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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327168/identification-of-two-novel-reassortant-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-in-whooper-swans-in-korea-2016
#1
Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman, Weonhwa Jheong
BACKGROUND: On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea...
March 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316403/gastrointestinal-parasitic-infection-in-diverse-species-of-domestic-birds-of-manipur-india
#2
L Jayentakumar Singh, N Mohilal
Domesticated birds (515) consisting of 185 broiler (Gallusgallusdomesticus), 130 layers (Gallus Sp), 75 free range local chicken (Gallusdomesticus), 40 house pigeon (Columbalivia), 70 ducks (Anasplatyrhynchos) and 15 turkeys (Melleagrisgallopavo) reared in valley districts of Manipur were investigated for intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. Fresh faecal samples of these birds were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with 2.5 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Of these 412 (80 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301247/different-duck-species-infected-intramuscularly-with-duck-origin-genotype-ix-apmv-1-show-discrepant-mortality-and-indicate-another-fatal-genotype-apmv-1-to-ducks
#3
Guanghua Fu, Longfei Cheng, Qiuling Fu, Baomin Qi, Cuiteng Chen, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Chunhe Wan, Rongchang Liu, Yu Huang
Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298880/h7n9-and-h5n1-avian-influenza-suitability-models-for-china-accounting-for-new-poultry-and-live-poultry-markets-distribution-data
#4
Jean Artois, Shengjie Lai, Luzhao Feng, Hui Jiang, Hang Zhou, Xiangping Li, Madhur S Dhingra, Catherine Linard, Gaëlle Nicolas, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson, Hongjie Yu, Marius Gilbert
In the last two decades, two important avian influenza viruses infecting humans emerged in China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in the late nineties, and the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus in 2013. China is home to the largest population of chickens (4.83 billion) and ducks (0.694 billion), representing, respectively 23.1 and 58.6% of the 2013 world stock, with a significant part of poultry sold through live-poultry markets potentially contributing to the spread of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment: Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293681/community-level-differences-in-the-microbiome-of-healthy-wild-mallards-and-those-infected-by-influenza-a-viruses
#5
Holly H Ganz, Ladan Doroud, Alana J Firl, Sarah M Hird, Jonathan A Eisen, Walter M Boyce
Waterfowl, especially ducks and geese, are primary reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAVs) that evolve and emerge as important pathogens in domestic animals and humans. In contrast to humans, where IAVs infect the respiratory tract and cause significant morbidity and mortality, IAVs infect the gastrointestinal tract of waterfowl and cause little or no pathology and are spread by fecal-oral transmission. For this reason, we examined whether IAV infection is associated with differences in the cloacal microbiome of mallards (Anas platyrhyncos), an important host of IAVs in North America and Eurasia...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288679/muscovy-duck-reovirus-%C3%AF-ns-protein-triggers-autophagy-enhancing-virus-replication
#6
Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang, Hung-Jen Liu
BACKGROUND: Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical properties with avian reovirus (ARV) and differs in coding assignment and pathogenicity. The ARV p17 protein has been shown to trigger autophagy via activation multiple signaling pathways, which benefits virus replication. Since MDRV lacks the p17 protein, whether and how MDRV induces autophagy remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284604/identification-of-the-ferric-iron-utilization-gene-b739_1208-and-its-role-in-the-virulence-of-r-anatipestifer-ch-1
#7
MengYi Wang, PengYun Zhang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng, MaFeng Liu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important bacterial pathogen in ducks and causes heavy economic losses in the duck industry. However, the pathogensis of this bacterium is poorly understood. In this study, a putative outer membrane hemin receptor gene B739_1208 in R. anatipestifer CH-1 was deleted to determine the relationship between iron uptake and virulence. The R. anatipestifer CH-1ΔB739_1208 mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type bacteria in TSB liquid medium. Further characterization revealed that the R...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277777/riemerella-anatipestifer-extracellular-protease-s-blocks-complement-activation-via-the-classical-and-lectin-pathways
#8
Mengnan Fan, Sihuai Chen, Ludan Zhang, Junxuan Bi, Jiasun Peng, Xinyan Huang, Xin Li, Huan Li, Qin Zhou, Sheng Jiang, Jixiang Li
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the causative agent of infectious serositis in ducklings and other avian species. It is difficult to control the disease due to its 21 serotypes, poor cross-protection, and bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. The complement system is an important component of the innate immune system. However, bacterial pathogens exploit several strategies to evade detection by the complement system. Here, we purified and identified a 59-kDa RA extracellular protease S (EcpS) consisting of a gelatinase...
