French
BACKGROUND: In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. MAIN TEXT: We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943687/an-adult-face-bias-in-infants-that-is-modulated-by-face-race
#8
Michelle Heron-Delaney, Fabrice Damon, Paul C Quinn, David Méary, Naiqi G Xiao, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
The visual preferences of infants for adult versus infant faces were investigated. Caucasian 3.5- and 6-month-olds were presented with Caucasian adult versus infant face pairs and Asian adult versus infant face pairs, in both upright and inverted orientations. Both age groups showed a visual preference for upright adult over infant faces when the faces were Caucasian, but not when they were Asian. The preference is unlikely to have arisen because of low-level perceptual features because: (1) no preference was observed for the inverted stimuli, (2) no differences were observed in adult similarity ratings of the upright infant-adult face pairs from the two races, and (3) no differences between the infant and adult faces were observed across races in an image-based analysis of salience...
September 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943411/two-cortical-deficits-underlie-amblyopia-a-multi-focal-fmri-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Reza Farivar, Jiawei Zhou, Yufeng Huang, Lixia Feng, Yifeng Zhou, Robert F Hess
Amblyopia is a relatively common (incidence 3%) developmental disorder in which there is loss of vision as a consequence of a disruption to normal visual development. Although the deficit is monocular and known to be of cortical origin, the nature of the processing deficit is controversial. Human behavioral studies have identified two main deficits-a loss of contrast sensitivity and perceived spatial distortions. Here we use a multi-focal fMRI approach to ascertain, in a group of anisometropic amblyopes, whether these two deficits have a single common cause or whether they are the result of two underlying independent cortical disorders...
September 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943364/earlier-and-more-distributed-neural-networks-for-bilinguals-than-monolinguals-during-switching
#10
Kalinka Timmer, John G Grundy, Ellen Bialystok
The present study investigated processing differences between young adults who were English monolinguals or English-French bilinguals on a task- and language-switching paradigm. The mechanisms responsible for task switching and language switching were investigated using electrophysiological (EEG) measures. In nonverbal task switching, monolinguals and bilinguals demonstrated equivalent mixing (pure vs. repeat) and switching (repeat vs. switch) costs, but bilinguals were more accurate in the mixed blocks. Bilinguals used a more distributed neural network than monolinguals that captured the nonverbal mixing effect and showed earlier discrimination for the switching effect in the ERPs...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943333/finding-discriminative-and-interpretable-patterns-in-sequences-of-surgical-activities
#11
Germain Forestier, François Petitjean, Pavel Senin, Laurent Riffaud, Pierre-Louis Henaux, Pierre Jannin
OBJECTIVE: Surgery is one of the riskiest and most important medical acts that is performed today. Understanding the ways in which surgeries are similar or different from each other is of major interest to understand and analyze surgical behaviors. This article addresses the issue of identifying discriminative patterns of surgical practice from recordings of surgeries. These recordings are sequences of low-level surgical activities representing the actions performed by surgeons during surgeries...
September 21, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942896/visuo-spatial-orienting-during-active-exploratory-behavior-processing-of-task-related-and-stimulus-related-signals
#12
Emiliano Macaluso, Akitoshi Ogawa
Functional imaging studies have associated dorsal and ventral fronto-parietal regions with the control of visuo-spatial attention. Previous studies demonstrated that the activity of both the dorsal and the ventral attention systems can be modulated by many different factors, related both to the stimuli and the task. However, the vast majority of this work utilized stereotyped paradigms with simple and repeated stimuli. This is at odd with any real life situation that instead involve complex combinations of different types of co-occurring signals, thus raising the question of the ecological significance of the previous findings...
September 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942477/cognitive-performance-in-mid-stage-parkinson-s-disease-functional-connectivity-under-chronic-antiparkinson-treatment
#13
Roxana Vancea, Kristina Simonyan, Maria Petracca, Miroslaw Brys, Alessandro Di Rocco, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Matilde Inglese
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to the reorganization of brain topology. Although drug challenge studies have proven how levodopa treatment can modulate functional connectivity in brain circuits, the role of chronic dopaminergic therapy on cognitive status and functional connectivity has never been investigated. We sought to characterize brain functional topology in mid-stage PD patients under chronic antiparkinson treatment and explore the presence of correlation between reorganization of brain architecture and specific cognitive deficits...
