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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047426/airborne-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-virus-during-processing-of-infected-poultry
#1
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Terrence M Tumpey, Andrew Clark, David E Swayne
Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046506/analysis-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-muscovy-duck-embryo-fibroblasts-infected-with-virulent-and-attenuated-muscovy-duck-reovirus-by-two-dimensional-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#2
Mei-Qing Huang, Xiao-Xia Cheng, Shi-Long Chen, Min Zheng, Shao-Ying Chen
Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) belongs to the Orthoreovirus genus of the Reoviridae family, which is a significant poultry pathogen leading to high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the pathogenesis of the virus is not well understood. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) combined with LC-MS-MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts (MDEF) infected with virulent (MV9710 strain) and attenuated (CA strain) MDRV and non-infected MDEFs...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046450/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-nuclear-dna
#3
Mingming Li, Ji A Sohn, Christoph Seeger
Chronic hepatitis B affects over 300 million people who are at risk of developing liver cancer. The basis for the persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in hepatocytes, even in the presence of available antiviral therapies, lies in the accumulation of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA in nuclei of infected cells. While methods for cccDNA quantification from liver biopsies and cell lines expressing the virus are known, information about cccDNA formation, stability and turnover are lacking. In particular, little is known about the fate of cccDNA during cell division...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035012/regulatory-effects-of-black-rice-extract-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection-induced-apoptosis
#4
Sa-Hyun Kim, Min Ho Lee, Min Park, Hyun Jun Woo, Yoon Suk Kim, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Woo-Duck Seo, Jong-Bae Kim
SCOPE: Black rice extract (BRE) contains cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin, as the major component. In this study, we found that BRE inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of genes encoding cytotoxin-associated protein A (cagA) and vacuolating protein A (vacA) in Helicobacter pylori 60190 strain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed RT-PCR and western blotting to show that BRE inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of SecA. Because SecA is involved in VacA export in bacteria, our result suggested a positive correlation between BRE-induced inhibition of secA expression and VacA secretion...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034617/isolation-and-characterization-of-avian-influenza-viruses-from-raw-poultry-products-illegally-imported-to-japan-by-international-flight-passengers
#5
A Shibata, T Hiono, H Fukuhara, R Sumiyoshi, A Ohkawara, K Matsuno, M Okamatsu, H Osaka, Y Sakoda
The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing...
October 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021304/kinetics-longevity-and-cross-reactivity-of-anti-neuraminidase-antibody-after-natural-infection-with-influenza-a-viruses
#6
Don Changsom, Li Jiang, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Rungrueng Kitphati, Phisanu Pooruk, Prasert Auewarakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The kinetics, longevity and breadth of antibodies to influenza neuraminidase (NA) in archival, sequential serum/plasma samples from influenza A virus (IAV) H5N1 survivors, and from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) virus were determined using an enzyme linked lectin based assay. The reverse genetics-derived H4N1 viruses harboring an hemagglutinin (HA) segment from A/duck/Shan Tou/461/2000 (H4N9) and an NA segment derived from either IAV H5N1 clade 1, IAV H5N1 clade 2.3.4, the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) (H1Npdm) or A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus were used as the test antigens...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018776/impaired-cellular-energy-metabolism-contributes-to-duck-enteritis-virus-induced-autophagy-via-the-ampk-tsc2-mtor-signaling-pathway
#7
Haichang Yin, Lili Zhao, Siqi Li, Lijing Xu, Yiping Wang, Hongyan Chen
Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a large, complex double-stranded DNA virus that induces duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy, which is beneficial to its own replication, but the mechanism has not been described. In this study, we showed that impaired cell energy metabolism is involved in DEV-induced autophagy, whereby ATP synthesis is disrupted in cells after DEV infection, which causes metabolic stress and activation of autophagy. Methyl pyruvate (MP) inhibited conversion of LC3I to LC3II and accumulation of GFP-LC3, which could reverse the energy loss caused by DEV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992055/amphotericin-b-concentrations-in-healthy-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-following-a-single-intratracheal-dose-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-using-an-atomizer
#8
Ashley Phillips, Christine V Fiorello, Rachel M Baden, Jack H Liu, Nathaniel C Burmas, Carlos A Ruvalcaba, Roger Monroy, F Charles Mohr, Ronette Gehring, Jean-Pierre Delplanque, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens, Lisa A Tell
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects the respiratory tract. Amphotericin B has broad antifungal activity and is commonly used to treat aspergillosis, a fungal pneumonia that is a common sequela in oiled waterfowl as well as other birds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pharmacokinetic parameters of nebulized amphotericin B in an avian model have been reported, but those of direct intratracheal delivery have yet to be established. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single 3 mg/kg dose of liposomal amphotericin B delivered intratracheally using a commercial atomizer would achieve plasma and lung tissue concentrations exceeding targeted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Aspergillus species in adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)...
