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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#1
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143248/what-do-dogs-canis-familiaris-see-a-review-of-vision-in-dogs-and-implications-for-cognition-research
#2
Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Philippe A Chouinard, Tiffani J Howell, Pauleen C Bennett
Over the last 20 years, a large amount of research has been conducted in an attempt to uncover the cognitive abilities of the domestic dog. While substantial advancements have been made, progress has been impeded by the fact that little is known about how dogs visually perceive their external environment. It is imperative that future research determines more precisely canine visual processing capabilities, particularly considering the increasing number of studies assessing cognition via paradigms requiring vision...
November 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142866/inferior-alveolar-nerve-cutting-legal-liability-versus-desired-patient-outcomes
#3
Soung Min Kim, Jong Ho Lee
Objectives: Mandibular angle reduction or reduction genioplasty is a routine well-known facial contouring surgery that reduces the width of the lower face resulting in an oval shaped face. During the intraoral resection of the mandibular angle or chin using an oscillating saw, unexpected peripheral nerve damage including inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage could occur. This study analyzed cases of damaged IANs during facial contouring surgery, and asked what the basic standard of care in these medical litigation-involved cases should be...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141085/the-contribution-of-foveal-and-peripheral-visual-information-to-ensemble-representation-of-face-race
#4
Wonmo Jung, Isabelle Bülthoff, Regine G M Armann
The brain can only attend to a fraction of all the information that is entering the visual system at any given moment. One way of overcoming the so-called bottleneck of selective attention (e.g., J. M. Wolfe, Võ, Evans, & Greene, 2011) is to make use of redundant visual information and extract summarized statistical information of the whole visual scene. Such ensemble representation occurs for low-level features of textures or simple objects, but it has also been reported for complex high-level properties...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#5
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140385/virtual-treatment-planning-for-implant-retained-nasal-prosthesis-a-clinical-report
#6
Muaiyed Mahmoud Buzayan, Norsiah Binti Yunu, Ha Kien Oon, Omar Tawfiq
Osseointegrated craniofacial implants have improved retention and patients' perceptions of implant-retained nasal prostheses; however, the determination of the available bone sites for implant placement post-rhinectomy is difficult. This case report describes the use of cone beam computed tomography scanning and computer-assisted virtual planning in conjunction with digital photographs for rehabilitation of a facial defect with an implant-retained silicon nasal prosthesis. Two implants were planned in the anatomical area with adequate bone volume to achieve favorable cosmetic outcomes and accessibility for hygiene maintenance...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137990/affective-blindsight-in-the-absence-of-input-from-face-processing-regions-in-occipital-temporal-cortex
#7
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#8
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129727/mouth-licking-by-dogs-as-a-response-to-emotional-stimuli
#9
Natalia Albuquerque, Kun Guo, Anna Wilkinson, Briseida Resende, Daniel S Mills
Dogs are able to perceptually discriminate emotional displays of conspecifics and heterospecifics and possess the cognitive prototypes for emotional categorisation, however, it remains unclear whether dogs can respond appropriately to this information. One way to assess associations between specific behaviours and the perception of emotionally competent stimuli is to look at other reliable measures that are related to cognitive and physiological processing. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm (Albuquerque et al...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123215/observer-s-anxiety-facilitates-magnocellular-processing-of-clear-facial-threat-cues-but-impairs-parvocellular-processing-of-ambiguous-facial-threat-cues
#10
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Cody A Cushing, Kestutis Kveraga
Facial expression and eye gaze provide a shared signal about threats. While a fear expression with averted gaze clearly points to the source of threat, direct-gaze fear renders the source of threat ambiguous. Separable routes have been proposed to mediate these processes, with preferential attunement of the magnocellular (M) pathway to clear threat, and of the parvocellular (P) pathway to threat ambiguity. Here we investigated how observers' trait anxiety modulates M- and P-pathway processing of clear and ambiguous threat cues...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118319/cortisol-responses-enhance-negative-valence-perception-for-ambiguous-facial-expressions
#11
Catherine C Brown, Candace M Raio, Maital Neta
Stress exposure elicits a prolonged neuroendocrine response, marked by cortisol release, which can influence important forms of affective decision-making. Identifying how stress reactivity shapes subjective biases in decisions about emotional ambiguity (i.e., valence bias) provides insight into the role stress plays in basic affective processing for healthy and clinical populations alike. Here, we sought to examine how stress reactivity affects valence decisions about emotional ambiguity. Given that stress prioritizes automatic emotional processing which, in the context of valence bias, is associated with increased negativity, we tested how individual differences in acute stress responses influence valence bias and how this decision process evolves over time...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110183/integrated-cross-network-connectivity-of-amygdala-insula-and-subgenual-cingulate-associated-with-facial-emotion-perception-in-healthy-controls-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Alyssa Barba, Sophie R DelDonno, Leah R Kling, Emily M Briceño, Sara L Weisenbach, K Luan Phan, Stewart A Shankman, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI...
