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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806692/microplastic-pollution-identified-in-deep-sea-water-and-ingested-by-benthic-invertebrates-in-the-rockall-trough-north-atlantic-ocean
#1
Winnie Courtene-Jones, Brian Quinn, Stefan F Gary, Andrew O M Mogg, Bhavani E Narayanaswamy
Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806636/blood-or-not-blood-that-is-the-question-a-non-destructive-method-for-the-detection-of-blood-contaminated-fingermarks
#2
Alfonso Bentolila, Ira Hartman, Michal Levin-Elad
Working in crime scenes presents a challenge to the forensic scientist, as some surfaces, such as floors and walls, cannot be transferred to the lab for further development and must, therefore, be processed at the crime scene itself. Two main types of latent fingermarks may be encountered in crime scenes: amino acids based and blood contaminated. One of the most common reagents, which are able to develop both types of fingermarks on porous surfaces, is ninhydrin. As blood contaminated fingermarks may be crucial in connecting the suspect to the crime it is important to be able to distinguish between them and natural fingermarks...
August 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806344/neuro-ophthalmic-manifestations-of-pediatric-neurodegenerative-disease
#3
Gena Heidary
The topic of pediatric neurodegenerative disease is broad and ever expanding. Children who suffer from neurodegenerative disease often have concomitant visual dysfunction. Neuro-ophthalmologists may become involved in clinical care to identify corroborating eye findings when a specific condition is suspected, to monitor for disease progression, and in some cases, to assess treatment efficacy. Ophthalmic findings also may be the harbinger of a neurodegenerative process so a keen awareness of the possible manifestations of these conditions is important...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805816/selective-attention-within-the-foveola
#4
Martina Poletti, Michele Rucci, Marisa Carrasco
Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805731/the-role-of-visual-noise-in-influencing-mental-load-and-fatigue-in-a-steady-state-motion-visual-evoked-potential-based-brain-computer-interface
#5
Jun Xie, Guanghua Xu, Ailing Luo, Min Li, Sicong Zhang, Chengcheng Han, Wenqiang Yan
As a spatial selective attention-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) BCI has the advantages of high information transfer rate, high tolerance to artifacts, and robust performance across users. However, its benefits come at the cost of mental load and fatigue occurring in the concentration on the visual stimuli. Noise, as a ubiquitous random perturbation with the power of randomness, may be exploited by the human visual system to enhance higher-level brain functions...
August 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805689/visual-servoing-for-an-autonomous-hexarotor-using-a-neural-network-based-pid-controller
#6
Carlos Lopez-Franco, Javier Gomez-Avila, Alma Y Alanis, Nancy Arana-Daniel, Carlos Villaseñor
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention. However, we face two major drawbacks when working with UAVs: high nonlinearities and unknown position in 3D space since it is not provided with on-board sensors that can measure its position with respect to a global coordinate system. In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of a servo control, integrating vision sensors, with a neural proportional integral derivative (PID), in order to develop an hexarotor image based visual servo control (IBVS) that knows the position of the robot by using a velocity vector as a reference to control the hexarotor position...
August 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#7
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805589/visual-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Richard A Armstrong
This chapter describes the visual problems likely to be encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD) and whether such signs are useful in differentiating the parkinsonian syndromes. Visual dysfunction in PD may involve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color discrimination, pupil reactivity, saccadic and pursuit eye movements, motion perception, visual fields, and visual processing speeds. In addition, disturbance of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and chronic visual hallucinations may be present...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805447/performance-on-naturalistic-virtual-reality-tasks-depends-on-global-cognitive-functioning-as-assessed-via-traditional-neurocognitive-tests
#9
Jorge Oliveira, Pedro Gamito, Daniyal M Alghazzawi, Habib M Fardoun, Pedro J Rosa, Tatiana Sousa, Luís Felipe Picareli, Diogo Morais, Paulo Lopes
This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT...
August 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805133/the-shape-of-things-to-come-in-speech-production-visual-form-interference-during-lexical-access
#10
Greig I de Zubicaray, Mia McLean, Frank Oppermann, Aidan Hegarty, Katie McMahon, Jörg D Jescheniak
Naming a picture is slower in categorically related compared to unrelated contexts, an effect termed semantic interference. This effect has informed the development of all contemporary models of lexical access in speech production. However, category members typically share visual features, so semantic interference might in part reflect this confound. Surprisingly little work has addressed this issue, and the relative absence of evidence for visual form interference has been proposed to be problematic for production models implementing competitive lexical selection mechanisms...
