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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535409/mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-diminishes-functional-connectivity-during-emotion-perception
#1
Bettina K Steiger, Angela M Muller, Esther Spirig, Gianina Toller, Hennric Jokeit
OBJECTIVES: Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions. Correspondingly, imaging studies showed decreased activity of the amygdala and cortical face processing regions in response to emotional faces. However, functional connectivity among regions involved in emotion perception has not been studied so far. METHODS: To address this, we examined intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) modulated by the perception of dynamic fearful faces among the amygdala and limbic, frontal, temporal and brainstem regions...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#2
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532288/effects-of-happy-and-sad-facial-expressions-on-the-perception-of-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Giovanna Mioni, Simon Grondin, Lucia Meligrana, Francesco Perini, Luigi Bartolomei, Franca Stablum
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by deterioration of the dopaminergic system. Previous studies have demonstrated temporal as well as emotional facial recognition impairment in PD patients. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that emotional facial expressions alter temporal judgments. In the present study, we investigate the magnitude of temporal distortions caused by the presentation of emotional facial expressions (happiness, sadness, and neutral) in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and controls...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531312/taste-elicited-activity-in-facial-muscle-regions-in-5-8-week-old-infants
#4
Jessica E Armstrong, David G Laing, Anthony L Jinks
The state of development of the sense of taste in humans during the first few months of life is only partially understood. Since taste plays a critical role in the feeding and nutrition of infants a better understanding of taste development during early life is required. Currently, information about the sense of taste in pre-verbal infants is obtained by analysis of videotaped facial expressions using the Baby FACS coding system. A potentially more objective faster procedure for assessing facial expressions not investigated in infants is electromyography (EMG)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529420/long-pulsed-nd-yag-laser-and-intense-pulse-light-755-nm-for-idiopathic-facial-hirsutism-a-comparative-study
#5
Arpit Shrimal, Souvik Sardar, Soumyajit Roychoudhury, Somenath Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Hirsutism means excessive terminal hair growth in a female in male pattern distribution. Perception of hirsutism is subjective. Permanent laser hair reduction is a slow process taking many sessions and tracking of improvement parameters is tedious. Hence, a lot of confusion still exists regarding the type of laser most beneficial for treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety profile of long-pulsed Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm) and intense pulse light (IPL)-755 nm in management of idiopathic facial hirsutism...
January 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528114/postoperative-outcomes-of-two-and-three-dimensional-planning-in-orthognathic-surgery-a-comparative-study
#6
Ting-Yu Wu, Hsiu-Hsia Lin, Lun-Jou Lo, Cheng-Ting Ho
OBJECTIVE: Compared with conventional two-dimensional (2D) planning, three-dimensional (3D) planning in orthognathic surgery yields more accurate anatomical information and enables the precise positioning of maxillary and mandibular segments, particularly for patients with facial asymmetry. Accordingly, surgical outcomes achieved using 3D planning should be superior. This study determined the differences between the 2D and 3D planning techniques by comparing their surgical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients who underwent surgery following the traditional 2D planning technique were classified into the 2D planning group...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526633/facial-skin-rejuvenation-by-autologous-dermal-microfat-transfer-in-photoaged-patients-clinical-evaluation-and-skin-surface-digital-profilometry-analysis
#7
Angelo Trivisonno, Alfredo Rossi, Massimo Monti, Donato Di Nunno, Christophe Desouches, Claudio Cannistra, Gabriele Toietta
Cumulative long-term exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation promotes premature skin aging characterized by wrinkle formation and reduced skin elasticity. In this study, we assessed whether microfat transfer could improve dermal and subcutaneous tissue thickness loss associated with photoaging. Twenty-one patients affected by facial photoaging (photodamage grade II-IV; age range 35-62 years; 19 females, 2 males; all of Caucasian origin) were treated using minimally invasive autologous dermal white fat transfer harvested with a recently designed microcannula...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525805/typical-integration-of-emotion-cues-from-bodies-and-faces-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Rebecca Brewer, Federica Biotti, Geoffrey Bird, Richard Cook
Contextual cues derived from body postures bias how typical observers categorize facial emotion; the same facial expression may be perceived as anger or disgust when aligned with angry and disgusted body postures. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are thought to have difficulties integrating information from disparate visual regions to form unitary percepts, and may be less susceptible to visual illusions induced by context. The current study investigated whether individuals with ASD exhibit diminished integration of emotion cues extracted from faces and bodies...
May 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501454/masseteric-nerve-for-gracilis-muscle-re-innervation-in-unilateral-facial-palsy-impact-on-quality-of-life
#9
B Bianchi, A Ferri, V Poddi, M Bergonzani, G Pedrazzi, S Ferrari, E Sesenna
BACKGROUND: Unilateral established or congenital facial palsies are usually treated with neuromuscular transplantation to reanimate the impaired side of the face. One of the most debated points is the motor nerve to choose for the reinnervation of the transplant. Contra-lateral healthy facial nerve is usually preferred, but in selected cases motor nerve to masseter is considered a valuable option. However only a few clinical studies focused on quality of life in this subset of patients are available in literature...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496421/the-positivity-bias-phenomenon-in-face-perception-given-different-information-on-ability
#10
Sasa Zhao, Yanhui Xiang, Jiushu Xie, Yanyan Ye, Tianfeng Li, Lei Mo
The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484415/adult-attachment-styles-associated-with-brain-activity-in-response-to-infant-faces-in-nulliparous-women-an-event-related-potentials-study
#11
Yuanxiao Ma, Guangming Ran, Xu Chen, Haijing Ma, Na Hu
Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483974/a-neural-mechanism-of-social-categorization
#12
Ryan M Stolier, Jonathan B Freeman
Humans readily sort one another into multiple social categories from mere facial features. However, the facial features used to do so are not always clear-cut, as they can be associated with opponent categories (e.g., feminine male face). Recently, computational models and behavioral studies have provided indirect evidence that categorizing such faces is accomplished through dynamic competition between parallel, co-activated social categories that resolve into a stable categorical percept. Using a novel paradigm combining fMRI with real-time hand-tracking, the present study examined how the brain translates diverse social cues into categorical percepts...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472693/salivary-alpha-amylase-and-noradrenaline-responses-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-in-humans
#13
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Lisa Mittmann, Lars Möller, Harald Engler, Manfred Schedlowski
Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a digestive enzyme mainly responsible for the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen in the oral cavity. Since the secretion of sAA is largely under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, sAA activity is also considered to be a non-invasive marker of sympathetic activation. However, the direct association between sAA activity and other sympathetic parameters remains questionable. Therefore, we employed the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation test to pharmacologically activate the sympathetic nervous system and to analyze plasma noradrenaline response together with sAA activity...
