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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065477/quantitative-analysis-of-the-yield-of-avian-h7-influenza-virus-haemagglutinin-protein-produced-in-silkworm-pupae-with-the-use-of-the-codon-optimized-dna-a-possible-oral-vaccine
#1
Kuniaki Nerome, Sayaka Matsuda, Kenichi Maegawa, Shigeo Sugita, Kazumichi Kuroda, Kazunori Kawasaki, Reiko Nerome
In this study, we aimed to quantitatively compare the increased production of three H7 influenza virus-like particle (VLP) haemagglutinin (HA) with the use of a codon-optimized single HA gene in silkworm pupae. Recombinant baculovirus (Korea H7-BmNPV) could produce 0.40 million HA units per pupa, corresponding to 1832μg protein. The yield of the HA produced in larva was estimated to be approximately 0.31 million HA units per larva, and there were no significant differences between the three HA proteins. We could establish efficient recovery system of HA production in larvae and pupae with the use of three cycles sonication methods...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062008/experimental-infection-of-mandarin-duck-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-and-h5n1-viruses
#2
Hyun-Mi Kang, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Joojin Jung, Il Jang, You-Chan Bae, Suk Chan Jung, Youn-Jeong Lee
A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054599/estimating-risks-of-inapparent-avian-exposure-for-human-infection-avian-influenza-virus-a-h7n9-in-zhejiang-province-china
#3
Erjia Ge, Renjie Zhang, Dengkui Li, Xiaolin Wei, Xiaomeng Wang, Poh-Chin Lai
Inapparent avian exposure was suspected for the sporadic infection of avian influenza A(H7N9) occurring in China. This type of exposure is usually unnoticed and difficult to model and measure. Infected poultry with avian influenza H7N9 virus typically remains asymptomatic, which may facilitate infection through inapparent poultry/bird exposure, especially in a country with widespread practice of backyard poultry. The present study proposed a novel approach that integrated ecological and case-control methods to quantify the risk of inapparent avian exposure on human H7N9 infection...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038465/viral-host-interaction-in-kidney-reveals-strategies-to-escape-host-immunity-and-persistently-shed-virus-to-the-urine
#4
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Yifan Jiang, Shengyong Zhang, Chen Ke, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Hepatitis A virus is one of five types of hepatotropic viruses that cause human liver disease. A similar liver disease is also identified in ducks caused by Duck Hepatitis A virus (DHAV). Notably, many types of hepatotropic viruses can be detected in urine. However, how those viruses enter into the urine is largely unexplored. To elucidate the potential mechanism, we used the avian hepatotropic virus to investigate replication strategies and immune responses in kidney until 280 days after infection. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to detect viral distribution and copies in the kidney...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008822/autophagy-activated-by-duck-enteritis-virus-infection-positively-affects-its-replication
#5
Lili Zhao, Hai-Chang Yin, Si-Qi Li, Yin-Jie Niu, Xin-Jie Jiang, Li-Jing Xu, Tao-Feng Lu, Ling-Xia Han, Sheng-Wang Liu, Hong-Yan Chen
Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an acute, septic, sexually transmitted disease that occurs in ducks, geese, and other poultry. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that is important in many viral infections. Despite extensive study, the interplay between DEV and autophagy of host cells is not clearly understood. In this study, we found that DEV infection triggers autophagy in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of autophagosome-like double or single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells and the numbers of GFP-LC3 dots...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997047/no-evidence-for-homosubtypic-immunity-of-influenza-h3-in-mallards-following-vaccination-in-a-natural-experimental-system
#6
M Wille, N Latorre-Margalef, C Tolf, D E Stallknecht, J Waldenström
The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is an important reservoir species for influenza A viruses (IAV), and in this host, prevalence and virus diversity are high. Studies have demonstrated the presence of homosubtypic immunity, where individuals are unlikely to be re-infected with the same subtype within an autumn season. Further, evidence for heterosubtypic immunity exists, whereby immune responses specific for one subtype offers partial or complete protection against related HA subtypes. We utilized a natural-experimental system to determine if homo- or heterospecific immunity could be induced following experimental vaccination...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974824/induction-of-a-robust-immunity-response-against-novel-duck-reovirus-in-ducklings-using-a-subunit-vaccine-of-sigma-c-protein
#7
Zhuangli Bi, Yingqi Zhu, Zongyan Chen, Chuanfeng Li, Yong Wang, Guijun Wang, Guangqing Liu
Novel duck reovirus (NDRV) disease emerged in China in 2011 and continues to cause high morbidity and about 5.0 to 50% mortality in ducklings. Currently there are no approved vaccines for the virus. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new vaccine created from the baculovirus and sigma C gene against NDRV. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus containing the sigma C gene was constructed, and the purified protein was used as a vaccine candidate in ducklings. The efficacy of sigma C vaccine was estimated according to humoral immune responses, cellular immune response and protection against NDRV challenge...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966289/an-epidemiological-study-of-avian-influenza-a-h5-virus-in-nomadic-ducks-and-their-raising-practices-in-northeastern-bangladesh-2011-2012
#8
Shamim Sarkar, Salah Uddin Khan, Andrea Mikolon, Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Jaynal Abedin, Nord Zeidner, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. METHODS: We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype...