August 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973026/low-serum-phosphate-as-an-independent-predictor-of-increased-infection-related-mortality-in-dialysis-patients-a-prospective-multicenter-cohort-study
#9
Ji-Eun Lee, Jeong-Hoon Lim, Hye Min Jang, Yon Su Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Chul Woo Yang, Nam-Ho Kim, Eugene Kwon, Hyun-Ji Kim, Jeung-Min Park, Hee-Yeon Jung, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Chan-Duck Kim, Jang-Hee Cho, Yong-Lim Kim
BACKGROUND: The role of mineral metabolism in mortality among dialysis patients has received increased attention, but some aspects remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of serum calcium and phosphate levels for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in dialysis patients. METHODS: Patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were enrolled from a multicenter prospective cohort study in Korea (NCT00931970)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971067/the-role-of-the-regulator-fur-in-gene-regulation-and-virulence-of-riemerella-anatipestifer-assessed-using-an-unmarked-gene-deletion-system
#10
Yunqing Guo, Di Hu, Jie Guo, Xiaowen Li, Jinyue Guo, Xiliang Wang, Yuncai Xiao, Hui Jin, Mei Liu, Zili Li, Dingren Bi, Zutao Zhou
Riemerella anatipestifer, an avian pathogen, has resulted in enormous economic losses to the duck industry globally. Notwithstanding, little is known regarding the physiological, pathogenic and virulence mechanisms of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection. However, the role of Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in the virulence of R. anatipestifer has not, to date, been demonstrated. Using a genetic approach, unmarked gene deletion system, we evaluated the function of fur gene in the virulence of R. anatipestifer...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969942/duck-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-plays-an-important-role-in-host-anti-duck-plague-virus-infection-through-an-ifn-dependent-signalling-pathway
#11
Shun Chen, Zhen Wu, Jinyue Zhang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Anchun Cheng
The human stimulator of interferon gene (STING) is an important molecule in innate immunity that stimulates type I interferon (IFN) production. However, the role of duck STING (duSTING) in innate immunity has yet to be explained. In this study, the full length of the duSTING cDNA sequence (1149bp), which encodes 382 amino acid (aa) residues, was reported and showed the highest sequence similarity with chicken STINGs. The phylogenetic analysis based on STING aa showed that duSTING was grouped onto the birds clade...
September 30, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#12
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
October 2, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958814/avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccination-efficacy-in-egyptian-backyard-poultry
#13
Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel, Mokhtar Gomaa, Hussein Galal, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
Raising backyard poultry under low biosecurity conditions is a common practice in Egypt. While vaccination is routinely applied in Egypt in commercial settings to curb the spread of avian influenza viruses, it remains less commonly used in backyard settings. We assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H5N1 vaccine based on a contemporary Egyptian clade 2.2.1.2 virus among turkeys, ducks, geese, and chickens raised together in a backyard setting. Results showed that this vaccine elicits an immune response in all tested species reaching up to a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 10 log2 after a booster dose...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951299/hericium-erinaceus-polysaccharide-facilitates-restoration-of-injured-intestinal-mucosal-immunity-in-muscovy-duck-reovirus-infected-muscovy-ducklings
#14
Yijian Wu, Huihui Jiang, Erpeng Zhu, Jian Li, Quanxi Wang, Wuduo Zhou, Tao Qin, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944845/efficient-inhibition-of-duck-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-by-the-crispr-cas9-system
#15
Qingfen Zheng, Li Bai, Sujun Zheng, Mei Liu, Jinyan Zhang, Ting Wang, Zhongwei Xu, Yu Chen, Jiansheng Li, Zhongping Duan
Current therapeutic strategies cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA), which accounts for the persistence of HBV infection. Very recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR‑associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been used as an efficient and powerful tool for viral genome editing. Given that the primary duck hepatocyte (PDH) infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) has been widely used to study human HBV infection in vitro, the present study aimed to demonstrate the targeted inhibition of DHBV DNA, especially cccDNA, by the CRISPR/Cas9 system using this model...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941132/infectious-dose-dependent-accumulation-of-live-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-public-health
#16
G Vasudevan, P R Vanamayya, S Nagarajan, K Rajukumar, S Suba, G Venketash, C Tosh, R Sood, R H Nissly, S V Kuchipudi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry meat. Skeletal muscle is the largest soft tissue in chicken that has been shown to contain virus during systemic HPAIV infection and supports productive virus infection...
September 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935554/putative-new-genera-and-species-of-avian-schistosomes-potentially-involved-in-human-cercarial-dermatitis-in-the-americas-europe-and-africa
#17
Hudson A Pinto, Eduardo A Pulido-Murillo, Alan L de Melo, Sara V Brant
New larval avian schistosomes found in planorbid snails from Brazil and USA were used for morphological and molecular studies. Eggs with a distinctive long polar filament were found in ducks infected experimentally with Brazilian cercariae. Similar eggs were reported previously in wild or experimentally infected anatids from Brazil, South Africa, and the Czech Republic. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the North American and European schistosomes are sister taxa, which are both sister to the Brazilian species...
December 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931412/molecular-characterization-of-the-duck-enteritis-virus-us10-protein
#18
Daixi Zhang, Maoyin Lai, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Kunfeng Sun, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization. METHODS: Duck enteritis virus US10 was amplified and cloned into the recombinant vector pET32a(+). The recombinant US10 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells and used to immunize rabbits for the preparation of polyclonal antibodies. The harvested rabbit antiserum against DEV US10 was detected and analyzed by agar immunodiffusion...
September 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930087/detection-of-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-on-waterfowl-integument-in-natural-settings
#19
Shane M Hanlon, Jerad R Henson, Jacob L Kerby
The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, has spread at an alarming rate since its discovery. Bd was initially thought to only infect keratinizing epithelial cells in amphibians, a core component of amphibian skin. However, recent studies have detected Bd on the integument of non-amphibian hosts. We conducted a survey of 3 duck species (gadwalls, green-winged teals, and mallards) to determine whether Bd DNA could be found on their feet...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927474/first-detection-and-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-poultry-and-swine-raised-in-backyard-production-systems-in-central-chile
#20
R Alegria-Moran, D Rivera, V Toledo, A I Moreno-Switt, C Hamilton-West
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile...
September 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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