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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527003/the-effects-of-kanizsa-contours-on-temporal-integration-and-attention-in-rapid-serial-visual-presentation
#1
Aytaç Karabay, Elkan G Akyürek
Performance in rapid serial visual presentation tasks has been shown to depend on the temporal integration of target stimuli when they are presented in direct succession. Temporal target integration produces a single, combined representation of visually compatible stimuli, which is comparatively easy to identify. It is currently unknown to what extent target compatibility affects this perceptual behavior, because it has not been studied systematically to date. In the present study, the effects of compatibility on temporal integration and attention were investigated by manipulating the Gestalt properties of target features...
May 19, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526945/tri-scan-a-three-stage-color-enhancement-tool-for-endoscopic-images
#2
Mohammad S Imtiaz, Shahed K Mohammed, Farah Deeba, Khan A Wahid
Modern endoscopes play a significant role in diagnosing various gastrointestinal (GI) tract related diseases where the visual quality of endoscopic images helps improving the diagnosis. This article presents an image enhancement method for color endoscopic images that consists of three stages, and hence termed as "Tri-scan" enhancement: (1) tissue and surface enhancement: a modified linear unsharp masking is used to sharpen the surface and edges of tissue and vascular characteristics; (2) mucosa layer enhancement: an adaptive sigmoid function is employed on the R plane of the image to highlight micro-vessels of the superficial layers of the mucosa and submucosa; and (3) color tone enhancement: the pixels are uniformly distributed to create an enhanced color effect to highlight the subtle micro-vessels, mucosa and tissue characteristics...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526645/carotid-falciform-optic-neuropathy-microsurgical-treatment
#3
M Neil Woodall, Cargill H Alleyne
BACKGROUND: Several recent reports have implicated vascular ectasia and vessel contact with dysfunction of the visual apparatus. A subset of patients with pre-chiasmatic visual deterioration have an ectatic internal carotid artery (ICA) that displaces and flattens the optic nerve (ON) rostrally as the ON exits the skull base. We will offer a proposed pathophysiological mechanism and describe a straightforward surgical technique for dealing with this interesting problem. METHODS: Via an ipsilateral pterional craniotomy, the bony roof of the optic canal is removed...
May 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#4
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526563/live-cell-imaging-and-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-in-hcv-infected-cells
#5
Inbar Nevo-Yassaf, Marcos Lovelle, Yaacov Nahmias, Koret Hirschberg, Ella H Sklan
Lipid droplets (LDs) are regulated neutral lipid storage organelles having a central role in numerous cellular processes as well as in various pathologies such as metabolic disorders, immune responses and during pathogen infection. Several viruses were found to use the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs as the site for replication and assembly. Due to the growing significance of LDs, extensive efforts are made to study the mechanism and the dynamics of their formation and life history and how are these diverted or modified by pathogens...
May 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526196/use-of-a-numerical-simulation-approach-to-improve-the-estimation-of-air-water-exchange-fluxes-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-a-coastal-zone
#6
I-Chien Lai, Chon-Lin Lee, Fung-Chi Ko, Ju-Chieh Lin, Hu-Ching Huang, Ruei-Feng Shiu
The air-water exchange is important for determining the transport, fate, and chemical loading of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems. Investigations of PAH air-water exchange are mostly based on observational data obtained using complicated field sampling processes. This study proposes a new approach to improve the estimation of long-term PAH air-water exchange fluxes by using a multivariate regression model to simulate hourly gaseous PAH concentrations. Model performance analysis and the benefits from this approach indicate its effectiveness at improving the flux estimations and at decreasing the field sampling difficulty...
May 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526015/construction-and-implications-of-structural-equation-modeling-network-for-pediatric-cataract-a-data-mining-research-of-rare-diseases
#7
Erping Long, Shuangjuan Xu, Zhenzhen Liu, Xiaohang Wu, Xiayin Zhang, Jinghui Wang, Wangting Li, Runzhong Liu, Zicong Chen, Kexin Chen, Tongyong Yu, Dongxuan Wu, Xutu Zhao, Jingjing Chen, Zhuoling Lin, Qianzhong Cao, Duoru Lin, Xiaoyan Li, Jingheng Cai, Haotian Lin
BACKGROUND: The majority of rare diseases are complex diseases caused by a combination of multiple morbigenous factors. However, uncovering the complex etiology and pathogenesis of rare diseases is difficult due to limited clinical resources and conventional statistical methods. This study aims to investigate the interrelationship and the effectiveness of potential factors of pediatric cataract, for the exploration of data mining strategy in the scenarios of rare diseases. METHODS: We established a pilot rare disease specialized care center to systematically record all information and the entire treatment process of pediatric cataract patients...