November 6, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106869/check-list-for-the-assessment-of-functional-impairment-in-children-with-congenital-aural-atresia
#13
Silvia Montino, Anna Agostinelli, Patrizia Trevisi, Alessandro Martini, Sara Ghiselli
OBJECTIVES: Congenital Aural Atresia (CAA) is a deformity of the external ear and it is commonly associated with malformations of middle and inner ear and, in some cases, with other facial deformities. Very few assessment measures exist for evaluating the functional impairment in children with CAA. Purpose of this study is to introduce and describe an assessment Checklist, (nominated FOS Checklist) that covers feeding abilities (F), oralmotor skills (O), communication/language development (S) in children with CAA...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096198/face-inversion-reveals-holistic-processing-of-peripheral-faces
#14
Petra Kovács, Balázs Knakker, Petra Hermann, Gyula Kovács, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Face perception is accomplished by face-selective neural processes, involving holistic processing that enables highly efficient integration of facial features into a whole-face representation. It has been shown that in face-selective regions of the ventral temporal cortex (VTC), neural resources involved in holistic processing are primarily dedicated to the central portion of the visual field. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that holistic processing might be the privilege of centrally presented faces and could be strongly diminished in the case of peripheral faces...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092076/looking-at-the-face-and-seeing-the-whole-body-neural-basis-of-combined-face-and-body-expressions
#15
Marta Poyo Solanas, Minye Zhan, Maarten Vaessen, Ruud Hortensius, Tahnée Engelen, Beatrice de Gelder
In the natural world, faces are not isolated objects but are rather encountered in the context of the whole body. Previous work has studied the perception of combined faces and bodies using behavioural and electrophysiological measurements, but the neural correlates of emotional face-body perception still remain unexplored. Here, we combined happy and fearful faces and bodies to investigate the influence of body expressions on the neural processing of the face, the effect of emotional ambiguity between the two and the role of the amygdala in this process...
October 28, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089919/nasal-oxytocin-treatment-biases-dogs-visual-attention-and-emotional-response-toward-positive-human-facial-expressions
#16
Sanni Somppi, Heini Törnqvist, József Topál, Aija Koskela, Laura Hänninen, Christina M Krause, Outi Vainio
The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068970/more-than-meets-the-eye-the-effect-of-intercanthal-distance-on-perception-of-beauty-and-personality
#17
Sanjay Naran, Ari M Wes, Daniel M Mazzaferro, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
In judging normalcy, surgeons rely on established facial anthropometric measures and proportions. However, there exists a range of "normal," and a degree of disproportion may be considered more attractive. The authors set out to determine how changes in only intercanthal distance affect the layperson's perception of beauty and personality traits of a face. The authors used Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how changes in intercanthal distance affect overall perception of beauty and personality...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068935/orthognathic-surgery-has-a-significant-effect-on-perceived-personality-traits-and-emotional-expressions
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel M Mazzaferro, Ari M Wes, Sanjay Naran, Rebecca Pearl, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: The effects of orthognathic surgery go beyond objective cephalometric correction of facial and dental disproportion and malocclusion, respectively. The authors hypothesized that there is tangible improvement following surgery that alters publicly perceived personality traits and emotions. METHODS: The authors used Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how preoperative and postoperative images of orthognathic surgery patients were perceived on six personality traits and six emotional expressions based on posteroanterior and lateral photographs...
November 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065282/does-facial-attractiveness-influence-perception-of-epilepsy-diagnosis-an-insight-into-stigma-in-epilepsy
#19
Aleksandar J Ristić, Olja Jovanović, Dragan Popadić, Višnja Pađen, Ahsan N V Moosa, Ana Krivokapić, Aleksandra Parojčić, Ivana Berisavac, Andrej Ilanković, Vladimir Baščarević, Nikola Vojvodić, Dragoslav Sokić
BACKGROUND: Using a group of young healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis (pMS), we aimed to investigate whether the physical attractiveness judgment affects perception of epilepsy. We tested hypothesis that subjects, in the absence of relevant clues, would catch upon the facial attractiveness when asked to speculate which person suffers epilepsy and select less attractive choices. METHOD: Two photo-arrays (7 photos for each gender) selected from the Chicago Face Database (180 neutral faces of Caucasian volunteers with unknown medical status) were shown to study participants...
October 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049490/association-of-rhinoplasty-with-perceived-attractiveness-success-and-overall-health
#20
Jason C Nellis, Masaru Ishii, Kristin L Bater, Ira D Papel, Theda C Kontis, Patrick J Byrne, Kofi D O Boahene, Lisa E Ishii
Importance: To date, the impact of rhinoplasty surgery on social perceptions has not been quantified. Objective: To measure the association of rhinoplasty with observer-graded perceived attractiveness, success, and overall health. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a web-based survey, blinded casual observers viewed independent images of 13 unique patient faces before or after rhinoplasty. Delphi method was used to select standardized patient images, confirming appropriate patient candidacy and overall surgical effect...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
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