May 1, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470036/choosing-face-the-curse-of-self-in-profile-image-selection
#14
David White, Clare A M Sutherland, Amy L Burton
People draw automatic social inferences from photos of unfamiliar faces and these first impressions are associated with important real-world outcomes. Here we examine the effect of selecting online profile images on first impressions. We model the process of profile image selection by asking participants to indicate the likelihood that images of their own face ("self-selection") and of an unfamiliar face ("other-selection") would be used as profile images on key social networking sites. Across two large Internet-based studies (n = 610), in line with predictions, image selections accentuated favorable social impressions and these impressions were aligned to the social context of the networking sites...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468133/an-analysis-of-independent-variables-affecting-surgical-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-repair-of-maxillofacial-trauma-an-american-college-of-surgeons-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-study
#15
Stephanie M Cohen, Brian E Rosett, David A Shifrin
INTRODUCTION: Facial fractures, from straightforward closed nasal reductions to complex pan facial fractures, are commonly encountered in the Plastic Surgical community. However, very little has been discussed in the literature regarding the outcomes of facial fractures relating to contributing factors. Our aim was to evaluate a battery of independent variables in order to identify, which, if any, factors correlate with suboptimal outcomes in patients who have undergone facial fracture surgery...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453203/adolescents-socio-motivational-relationships-with-teachers-amygdala-response-to-teacher-s-negative-facial-expressions-and-test-anxiety
#16
Diana Raufelder, Frances Hoferichter, Lydia Romund, Sabrina Golde, Robert C Lorenz, Anne Beck
The amygdala is essential for processing emotions, including the processing of aversive faces. The aim of this multimethodological study was to relate the amygdala reactivity of students (N = 88) toward teachers' fearful and angry faces, to students' relationship with their teachers. Furthermore, students' neural responses during the perception of teachers' faces were tested as predictors of test anxiety (controlling for neuroticism as a potential trait anxiety effect). Multiple regression analysis revealed that students reporting high-quality teacher-student relationships showed stronger amygdala activity toward fearful faces, which was related to worry...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448667/association-between-facial-rejuvenation-and-observer-ratings-of-youth-attractiveness-success-and-health
#17
Kristin L Bater, Lisa E Ishii, Ira D Papel, Theda C Kontis, Patrick J Byrne, Kofi D O Boahene, Jason C Nellis, Masaru Ishii
Importance: Surgical procedures for the aging face-including face-lift, blepharoplasty, and brow-lift-consistently rank among the most popular cosmetic services sought by patients. Although these surgical procedures are broadly classified as procedures that restore a youthful appearance, they may improve societal perceptions of attractiveness, success, and health, conferring an even larger social benefit than just restoring a youthful appearance to the face. Objectives: To determine if face-lift and upper facial rejuvenation surgery improve observer ratings of age, attractiveness, success, and health and to quantify the effect of facial rejuvenation surgery on each individual domain...
April 27, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438673/infants-and-adults-have-similar-regional-functional-brain-organization-for-the-perception-of-emotions
#18
N Rotem-Kohavi, T F Oberlander, N Virji-Babul
An infant's ability to perceive emotional facial expressions is critical for developing social skills. Infants are tuned to faces from early in life, however the functional organization of the brain that supports the processing of emotional faces in infants is still not well understood. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) brain responses in 8-10 month old infants and adults and applied graph theory analysis on the functional connections to compare the network organization at the global and the regional levels underlying the perception of negative and positive dynamic facial expressions (happiness and sadness)...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433401/relaxed-open-mouth-reciprocity-favours-playful-contacts-in-south-american-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens
#19
Clara Llamazares-Martín, Chiara Scopa, Federico Guillén-Salazar, Elisabetta Palagi
Fine-tuning communication is well documented in mammalian social play which relies on a large variety of specific and non-specific signals. Facial expressions are one of the most frequent patterns in play communication. The reciprocity of facial signals expressed by the players provides information on their reciprocal attentional state and on the correct perception/decoding of the signal itself. Here, for the first time, we explored the Relaxed Open Mouth (ROM), a widespread playful facial expression among mammals, in the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432314/the-effect-of-acute-social-stress-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expression-of-emotions
#20
Camille Daudelin-Peltier, Hélène Forget, Caroline Blais, Andréa Deschênes, Daniel Fiset
This study investigates the effect of acute social stress on the recognition of facial expression of emotions in healthy young men. Participants underwent both a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST-G) and a control condition. Then, they performed a homemade version of the facial expressions megamix. All six basic emotions were included in the task. First, our results show a systematic increase in the intensity threshold for disgust following stress, meaning that the participants' performance with this emotion was impaired...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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