May 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525955/imaging-and-manipulating-energy-transfer-among-quantum-dots-at-individual-dot-resolution
#8
Duc A Nguyen, Huy A Nguyen, Joseph W Lyding, Martin Gruebele
Many processes of interest in quantum dots involve charge or energy transfer from one dot to another. Energy transfer in films of quantum dots as well as between linked quantum dots has been demonstrated by luminescence shift, and the ultrafast time-dependence of energy transfer processes has been resolved. Bandgap variation among dots (energy disorder) and dot separation are known to play an important role in how energy diffuses. Thus it would be very useful if energy transfer could be visualized directly on a dot-by-dot basis among small clusters or within films of quantum dots...
May 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525851/a-fully-integrated-distance-readout-elisa-chip-for-point-of-care-testing-with-sample-in-answer-out-capability
#9
Dan Liu, Xingrui Li, Junkai Zhou, Shibo Liu, Tian Tian, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Leiji Zhou, Tianhai Ji, Chaoyong Yang
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular laboratory technique for detection of disease-specific protein biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. However, ELISA requires labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures with skilled operators and spectroscopic instrumentation. Simplification of the procedures and miniaturization of the devices are crucial for ELISA-based point-of-care (POC) testing in resource-limited settings. Here, we present a fully integrated, instrument-free, low-cost and portable POC platform which integrates the process of ELISA and the distance readout into a single microfluidic chip...
May 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525568/scenery-a-web-application-for-causal-network-reconstruction-from-cytometry-data
#10
Georgios Papoutsoglou, Giorgos Athineou, Vincenzo Lagani, Iordanis Xanthopoulos, Angelika Schmidt, Szabolcs Éliás, Jesper Tegnér, Ioannis Tsamardinos
Flow and mass cytometry technologies can probe proteins as biological markers in thousands of individual cells simultaneously, providing unprecedented opportunities for reconstructing networks of protein interactions through machine learning algorithms. The network reconstruction (NR) problem has been well-studied by the machine learning community. However, the potentials of available methods remain largely unknown to the cytometry community, mainly due to their intrinsic complexity and the lack of comprehensive, powerful and easy-to-use NR software implementations specific for cytometry data...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525556/transcriptome-of-the-gsh-depleted-lens-reveals-changes-in-detoxification-and-emt-signaling-genes-transport-systems-and-lipid-homeostasis
#11
Jeremy A Whitson, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Jenny Chen, Zongbo Wei, Vincent M Monnier, Xingjun Fan
Purpose: To understand the effects of glutathione (GSH)-deficiency on genetic processes that regulate lens homeostasis and prevent cataractogenesis. Methods: The transcriptome of lens epithelia and fiber cells was obtained from C57BL/6 LEGSKO (lens GSH-synthesis knockout) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-treated LEGSKO mice and compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice using RNA-Seq. Transcriptomic data were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot/ELISA on a subset of genes...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525260/three-dimensional-visualization-and-characterization-of-polymeric-self-assemblies-by-transmission-electron-microtomography
#12
Hiroshi Jinnai, Takeshi Higuchi, Xiaodong Zhuge, Akihito Kumamoto, Kees Joost Batenburg, Yuichi Ikuhara
Self-assembling structures and their dynamical processes in polymeric systems have been investigated using three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM). Block copolymers (BCPs) self-assemble into nanoscale periodic structures called microphase-separated structures, a deep understanding of which is important for creating nanomaterials with superior physical properties, such as high-performance membranes with well-defined pore size and high-density data storage media. Because microphase-separated structures have become increasingly complicated with advances in precision polymerization, characterizing these complex morphologies is becoming increasingly difficult...