August 13, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#11
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804782/dopaminergic-medication-increases-reliance-on-current-information-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Iris Vilares, Konrad P Kording
The neurotransmitter dopamine is crucial for decision-making under uncertainty but its computational role is still a subject of intense debate. To test potential roles, we had patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have less internally-generated dopamine, participate in a visual decision-making task in which uncertainty in both prior and current sensory information was varied and where behavior is often predicted by Bayesian statistics. We found that many aspects of uncertainty processing were conserved in PD: they could learn the prior uncertainty and utilize both priors and current sensory information...
August 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804731/eye-tracking-in-catheter-based-cardiovascular-interventions-early-results
#13
Peter Lanzer, Mohammad Al-Naser, Syed Saqib Bukhari, Andreas Dengel, Elizabeth A Krupinski
Visual x-ray image processing (XRIP) represents a fundamental component of catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (CBCVIs). To date, no data are available to define XRIP in this setting. To characterize CBCVI XRIP, we developed a computer-based method allowing continuous temporal-spatial analysis of data recorded by a head-mounted eye-tracking device. Quantitative analysis of gaze duration of an expert operator (EO) revealed that the average time in minutes spent viewing the images on the display screen was [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the total recorded time in coronary angiography (CA) and in CA followed by CBCVI, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804628/from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-human-the-important-gene-co-expression-modules
#14
Wei Liu, Li Li, Hua Ye, Haiwei Chen, Weibiao Shen, Yuexian Zhong, Tian Tian, Huaqin He
Network-based systems biology has become an important method for analyzing high-throughput gene expression data and gene function mining. Yeast has long been a popular model organism for biomedical research. In the current study, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis algorithm was applied to construct a gene co-expression network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen stable gene co-expression modules were detected from 2,814 S. cerevisiae microarray data. Further characterization of these modules with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool indicated that these modules were associated with certain biological processes, such as heat response, cell cycle, translational regulation, mitochondrion oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid metabolism and autophagy...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804468/individual-difference-factors-in-the-learning-and-transfer-of-patterning-discriminations
#15
Elisa Maes, Elias Vanderoost, Rudi D'Hooge, Jan De Houwer, Tom Beckers
In an associative patterning task, some people seem to focus more on learning an overarching rule, whereas others seem to focus on acquiring specific relations between the stimuli and outcomes involved. Building on earlier work, we further investigated which cognitive factors are involved in feature- vs. rule-based learning and generalization. To this end, we measured participants' tendency to generalize according to the rule of opposites after training on negative and positive patterning problems (i.e., A+/B+/AB- and C-/D-/CD+), their tendency to attend to global aspects or local details of stimuli, their systemizing disposition and their score on the Raven intelligence test...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804400/differential-age-related-changes-in-localizing-a-target-among-distractors-across-an-extended-visual-field
#16
Jing Feng, Fergus I M Craik, Brian Levine, Sylvain Moreno, Gary Naglie, HeeSun Choi
Age differences in the spatial distribution of attention over a wide field of view have only been described in terms of the spatial extent, leaving the topographical aspect unexplored. This study examined age differences between younger and older adults in good general health in an important topographical characteristic, the asymmetry between the upper and lower visual fields. In Experiment 1, we found age differences across the entire attentional visual field. In addition, age differences were greater in the upper compared to the lower field...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803877/face-pareidolia-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#17
Jessica Taubert, Susan G Wardle, Molly Flessert, David A Leopold, Leslie G Ungerleider
Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803830/the-effect-of-perceptual-load-on-tactile-spatial-attention-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#18
Elena Gherri, Fiona Berreby
To investigate whether tactile spatial attention is modulated by perceptual load, behavioural and electrophysiological measures were recorded during two spatial cuing tasks in which the difficulty of the target/non-target discrimination was varied (High and Low load tasks). Moreover, to study whether attentional modulations by load are sensitive to the availability of visual information, the High and Low load tasks were carried out under both illuminated and darkness conditions. ERPs to cued and uncued non-targets were compared as a function of task (High vs...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803787/expression-analyses-of-phactr1-phosphatase-and-actin-regulator-1-during-mouse-brain-development
#19
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803681/a-survey-on-stimuli-for-visual-cortical-function-assessment-in-infants
#20
REVIEW
Farveh Daneshvarfard, Nasrin Maarefi, Hamid Abrishami Moghaddam, Fabrice Wallois
Visual processing, as a significant and complex functionality of the human brain, changes during the life span with the most developmental changes in the infancy. Different types of visual stimuli are needed for evaluating different functionalities of the infants' visual system. Selecting appropriate visual stimuli is an important issue in evaluating visual cortical functions in infants. Properties of stimulation influence responses of visual system and must be adjusted according to the age and specific function which is going to be investigated...
August 10, 2017: Brain & Development
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