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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646269/the-role-of-visual-experience-in-the-production-of-emotional-facial-expressions-by-blind-people-a-review
#1
Dannyelle Valente, Anne Theurel, Edouard Gentaz
Facial expressions of emotion are nonverbal behaviors that allow us to interact efficiently in social life and respond to events affecting our welfare. This article reviews 21 studies, published between 1932 and 2015, examining the production of facial expressions of emotion by blind people. It particularly discusses the impact of visual experience on the development of this behavior from birth to adulthood. After a discussion of three methodological considerations, the review of studies reveals that blind subjects demonstrate differing capacities for producing spontaneous expressions and voluntarily posed expressions...
June 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642283/selective-inhibition-of-trigeminovascular-neurons-by-fremanezumab-a-humanized-monoclonal-anti-cgrp-antibody
#2
Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Rodrigo Noseda, Rony Nir, Aaron Schain, Jennifer Stratton, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
A large body of evidence supports an important role for CGRP in migraine pathophysiology. This evidence gave rise to a global effort to develop a new generation of therapeutics that inhibit the interaction of CGRP with its receptor in migraineurs. Recently, a new class of such drugs, humanized monoclonal anti-CGRP antibodies (CGRP-mAb) were found to be effective in reducing the frequency of migraine. The purpose of this study was to better understand how the CGRP-mAb fremanezumab (TEV-48125) modulates meningeal sensory pathways...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628681/changes-in-self-perceptions-of-photoaging-severity-and-skin-cancer-risk-after-objective-facial-skin-quality-analysis
#3
Yoon-Soo Cindy Bae, Edward Jong Bae, Joyce H Wang, Barbara A Gilchrest
<p>Background: Despite public education efforts, many people at risk for skin cancer do not practice safe sun behaviors.</p> <p>Objective: To determine whether machine-based evaluation of UV-induced alterations (VISIA scan) changes self-assessment of facial photoaging, skin cancer risk, and willingness to improve sun protective habits. In addition, to determine whether VISIA scan analysis reveals differences between those with versus without a history of skin cancer, men versus women, those older than 50 versus less than 50 years of age, and Fitzpatrick skin types I-III versus IV-VI...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627901/cone-of-gaze-in-positive-schizotypy-relationship-to-referential-thinking-and-social-functioning
#4
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#5
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624640/neural-correlates-of-preserved-facial-affect-perception-in-high-functioning-schizophrenia
#6
Tatiana M Karpouzian, Matthew P Schroeder, Samantha V Abram, Harry Wanar, Eva C Alden, Shaun M Eack, John G Csernansky, Matthew J Smith
Individuals with 'high functioning' schizophrenia (HF-SCZ) may have preserved facial affect perception (FAP) compared to individuals with 'low functioning' schizophrenia (LF-SCZ). The neural mechanisms supporting preserved FAP in HF-SCZ have yet to be evaluated. This study compared brain activation during FAP performance in HF-SCZ, LF-SCZ, and controls. Results demonstrated greater activation in the precuneus in CON compared to both SCZ groups, while HF-SCZ activated this region intermediate to controls and LF-SCZ...
June 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#7
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616858/intensity-dependence-in-high-level-facial-expression-adaptation-aftereffect
#8
Sang Wook Hong, K Lira Yoon
Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions...
June 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607665/expression-dependence-in-the-perception-of-facial-identity
#9
Annabelle S Redfern, Christopher P Benton
We recognise familiar faces irrespective of their expression. This ability, crucial for social interactions, is a fundamental feature of face perception. We ask whether this constancy of facial identity may be compromised by changes in expression. This, in turn, addresses the issue of whether facial identity and expression are processed separately or interact. Using an identification task, participants learned the identities of two actors from naturalistic (so-called ambient) face images taken from movies. Training was either with neutral images or their expressive counterparts, perceived expressiveness having been determined experimentally...
