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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903065/predominance-and-geo-mapping-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-poultry-sectors-in-egypt
#1
Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Khoulosy, Mohammed K Hassan, Moussa Soliman, Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Folorunso O Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth, Yilma M Jobre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt...
November 28, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897216/characterizations-of-h4-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-ducks-in-live-poultry-markets-and-farm-in-shanghai
#2
Ying Shi, Hongrui Cui, Junheng Wang, Qiuyan Chi, Xuesong Li, Qiaoyang Teng, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang, Qinfang Liu, Zejun Li
H4 avian influenza virus is one of the most prevalent influenza virus subtypes in birds. The evolution and pathogenicity of H4 AIV in domestic birds of China remain largely unclear. In the present study, a total of eight H4 AIV strains isolated in duck farm and live poultry markets (LPM) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these strains are divided into two groups in the Eurasian lineage. Eight genes of MH-2/H4N6 isolated from a duck farm were closely related to three H4N6 viruses from LPM, suggesting a potential AIV link between farms and LPMs...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892722/present-and-future-dna-vaccines-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-treatment
#3
Lucyna Cova
With at least 240 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, being at a high risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic hepatitis B remains a major public health issue. Because current antiviral treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for the development of innovative anti-HBV strategies leading to the functional cure. In this context, DNA-based vaccines appear as a promising approach. Area covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pertinent features of DNA vaccines for chronic hepatitis B therapy...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884627/characterization-of-avian-paramyxovirus-serotype-14-a-novel-serotype-isolated-from-a-duck-fecal-sample-in-japan
#4
Rapeewan Thampaisarn, Vuong N Bui, Dai Q Trinh, Makoto Nagai, Tetsuya Mizutani, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Dulyatad Gronsang, Duong H T Le, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
A hemagglutinating virus isolate designated 11OG0352, was obtained from a duck fecal sample. Genetic and virological analyses indicated that it might represent a novel serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Electron micrographs showed that the morphology of the virus particle was similar to that of APMV. The complete genome of this virus comprised 15,444 nucleotides complying with the paramyxovirus "rule of six" and contains six open reading frames (3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5'). The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed that the virus was a member of the genus Avulavirus, but that it was distinct from APMV-1 to APMV-13...
November 21, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867373/two-genetically-similar-h9n2-influenza-a-viruses-show-different-pathogenicity-in-mice
#5
Qingtao Liu, Yuzhuo Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Keran Bi, Yin Li
H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06) virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50) of 10(2.83) 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01) virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a MLD50 of >10(6...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853704/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-in-china
#6
Xiangning Bai, Bin Hu, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Ailan Zhao, Pengbin Ba, Shanshan Fu, Ruyue Fan, Yujuan Jin, Hong Wang, Qiusheng Guo, Xuebin Xu, Shan Lu, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis with life-threatening complications, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC strains from different resources in China and illustrate the role of animal reservoirs or animal-derived foodstuffs in human STEC infections. A collection of 301 non-O157 STEC isolates from domestic and wild animals (i.e., cattle, goat, pig, yak, pika, and antelope), raw meats (i...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852855/the-potential-for-low-pathogenic-avian-h7-influenza-a-viruses-to-replicate-and-cause-disease-in-a-mammalian-model
#7
Mark Zanin, Zeynep A Koçer, Rebecca L Poulson, Jon D Gabbard, Elizabeth W Howerth, Cheryl A Jones, Kimberly Friedman, Jon Seiler, Angela Danner, Lisa Kercher, Ryan McBride, James C Paulson, David E Wentworth, Scott Krauss, Stephen M Tompkins, David E Stallknecht, Robert G Webster
: H7 subtype influenza A viruses are widely distributed and have been responsible for human infections and numerous outbreaks in poultry with significant impact. Despite this, the disease-causing potential of the precursor low pathogenic (LP) H7 viruses from the wild bird reservoir has not been investigated. Our objective was to assess the disease causing potential of 30 LP H7 viruses isolated from wild avian species in the USA and Canada, using the DBA/2J mouse model. Without prior mammalian adaptation, the majority of viruses, 27 (90%), caused mortality in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845444/investigation-of-tbfa-in-riemerella-anatipestifer-using-plasmid-based-methods-for-gene-over-expression-and-knockdown
#8
MaFeng Liu, MengYi Wang, DeKang Zhu, MingShu Wang, RenYong Jia, Shun Chen, KunFeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, XiaoYue Chen, Francis Biville, AnChun Cheng
Riemerella anatipestifer is a duck pathogen that has caused serious economic losses to the duck industry worldwide. Despite this, there are few reported studies of the physiological and pathogenic mechanisms of Riemerella anatipestifer infection. In previous study, we have shown that TonB1 and TonB2 were involved in hemin uptake. TonB family protein (TbfA) was not investigated, since knockout of this gene was not successful at that time. Here, we used a plasmid based gene over-expression and knockdown to investigate its function...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834908/epitope-identification-and-application-for-diagnosis-of-duck-tembusu-virus-infections-in-ducks
#9
Chenxi Li, Junyan Liu, Wulin Shaozhou, Xiaofei Bai, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding...
