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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086977/people-living-with-hiv-on-art-have-accurate-perception-of-lipodystrophy-signs-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Paulo R Alencastro, Nemora T Barcellos, Fernando H Wolff, Maria Letícia R Ikeda, Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol, Ajácio B M Brandão, Sandra C Fuchs
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of lipodystrophy ranges from 31 to 65%, depending on the criteria adopted for diagnosis. The usual methods applied in the diagnosis vary from self-perception, medical examination, skinfolds measurements, or even imaging assessment for confirmation of fat distribution changes. Although several methods have been developed, there is no gold standard for characterization of LA and LH, or mixed forms. This study aimed to compare self-reported signs of lipodystrophy with objective measures by skinfolds and circumferences, and to evaluate the prevalence of lipoatrophy (LA) and lipohypertrophy (LH) among subjects living with HIV/AIDS on ART...
January 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080090/we-are-sorry-they-don-t-care-misinterpretation-of-facial-embarrassment-displays-in-arab-white-intergroup-contexts
#2
Pum Kommattam, Kai J Jonas, Agneta H Fischer
Embarrassment displays show others that one is aware of one's own misbehavior and willing to make up for it. The facial actions of embarrassment, however, are partly similar to those of disinterest, which has an opposite function, signaling that one is not concerned about one's self in relation to others. In the context of negative intergroup relations, embarrassment displays of outgroup members may therefore be misinterpreted as disinterest. In the present research, the authors predicted that Whites would perceive Arab expressions of embarrassment more as disinterest, but embarrassment displays of Whites more as embarrassment...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079157/feeling-touched-emotional-modulation-of-somatosensory-potentials-to-interpersonal-touch
#3
N Ravaja, V Harjunen, I Ahmed, G Jacucci, M M Spapé
Although the previous studies have shown that an emotional context may alter touch processing, it is not clear how visual contextual information modulates the sensory signals, and at what levels does this modulation take place. Therefore, we investigated how a toucher's emotional expressions (anger, happiness, fear, and sadness) modulate touchee's somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) in different temporal ranges. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation appearing to originate from expressive characters in virtual reality...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070789/priming-facial-gender-and-emotional-valence-the-influence-of-spatial-frequency-on-face-perception-in-asd
#4
Steven Vanmarcke, Johan Wagemans
Adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed two priming experiments in which they implicitly processed a prime stimulus, containing high and/or low spatial frequency information, and then explicitly categorized a target face either as male/female (gender task) or as positive/negative (Valence task). Adolescents with ASD made more categorization errors than typically developing adolescents. They also showed an age-dependent improvement in categorization speed and had more difficulties with categorizing facial expressions than gender...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069095/deficits-in-social-cognition-an-unveiled-signature-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Moussa A Chalah, Samar S Ayache
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, representing the primary cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults. Cognitive dysfunction can affect patients at any time during the disease process and might alter the six core functional domains. Social cognition is a multi-component construct that includes the theory of mind, empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065957/the-effect-of-educational-internships-on-medical-students-perceptions-of-plastic-surgery
#6
Andac Aykan, Engin Kurt, Sedat Avsar, Muhitdin Eski, Serdar Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery educational internships on medical students' perceptions of the scope of plastic surgery. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gulhane Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey, from 2012 to 2013, and comprised 4th-, 5th- and 6th-year medical students. Students were given a questionnaire consisting of 28 questions related to maxillofacial and upper and lower extremity medical conditions, and skin, aesthetic and congenital anomalies...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063978/attitudes-about-race-predict-individual-differences-in-face-adaptation-aftereffects
#7
Sarah L Elliott, Kelly Chu, Jill Coleman
This study examined whether category boundaries between Black and White faces relate to individual attitudes about race. Fifty-seven (20 Black, 37 White) participants completed measures of explicit racism, implicit racism, collective self-esteem (CSE), and racial centrality. Category boundaries between Black and White faces were measured in three separate conditions: following adaptation to (1) a neutral gray background, a sequence of (2) Black or (3) White faces. Two additional conditions measured category boundaries for facial distortion to investigate whether attitudes relate to mechanisms of racial identity alone, or to more global mechanisms of face perception...
January 4, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057579/the-center-of-attention-metamers-sensitivity-and-bias-in-the-emergent-perception-of-gaze
#8
Timothy D Sweeny, David Whitney
A person's gaze reveals much about their focus of attention and intentions. Sensitive perception of gaze is thus highly relevant for social interaction, especially when it is directed toward the viewer. Yet observers also tend to overestimate the likelihood that gaze is directed toward them. How might the visual system balance these competing goals, maximizing sensitivity for discriminating gazes that are relatively direct, while at the same time allowing many gazes to appear as if they look toward the viewer? Perceiving gaze is an emergent visual process that involves integrating information from the eyes with the rotation of the head...