May 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525258/bioavailability-of-soil-sorbed-tetracycline-to-escherichia-coli-under-unsaturated-conditions
#13
Zeyou Chen, Wei Zhang, Gang Wang, Yingjie Zhang, Yanzheng Gao, Stephen A Boyd, Brian J Teppen, James M Tiedje, Dongqiang Zhu, Hui Li
Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic antibiotics in soils are partly responsible for the proliferation of bacterial antibiotic resistance. However, little is known about how soil-sorbed antibiotics exert selective pressure on bacteria in unsaturated soils. This study investigated the bioavailability of tetracycline sorbed on three soils (Webster clay loam, Capac sandy clay loam, and Oshtemo loamy sand) to a fluorescent Escherichia coli bioreporter under unsaturated conditions using agar diffusion assay, microscopic visualization, and model simulation...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524846/concerted-regulation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-basement-membrane-and-barrier-function-by-angiocrine-factors
#14
Ignacio Benedicto, Guillermo L Lehmann, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Rohan Bareja, Olivier Elemento, Zelda Salfati, Nazia M Alam, Glen T Prusky, Pierre Llanos, Sina Y Rabbany, Arvydas Maminishkis, Sheldon S Miller, Shahin Rafii, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan
The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524836/effect-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-expression-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-in-a-human-placental-trophoblast-cell-line
#15
Hong-Yu Duan, Dan Ma, Kai-Yu Zhou, Tao Wang, Yi Zhang, Yi-Fei Li, Jin-Lin Wu, Yi-Min Hua, Chuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Placental multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), encoded by ABCC2 gene in human, plays a significant role in regulating drugs' transplacental transfer rates. Studies on placental MRP2 regulation could provide more therapeutic targets for individualized and safe pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. Currently, the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating placental drug transporters are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition on MRP2 expression in the placental trophoblast cell line and to explore whether HDAC1/2/3 are preliminarily involved in this process...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524772/effects-of-stereoscopic-disparity-on-early-erp-components-during-classification-of-three-dimensional-objects
#16
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524151/-etiopathogenesis-of-ocular-ischemic-syndrome
#17
D К Makhkamova
Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is a collection of symptoms of carotid and ophthalmic artery disease of common genesis accompanied by ischemia of eyeball membranes. Specifically, the intraocular blood flow becomes impaired due to inflow reduction or arrest, while the venous outflow remains patent. Causes of OIS include arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, aortoarteritis and other vascular diseases. Clinical features depend on the extent, nature, and site of vascular involvement as well as the concurrent pathology...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524135/-selective-symptomatic-therapy-of-macular-edema-due-to-occlusive-processes-in-retinal-venous-system
#18
M M Bikbov, R R Fayzrakhmanov, T R Gil'manshin
AIM: to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone intravitreal implant on the functional state of the eye in macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included two groups of patients: group 1 (control group) - 8 patients (16 eyes) without ocular pathology and group 2 (study group) - 8 patients (8 eyes) with macular edema on the background of newly diagnosed thrombosis of the central retinal vein. All the patients from the study group underwent insertion of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant - Ozurdex...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523503/hierarchical-cluster-analysis-to-aid-diagnostic-image-data-visualization-of-ms-and-other-medical-imaging-modalities
#19
Arul N Selvan, Laura M Cole, Lynne Spackman, Sarah Naylor, Chris Wright
Perceiving abnormal regions in the images of different medical modalities plays a crucial role in diagnosis and subsequent treatment planning. In medical images to visually perceive abnormalities' extent and boundaries requires substantial experience. Consequently, manually drawn region of interest (ROI) to outline boundaries of abnormalities suffers from limitations of human perception leading to inter-observer variability. As an alternative to human drawn ROI, it is proposed the use of a computer-based segmentation algorithm to segment digital medical image data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523496/imaging-ms-of-rodent-ocular-tissues-and-the-optic-nerve
#20
David M G Anderson, Wendi Lambert, David J Calkins, Zsolt Ablonczy, Rosalie K Crouch, Richard M Caprioli, Kevin L Schey
The visual system is comprised of many specialized cell types that are essential for relaying sensory information about an animal's surroundings to the brain. The cells present in ocular tissue are notoriously delicate, making it particularly challenging to section thin slices of unfixed tissue. Maintaining the morphology of the native tissue is crucial for accurate observations by either conventional staining techniques or in this instance matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI IMS) or imaging using mass spectrometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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