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604042/caution-follows-fear-evidence-from-hierarchical-drift-diffusion-modelling
#10
Jason Tipples
Fearful expressions are thought to warn of potential threat (Davis et al., 2011; Whalen, 1998) and therefore, 1 response to seeing fear might be to react cautiously. Although previous studies have tested for an effect of seeing fear on visual perception, they have not tested for increased decision making caution. Here, I applied hierarchical drift diffusion modeling (Vandekerckhove, Tuerlinckx, & Lee, 2011; Wiecki, Sofer, & Frank, 2013) to the results of 4 experiments designed to test the idea that seeing facial expressions both impairs visual perception (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009) and leads to changes in decision making caution...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596463/-prosopometamorphopsia
#11
Raita Kikuchi, Shun Akaike
Facial perception relies on both configural processing and analytical processing. Seventeen years ago, Haxby and colleagues proposed an influential neural model in which a core system and an extended system were involved in facial processing. Herein, first analyze configural processing on the basis of the Haxby model. We review previous findings from published electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and describe previously reported clinical cases, and finally we discuss our own clinical cases an findings...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594281/are-you-smiling-or-have-i-seen-you-before-familiarity-makes-faces-look-happier
#12
Evan W Carr, Timothy F Brady, Piotr Winkielman
It is clear that unreinforced repetition (familiarization) influences affective responses to social stimuli, but its effects on the perception of facial emotion are unknown. Reporting the results of two experiments, we show for the first time that repeated exposure enhances the perceived happiness of facial expressions. In Experiment 1, using a paradigm in which subjects' responses were orthogonal to happiness in order to avoid response biases, we found that faces of individuals who had previously been shown were deemed happier than novel faces...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588465/electrophysiological-correlates-of-subliminal-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-autistic-traits-a-backward-masking-study
#13
Svjetlana Vukusic, Joseph Ciorciari, David P Crewther
People with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show difficulty in social communication, especially in the rapid assessment of emotion in faces. This study examined the processing of emotional faces in typically developing adults with high and low levels of autistic traits (measured using the Autism Spectrum Quotient-AQ). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during viewing of backward-masked neutral, fearful and happy faces presented under two conditions: subliminal (16 ms, below the level of visual conscious awareness) and supraliminal (166 ms, above the time required for visual conscious awareness)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585020/experimental-manipulation-of-infant-temperament-affects-amygdala-functional-connectivity
#14
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Pietro De Carli, Morten L Kringelbach, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we examined neural processing of infant faces associated with a happy or a sad temperament in nulliparous women. We experimentally manipulated adult perception of infant temperament in a probabilistic learning task. In this task, participants learned about an infant's temperament through repeated pairing of the infant face with positive or negative facial expressions and vocalizations. At the end of the task, participants were able to differentiate between "mostly sad" infants who cried often and "mostly happy" infants who laughed often...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584731/experience-based-human-perception-of-facial-expressions-in-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#15
Laëtitia Maréchal, Xandria Levy, Kerstin Meints, Bonaventura Majolo
BACKGROUND: Facial expressions convey key cues of human emotions, and may also be important for interspecies interactions. The universality hypothesis suggests that six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) should be expressed by similar facial expressions in close phylogenetic species such as humans and nonhuman primates. However, some facial expressions have been shown to differ in meaning between humans and nonhuman primates like macaques. This ambiguity in signalling emotion can lead to an increased risk of aggression and injuries for both humans and animals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581310/patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-display-a-dopamine-therapy-related-negative-bias-and-an-enlarged-range-in-emotional-responses-to-facial-emotional-stimuli
#16
Daniel Lundqvist, Joakim Svärd, Åsa Michelgård Palmquist, Håkan Fischer, Per Svenningsson
OBJECTIVE: The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. METHOD: In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating...
June 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577372/effects-of-objective-3-dimensional-measures-of-facial-shape-and-symmetry-on-perceptions-of-facial-attractiveness
#17
Cory D Hatch, George L Wehby, Nichole L Nidey, Lina M Moreno Uribe
PURPOSE: Meeting patient desires for enhanced facial esthetics requires that providers have standardized and objective methods to measure esthetics. The authors evaluated the effects of objective 3-dimensional (3D) facial shape and asymmetry measurements derived from 3D facial images on perceptions of facial attractiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 3D facial images of 313 adults in Iowa were digitized with 32 landmarks, and objective 3D facial measurements capturing symmetric and asymmetric components of shape variation, centroid size, and fluctuating asymmetry were obtained from the 3D coordinate data using geo-morphometric analyses...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572777/attractiveness-is-multimodal-beauty-is-also-in-the-nose-and-ear-of-the-beholder
#18
REVIEW
Agata Groyecka, Katarzyna Pisanski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Jan Havlíček, Maciej Karwowski, David Puts, S Craig Roberts, Piotr Sorokowski
Attractiveness plays a central role in human non-verbal communication and has been broadly examined in diverse subfields of contemporary psychology. Researchers have garnered compelling evidence in support of the evolutionary functions of physical attractiveness and its role in our daily lives, while at the same time, having largely ignored the significant contribution of non-visual modalities and the relationships among them. Acoustic and olfactory cues can, separately or in combination, strongly influence the perceived attractiveness of an individual and therefore attitudes and actions toward that person...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571255/effect-of-diclofenac-mouthwash-on-postoperative-pain-after-periodontal-surgery
#19
Ashank Mishra, Jyotsna Amalakara, Haritha Avula, Krishnajaneya Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Non-Steroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used drugs for the management of pain. Oral administration of NSAIDs has various adverse events like gastrointestinal alterations - nausea, dyspepsia and gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatotoxicity and blood dyscrasias. As orally given NSAIDs are associated with systemic side effects, it is preferred to alleviate pain and inflammation using topical medication. Thus, recently the focus has been on the development of topical administration of NSAIDs in the form of gels, toothpastes and rinses...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566058/recognition-of-facial-expressions-is-moderated-by-islamic-cues
#20
Mariska E Kret, Agneta H Fischer
Recognising emotions from faces that are partly covered is more difficult than from fully visible faces. The focus of the present study is on the role of an Islamic versus non-Islamic context, i.e. Islamic versus non-Islamic headdress in perceiving emotions. We report an experiment that investigates whether briefly presented (40 ms) facial expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness are perceived differently when covered by a niqāb or turban, compared to a cap and shawl. In addition, we examined whether oxytocin, a neuropeptide regulating affection, bonding and cooperation between ingroup members and fostering outgroup vigilance and derogation, would differentially impact on emotion recognition from wearers of Islamic versus non-Islamic headdresses...
June 1, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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