January 10, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056121/comparing-patient-casual-observer-and-expert-perception-of-permanent-unilateral-facial-paralysis
#9
Jacob K Dey, Lisa E Ishii, Jason C Nellis, Kofi D O Boahene, Patrick J Byrne, Masaru Ishii
Importance: Differences in perception of facial paralysis among patients, casual observers, and experts may have implications for outcomes research and patient care. Objective: To compare multiple domains of casual observer and expert perception with the actual experience of patients with permanent unilateral facial paralysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a prospective cohort study conducted at an academic tertiary referral center...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054912/the-effect-of-conventional-and-transparent-surgical-masks-on-speech-understanding-in-individuals-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#10
Samuel R Atcherson, Lisa Lucks Mendel, Wesley J Baltimore, Chhayakanta Patro, Sungmin Lee, Monique Pousson, M Joshua Spann
BACKGROUND: It is generally well known that speech perception is often improved with integrated audiovisual input whether in quiet or in noise. In many health-care environments, however, conventional surgical masks block visual access to the mouth and obscure other potential facial cues. In addition, these environments can be noisy. Although these masks may not alter the acoustic properties, the presence of noise in addition to the lack of visual input can have a deleterious effect on speech understanding...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052103/bmi-and-whr-are-reflected-in-female-facial-shape-and-texture-a-geometric-morphometric-image-analysis
#11
Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050503/the-oro-facial-investment-scale-ofis-a-novel-outcomes-and-evaluation-measure-for-self-appraised-oro-facial-behavioural-and-aesthetic-constructs-among-professional-healthcare-students-of-belagavi-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Vaibhav Kumar, Anil V Ankola, Sagar G Jalihal
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that self perceived dental appearance is an important determinant in the decision to seek treatment. AIM: The aim of the present study was to assess the self-perceived oral health knowledge, attitude, practice, behaviour and perception among 18-20 year old students of professional healthcare institutions in Belagavi city, Karnataka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The novel 21 item Oro-Facial Investment Scale (OFIS) formulated for this study was distributed to 600 students of professional healthcare institutions (200 each from Medical, Physiotherapy and Ayurveda specialties respectively)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040801/the-influence-of-music-on-facial-emotion-recognition-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-children
#13
Laura S Brown
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle with social skills, including the ability to perceive emotions based on facial expressions. Research evidence suggests that many individuals with ASD can perceive emotion in music. Examining whether music can be used to enhance recognition of facial emotion by children with ASD would inform development of music therapy interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of music with a strong emotional valance (happy; sad) on children with ASD's ability to label emotions depicted in facial photographs, and their response time...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033739/facial-redness-expression-and-masculinity-influence-perceptions-of-anger-and-health
#14
Steven G Young, Christopher A Thorstenson, Adam D Pazda
Past research has found that skin colouration, particularly facial redness, influences the perceived health and emotional state of target individuals. In the current work, we explore several extensions of this past research. In Experiment 1, we manipulated facial redness incrementally on neutral and angry faces and had participants rate each face for anger and health. Different red effects emerged, as perceived anger increased in a linear manner as facial redness increased. Health ratings instead showed a curvilinear trend, as both extreme paleness and redness were rated as less healthy than moderate levels of red...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027654/self-resemblance-and-social-rejection
#15
Carly A Parsons, Jill A Jacobson, D B Krupp
Humans perceive and treat self-resembling others in ways that suggest that self-resemblance is a cue of kinship. However, we know little about how individuals respond to treatment by self-resembling others. Here we approach this problem by connecting facial self-resemblance to social rejection. Given that individuals should expect to cooperate with kin, we hypothesized that (1) social inclusion by perceived kin should elicit lesser feelings of rejection and (2) social exclusion by perceived kin should elicit greater feelings of rejection relative to inclusion or exclusion, respectively, by nonkin...
October 2016: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006077/serial-dependence-in-the-perception-of-attractiveness
#16
Ye Xia, Allison Yamanashi Leib, David Whitney
The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006066/serial-dependence-promotes-object-stability-during-occlusion
#17
Alina Liberman, Kathy Zhang, David Whitney
Object identities somehow appear stable and continuous over time despite eye movements, disruptions in visibility, and constantly changing visual input. Recent results have demonstrated that the perception of orientation, numerosity, and facial identity is systematically biased (i.e., pulled) toward visual input from the recent past. The spatial region over which current orientations or face identities are pulled by previous orientations or identities, respectively, is known as the continuity field, which is temporally tuned over the past several seconds (Fischer & Whitney, 2014)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004359/human-biological-and-nonbiological-point-light-movements-creation-and-validation-of-the-dataset
#18
Olivia Morgan Lapenta, Ana Paula Xavier, Sônia Cavalcanti Côrrea, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
Human action perception is so powerful that people can identify movement efficiently in the absence of pictorial information, such as in point-light displays. Interest is growing in this type of stimulus for research in neuroscience. This interest stems from the advantage of separating the component of pure human action kinematics from other pictorial information, such as facial expression and muscle contraction. Although several groups have previously developed datasets of human point-light actions, due to the lack of datasets composed of daily actions with short durations, we developed 20 biological and 40 control (scrambled) point-light movements by using the technique of recording people wearing reflector patches...
December 21, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002985/on-the-malleability-of-the-meaning-of-contexts-the-influence-of-another-person-s-emotion-expressions-on-situation-perception
#19
Ursula Hess, Shlomo Hareli
Research on the relationship between context and facial expressions generally assumes a unidirectional effect of context on expressions. However, according to the model of the meaning of emotion expressions in context (MEEC) the effect should be bidirectional. The present research tested the effect of emotion expression on the interpretation of scenes. A total of 380 participants either (a) rated facial expressions with regard to the likely appraisal of the eliciting situation by the emoter, (b) appraised the scenes alone or (c) appraised scenes shown together with the expressions they supposedly elicited...
December 21, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968940/obsession-with-perfection-body-dysmorphia
#20
Neelam A Vashi
The deeply rooted fascination with beauty penetrates society worldwide. The indulgence to look and feel beautiful pervades all ages, genders, and nationalities, with research conferring a remarkable tendency to agree on measures of attractiveness among these disparate groups. Research has found that beautiful people do, in fact, receive more desirable outcomes in life and job satisfaction, family formation, and overall happiness. Humans have a tendency to respond to attractive persons more favorably, driving many patients to our clinics...
November 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
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