November 10, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824100/identification-of-a-new-broadly-cross-reactive-epitope-within-domain-iii-of-the-duck-tembusu-virus-e-protein
#10
Chenxi Li, Xiaofei Bai, Runze Meng, Wulin Shaozhou, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
In 2010, a pathogenic flavivirus termed duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) caused widespread outbreak of egg-drop syndrome in domesticated ducks in China. Although the glycoprotein E of DTMUV is an important structural component of the virus, the B-cell epitopes of this protein remains uncharacterized. Using phage display and mutagenesis, we identified a minimal B-cell epitope, (374)EXE/DPPFG(380), that mediates binding to a nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody. DTMUV-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope, and amino acid substitutions revealed the specific amino acids that are essential for antibody binding...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821666/duck-tembusu-virus-nonstructural-protein-1-antagonizes-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-pathways-by-targeting-visa
#11
Junyong Wang, Cao-Qi Lei, Yanhong Ji, Hongbo Zhou, Yujie Ren, Qianqian Peng, Yan Zeng, Yane Jia, Jinying Ge, Bo Zhong, Yu Li, Jianzhong Wei, Hong-Bing Shu, Qiyun Zhu
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emergent infectious pathogen that has caused severe disease in ducks and huge economic losses to the poultry industry in China since 2009. Previously, we showed that DTMUV inhibits IFN-β induction early in infection; however, the mechanisms of the inhibition of innate immune responses remain poorly understood. In this study, we screened DTMUV-encoded structural and nonstructural proteins using reporter assays and found that DTMUV NS1 markedly suppressed virus-triggered IFN-β expression by inhibiting retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor signaling...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816429/evidence-of-vp1-of-duck-hepatitis-a-type-1-virus-as-a-target-of-neutralizing-antibodies-and-involving-receptor-binding-activity
#12
Xiaojun Li, Ran Zhao, Wei Lin, Chenxi Li, Tingting Zhang, Fanyi Meng, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
The VP1 protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a major target of neutralizing antibodies and is responsible for viral attachment to permissive cells via an RGD motif. VP1 of duck hepatitis A type 1 virus (DHAV-1) does not contain any RGD motif. To investigate the antibody and receptor-binding properties of DHAV-1, VP1 has been expressed as a His fusion protein (His-VP1) in baculovirus system. Sera against His-VP1 raised in rabbits effectively neutralized DHAV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815734/molecular-identification-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-brazilian-captive-birds
#13
Maria Júlia Rodrigues da Cunha, Márcia Cristina Cury, Mónica Santín
A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, three birds were found positive for E. bieneusi (3.5%), two for Cryptosporidium (2.3%), and one for Giardia (1.2%). Two genotypes of E. bieneusi were detected by nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region, genotypes D and Peru 6 in a swan goose and in two rock pigeons, respectively...
November 4, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777571/live-attenuated-vaccine-based-on-duck-enteritis-virus-against-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-types-1-and-3
#14
Zhong Zou, Ji Ma, Kun Huang, Huanchun Chen, Ziduo Liu, Meilin Jin
As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746073/characterization-of-duck-plague-virus-stability-at-extreme-conditions-of-temperature-ph-and-salt-concentration
#15
Aditi Makhija, Sachin Kumar
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738904/characterization-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-from-wild-birds-possessing-atypical-hemagglutinin-polybasic-cleavage-sites
#16
Tatsufumi Usui, Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734222/characterization-of-batai-virus-isolated-from-a-domestic-muscovy-duck-cairina-moschate
#17
Lijiao Zhang, Qingshui Zhang, Jun Wang, Na An, Yanxin Cao, Guanghua Fu, Xueying Hu, Yu Huang, Jingliang Su
Batai virus (BATV) belongs to the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It has been isolated from mosquitos, pigs, cattle, and humans throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, and causes clinical signs in domestic animals and humans. Here, we report the isolation of BATV from a domestic duck flock. Genome sequence analysis revealed clustering of this isolate in the Africa-Asia lineage. The virus replicated in mosquitos and vertebrate host cells, showing different phenotypic characteristics, and showed the potential to infect mice...
October 12, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733236/risk-of-resistant-avian-influenza-a-virus-in-wild-waterfowl-as-a-result-of-environmental-release-of-oseltamivir
#18
Anna Gillman
Oseltamivir is the best available anti-influenza drug and has therefore been stockpiled worldwide in large quantities as part of influenza pandemic preparedness planning. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is stable and is not removed by conventional sewage treatment. Active OC has been detected in river water at concentrations up to 0.86 µg/L. Although the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A virus (IAV) are wild waterfowl that reside in aquatic environments, the ecologic risks associated with environmental OC release and its potential to generate resistant viral variants among wild birds has largely been unknown...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713010/phosphorylated-codonopsis-pilosula-polysaccharide-could-inhibit-the-virulence-of-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-compared-with-codonopsis-pilosula-polysaccharide
#19
Ke Ming, Yun Chen, Fangke Yao, Jintong Shi, Jingjing Yang, Hongxu Du, Xunyi Wang, Yixuan Wang, Jiaguo Liu
To screen effective anti-duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) drugs, we applied STMP-STPP method to prepare phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS), the phosphorylation-modified product of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPPS). The IR spectrum and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were subsequently used to analyze the structure of pCPPS. Several tests were conducted to compare the anti-DHAV activities of CPPS and pCPPS. The MTT method was used to compare the effect of the drugs on DHAV-infected duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs), and the Reed-Muench assay was employed to observe changes in the virulence of DHAV...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709401/construction-of-a-recombinant-duck-enteritis-virus-vaccine-expressing-hemagglutinin-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-evaluation-of-its-efficacy-in-ducks
#20
Ying Sun, Chenghuai Yang, Junping Li, Ling Li, Minghui Cao, Qihong Li, Huijiao Li
H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
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