March 2, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272907/emerging-avian-influenza-infections-current-understanding-of-innate-immune-response-and-molecular-pathogenesis
#9
Anamika Mishra, Periyasamy Vijayakumar, Ashwin Ashok Raut
The highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause severe disease in gallinaceous poultry species, domestic ducks, various aquatic and terrestrial wild bird species as well as humans. The outcome of the disease is determined by complex interactions of multiple components of the host, the virus, and the environment. While the host-innate immune response plays an important role for clearance of infection, excessive inflammatory immune response (cytokine storm) may contribute to morbidity and mortality of the host...
March 8, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270655/insight-into-live-bird-markets-of-bangladesh-an-overview-of-the-dynamics-of-transmission-of-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses
#10
Jasmine C M Turner, Mohammed M Feeroz, M Kamrul Hasan, Sharmin Akhtar, David Walker, Patrick Seiler, Subrata Barman, John Franks, Lisa Jones-Engel, Pamela McKenzie, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Robert G Webster
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016...
March 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250288/prevalence-of-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-animals-in-taiwan
#11
Jih-Ching Yeh, Dan-Yuan Lo, Shao-Kuang Chang, Chi-Chung Chou, Hung-Chih Kuo
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a zoonotic pathogen that often causes diarrhea, respiratory diseases or septicemia in animals. Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic E. coli infections. In this study, 1,221 E. coli strains were isolated between March, 2011 and February, 2014. The results of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed a high prevalence of quinolone resistance. The antimicrobial resistance rates of these E. coli isolates to nalidixic acid (NAL) were 72.0% in swine, 81...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244789/investigation-on-the-zoonotic-trematode-species-and-their-natural-infection-status-in-huainan-areas-of-china
#12
Xiao-Dong Zhan, Chao-Pin Li, Bang-He Yang, Yu-Xia Zhu, Ye Tian, Jing Shen, Jin-Hong Zhao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the species of zoonotic trematodes and the endemic infection status in the domestic animals in Huainan areas, north Anhui province of China, we intent to provide evidences for prevention of the parasitic zoonoses. METHODS: The livestock and poultry (definitive hosts) were purchased from the farmers living in the water areas, including South Luohe, Yaohe, Jiaogang and Gaotang Lakes, and dissected the viscera of these collected hosts to obtain the parasitic samples...
February 1, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242064/opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-in-the-snail-and-fish-intermediate-hosts-in-central-vietnam
#13
Ha Thanh Thi Dao, Veronique Dermauw, Sarah Gabriël, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Smarn Tesana, Giang Thanh Thi Nguyen, Pierre Dorny
Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, including Central and South Vietnam. In this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. Therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from Bau My Tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in Binh Dinh Province were collected for examination of O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. A total of 12,000 snails belonging to six families, of which 1616 Bithynia snails representing Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Bithynia funiculata; as well as 754 fish representing 12 species were examined...
February 24, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193172/comparison-of-pathogenic-and-non-pathogenic-enterococcus-cecorum-strains-from-different-animal-species
#14
Arne Jung, Martin Metzner, Martin Ryll
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus cecorum (EC) infection currently is one of the most important bacterial diseases of modern broiler chickens but can also affect ducks or other avian species. However, little is known concerning pathogenesis of EC and most studies concentrate on examinations of EC strains from broilers only. The objective of this study was to compare pathogenic and commensal EC strains from different animal species concerning different phenotypic and genotypic traits. RESULTS: Pathogenic and commensal EC strains were not clearly separated from each other in a phylogenetic tree based on partial sequences of the 16S-rRNA-gene and also based on the fatty acid profile determined with gas chromatography...