December 14, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927057/treatment-effect-of-a-flavonoid-prescription-on-duck-virus-hepatitis-by-its-hepatoprotective-and-antioxidative-ability
#9
Yun Chen, Ling Zeng, Yu Lu, Yulan Yang, Meiyun Xu, Yixuan Wang, Jiaguo Liu
CONTEXT: Duck virus hepatitis (DVH) caused by duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an acute and lethal disease of young ducklings. However, there is still no effective drug to treat DVH. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the curative effect on DVH of a flavonoid prescription baicalin-linarin-icariin-notoginsenoside R1 (BLIN) as well as the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of BLIN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT method was used to test the anti-DHAV-1 ability of BLIN in vitro...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916476/genesis-evolution-and-prevalence-of-h5n6-avian-influenza-viruses-in-china
#10
Yuhai Bi, Quanjiao Chen, Qianli Wang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific...
December 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903065/predominance-and-geo-mapping-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-poultry-sectors-in-egypt
#11
Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Khoulosy, Mohammed K Hassan, Moussa Soliman, Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Folorunso O Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth, Yilma M Jobre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt...
November 28, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897216/characterizations-of-h4-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-ducks-in-live-poultry-markets-and-farm-in-shanghai
#12
Ying Shi, Hongrui Cui, Junheng Wang, Qiuyan Chi, Xuesong Li, Qiaoyang Teng, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang, Qinfang Liu, Zejun Li
H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892722/present-and-future-dna-vaccines-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-treatment
#13
Lucyna Cova
With at least 240 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, being at a high risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic hepatitis B remains a major public health issue. Because current antiviral treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for the development of innovative anti-HBV strategies leading to the functional cure. In this context, DNA-based vaccines appear as a promising approach. Area covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pertinent features of DNA vaccines for chronic hepatitis B therapy...
December 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884627/characterization-of-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-14-a-novel-serotype-isolated-from-a-duck-fecal-sample-in-japan
#14
Rapeewan Thampaisarn, Vuong N Bui, Dai Q Trinh, Makoto Nagai, Tetsuya Mizutani, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Dulyatad Gronsang, Duong H T Le, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
A hemagglutinating virus isolate designated 11OG0352, was obtained from a duck fecal sample. Genetic and virological analyses indicated that it might represent a novel serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Electron micrographs showed that the morphology of the virus particle was similar to that of APMV. The complete genome of this virus comprised 15,444 nucleotides complying with the paramyxovirus "rule of six" and contains six open reading frames (3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5'). The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed that the virus was a member of the genus Avulavirus, but that it was distinct from APMV-1 to APMV-13...
January 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867373/two-genetically-similar-h9n2-influenza-a-viruses-show-different-pathogenicity-in-mice
#15
Qingtao Liu, Yuzhuo Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Keran Bi, Yin Li
H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06) virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50) of 10(2.83) 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01) virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a MLD50 of >10(6...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853704/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-china
#16
Xiangning Bai, Bin Hu, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Ailan Zhao, Pengbin Ba, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yujuan Jin, Hong Wang, Qiusheng Guo, Xuebin Xu, Shan Lu, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852855/the-potential-for-low-pathogenic-avian-h7-influenza-a-viruses-to-replicate-and-cause-disease-in-a-mammalian-model
#17
Mark Zanin, Zeynep A Koçer, Rebecca L Poulson, Jon D Gabbard, Elizabeth W Howerth, Cheryl A Jones, Kimberly Friedman, Jon Seiler, Angela Danner, Lisa Kercher, Ryan McBride, James C Paulson, David E Wentworth, Scott Krauss, Stephen M Tompkins, David E Stallknecht, Robert G Webster
: H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the USA and Canada, using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845444/investigation-of-tbfa-in-riemerella-anatipestifer-using-plasmid-based-methods-for-gene-over-expression-and-knockdown
#18
MaFeng Liu, MengYi Wang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng
Riemerella anatipestifer is a duck pathogen that has caused serious economic losses to the duck industry worldwide. Despite this, there are few reported studies of the physiological and pathogenic mechanisms of Riemerella anatipestifer infection. In previous study, we have shown that TonB1 and TonB2 were involved in hemin uptake. TonB family protein (TbfA) was not investigated, since knockout of this gene was not successful at that time. Here, we used a plasmid based gene over-expression and knockdown to investigate its function...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834908/epitope-identification-and-application-for-diagnosis-of-duck-tembusu-virus-infections-in-ducks
#19
Chenxi Li, Junyan Liu, Wulin Shaozhou, Xiaofei Bai, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding...
November 10, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824100/identification-of-a-new-broadly-cross-reactive-epitope-within-domain-iii-of-the-duck-tembusu-virus-e-protein
#20
Chenxi Li, Xiaofei Bai, Runze Meng, Wulin Shaozhou, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
In 2010, a pathogenic flavivirus termed duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) caused widespread outbreak of egg-drop syndrome in domesticated ducks in China. Although the glycoprotein E of DTMUV is an important structural component of the virus, the B-cell epitopes of this protein remains uncharacterized. Using phage display and mutagenesis, we identified a minimal B-cell epitope, (374)EXE/DPPFG(380), that mediates binding to a nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody. DTMUV-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope, and amino acid substitutions revealed the specific amino acids that are essential for antibody binding...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
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