September 23, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942219/how-thoughts-arise-from-sights-inferotemporal-and-prefrontal-contributions-to-vision
#14
REVIEW
Simon Kornblith, Doris Y Tsao
We are rapidly approaching a comprehensive understanding of the neural mechanisms behind object recognition. How we use this knowledge of the visual world to plan and act is comparatively mysterious. To fill this gap, we must understand how visual representations are transformed within cognitive regions, and how these cognitive representations of visual information act back upon earlier sensory representations. Here, we summarize our current understanding of visual representation in inferotemporal cortex (IT) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the interactions between them...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941976/omega-3-and-6-fatty-acid-supplementation-and-sensory-processing-in-toddlers-with-asd-symptomology-born-preterm-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Kelly M Boone, Barbara Gracious, Mark A Klebanoff, Lynette K Rogers, Joseph Rausch, Daniel L Coury, Sarah A Keim
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the health and long-term survival of infants born preterm, they continue to face developmental challenges including higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and atypical sensory processing patterns. AIMS: This secondary analysis aimed to describe sensory profiles and explore effects of combined dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) supplementation on parent-reported sensory processing in toddlers born preterm who were exhibiting ASD symptoms...
September 20, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941788/network-module-identification-a-widespread-theoretical-bias-and-best-practices
#16
Iryna Nikolayeva, Oriol Guitart-Pla, Benno Schwikowski
Biological processes often manifest themselves as coordinated changes across modules, i.e., sets of interacting genes. Commonly, the high dimensionality of genome-scale data prevents the visual identification of such modules, and straightforward computational search through a set of known pathways is a limited approach. Therefore, tools for the data-driven, computational, identification of modules in gene interaction networks have become popular components of visualization and visual analytics workflows. However, many such tools are known to result in modules that are large, and therefore hard to interpret biologically...
September 20, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941531/disentangling-how-the-brain-is-wired-in-cortical-cerebral-visual-impairment
#17
Lotfi B Merabet, D Luisa Mayer, Corinna M Bauer, Darick Wright, Barry S Kran
Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941527/pediatric-optic-neuritis
#18
Melinda Y Chang, Stacy L Pineles
Optic neuritis is rare in children in comparison to adults, but accounts for approximately 25% of pediatric acute demyelinating syndromes. Features of pediatric optic neuritis that differ from adults include a higher rate of bilaterality, poor visual acuity on presentation, and papillitis. Diagnostic work-up includes brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and blood tests to exclude infectious and inflammatory disorders. Pediatric optic neuritis may occur following infection or vaccination, or in association with a systemic demyelinating process such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, or multiple sclerosis...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940867/gray-matter-volumes-of-early-sensory-regions-are-associated-with-individual-differences-in-sensory-processing
#19
Sayaka Yoshimura, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Motomi Toichi
Sensory processing (i.e., the manner in which the nervous system receives, modulates, integrates, and organizes sensory stimuli) is critical when humans are deciding how to react to environmental demands. Although behavioral studies have shown that there are stable individual differences in sensory processing, the neural substrates that implement such differences remain unknown. To investigate this issue, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from 51 healthy adults and individual differences in sensory processing were assessed using the Sensory Profile questionnaire (Brown et al...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940728/neural-correlates-of-multisensory-reliability-and-perceptual-weights-emerge-at-early-latencies-during-audio-visual-integration
#20
Stephanie C Boyle, Stephanie J Kayser, Christoph Kayser
To make accurate perceptual estimates observers must take the reliability of sensory information into account. Despite many behavioural studies showing that subjects weight individual sensory cues in proportion to their reliabilities, it is still unclear when during a trial neuronal responses are modulated by the reliability of sensory information, or when they reflect the perceptual weights attributed to each sensory input. We investigated these questions using a combination of psychophysics, EEG based neuroimaging, and single-trial decoding...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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