February 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183350/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-sarafloxacin-against-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-muscovy-ducks
#15
Yang Yu, Yu Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Wei Shi, Xiao Ping Liao, Ya Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: This study focused on utilizing pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling to optimize therapeutic dosage regimens of sarafloxacin against avian pathogenic Escherichia. coli O78 strain in Muscovy ducks. The ex vivo PK/PD study of sarafloxacin was conducted in Muscovy ducks after intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administrations at a single dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The serum samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using a fluorescence detection method...
February 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166822/disruption-of-the-m949_rs01915-gene-changed-the-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-pattern-pathogenicity-and-gene-expression-of-riemerella-anatipestifer
#16
Yafeng Dou, Xiaolan Wang, Guijing Yu, Shaohui Wang, Mingxing Tian, Jingjing Qi, Tao Li, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Riemerella anatipestifer is an important pathogen that causes septicemia anserum exsudativa in ducks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence factor of R. anatipestifer. To identify genes involved in LPS biosynthesis, we screened a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants using a monoclonal antibody against R. anatipestifer serotype 1 LPS (anti-LPS MAb). A mutant strain RA1067 which lost the reactivity in an indirect ELISA was obtained. Southern blot and sequencing analyses indicated a single Tn4351 was inserted at 116 bp in the M949_RS01915 gene in the RA1067 chromosomal DNA...
February 6, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161961/genome-wide-gene-expression-pattern-underlying-differential-host-response-to-high-or-low-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-ducks
#17
A Kumar, P Vijayakumar, P N Gandhale, P B Ranaware, H Kumar, D D Kulkarni, A A Raut, A Mishra
The differences in the influenza viral pathogenesis observed between different pathogenic strains are associated with distinct properties of virus strains and the host immune responses. In order to determine the differences in the duck immune response against two different pathogenic strains, we studied genome-wide host immune gene response of ducks infected with A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 and A/duck/Tripura/103597/2008 H5N1 viruses using custom-designed microarray. A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 is highly pathogenic virus (HP) to ducks, whereas A/duck/Tripura/103597/2008 is a low pathogenic (LP) virus strain...
February 6, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160850/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antimalarial-potential-of-oleoresin-obtained-from-copaifera-reticulata-ducke-fabaceae-in-the-brazilian-amazon-rainforest
#18
Giovana A G de Souza, Nazaré C da Silva, Juarez de Souza, Karen R M de Oliveira, Amanda L da Fonseca, Leopoldo C Baratto, Elaine C P de Oliveira, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, Waldiney P Moraes
BACKGROUND: In view of the wide variety of the flora of the Amazon region, many plants have been studied in the search for new antimalarial agents. Copaifera reticulata is a tree distributed throughout the Amazon region which contains an oleoresin rich in sesquiterpenes and diterpenes with β-caryophyllene as the major compound. The oleoresin has demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Leishmania amazonensis. Because of this previously reported activity, this oleoresin would be expected to also have antimalarial activity...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159240/efficacy-assessment-of-an-inactivated-tembusu-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-ducks
#19
Lijiao Zhang, Zhanhong Li, Qingshui Zhang, Mengxu Sun, Shuang Li, Wenliang Su, Xueying Hu, Weiyong He, Jingliang Su
Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogen that causes severe egg drop and neurological disease in domestic duck and goose flocks. The infection has spread across the China mainland since its outbreak in 2010. Effective vaccines are needed to fight the disease. In this work, we describe the development and laboratory assessment of a cell culture-derived, inactivated duck TMUV vaccine. The TMUV-JXSP strain was successfully propagated on a baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21), inactivated with beta-propiolactone (BPL) and emulsified with mineral oil...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145811/investigating-the-potential-role-of-north-american-animals-as-hosts-for-zika-virus
#20
Izabela K Ragan, Emily L Blizzard, Paul Gordy, Richard A Bowen
The recent emergence of the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has become a global public health concern. We describe a series of experimental infections designed to investigate whether animals within certain taxonomic groups in North America have the potential to serve as ZIKV amplifying or maintenance hosts. Species investigated included armadillos, cottontail rabbits, goats, mink, chickens, pigeons, ground hogs, deer mice, cattle, raccoons, ducks, Syrian Golden hamsters, garter snakes, leopard frogs, house sparrows, and pigs...
March 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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