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duck infections

Zhong Zou, Ji Ma, Kun Huang, Huanchun Chen, Ziduo Liu, Meilin Jin
As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) and type 3 (DHAV-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1) containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1) and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3) between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Aditi Makhija, Sachin Kumar
Duck plaque virus (DPV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae. The live attenuated vaccine is the only way to protect the ducks from DPV infection. The ineffectiveness of vaccine is one of the major causes of DPV outbreaks in the field condition. DPV is not well characterized for its pathogenicity and molecular biology in poultry. In the present study, we discuss briefly about the biology of DPV and its proteins under different conditions of temperature and pH in order to evaluate its infectivity under adverse physical conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Tatsufumi Usui, Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Since 2014, clade H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Lijiao Zhang, Qingshui Zhang, Jun Wang, Na An, Yanxin Cao, Guanghua Fu, Xueying Hu, Yu Huang, Jingliang Su
Batai virus (BATV) belongs to the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It has been isolated from mosquitos, pigs, cattle, and humans throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe, and causes clinical signs in domestic animals and humans. Here, we report the isolation of BATV from a domestic duck flock. Genome sequence analysis revealed clustering of this isolate in the Africa-Asia lineage. The virus replicated in mosquitos and vertebrate host cells, showing different phenotypic characteristics, and showed the potential to infect mice...
October 12, 2016: Virus Genes
Anna Gillman
Oseltamivir is the best available anti-influenza drug and has therefore been stockpiled worldwide in large quantities as part of influenza pandemic preparedness planning. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is stable and is not removed by conventional sewage treatment. Active OC has been detected in river water at concentrations up to 0.86 µg/L. Although the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A virus (IAV) are wild waterfowl that reside in aquatic environments, the ecologic risks associated with environmental OC release and its potential to generate resistant viral variants among wild birds has largely been unknown...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Ke Ming, Yun Chen, Fangke Yao, Jintong Shi, Jingjing Yang, Hongxu Du, Xunyi Wang, Yixuan Wang, Jiaguo Liu
To screen effective anti-duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) drugs, we applied STMP-STPP method to prepare phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS), the phosphorylation-modified product of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPPS). The IR spectrum and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were subsequently used to analyze the structure of pCPPS. Several tests were conducted to compare the anti-DHAV activities of CPPS and pCPPS. The MTT method was used to compare the effect of the drugs on DHAV-infected duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs), and the Reed-Muench assay was employed to observe changes in the virulence of DHAV...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ying Sun, Chenghuai Yang, Junping Li, Ling Li, Minghui Cao, Qihong Li, Huijiao Li
H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
J F Provencher, M R Forbes, M L Mallory, S Wilson, H G Gilchrist
Arctic wildlife can be exposed to high mercury (Hg) levels, and are also naturally exposed to gastrointestinal parasites that can reduce condition and negatively affect reproductive output and/or survival in similar ways. Importantly, both Hg and parasites are increasing in wildlife in some Arctic regions. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) to explore how Hg in association with both natural levels and experimentally reduced parasitic infections, affect reproduction and survival...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Miaomiao Zhang, Xingxing Zhang, Kaidi Xu, Qiaoyang Teng, Qinfang Liu, Xuesong Li, Jianmei Yang, Jianqing Xu, Hongjun Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zejun Li
Three H10 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic ducks in China, designated as SH602/H10N8, FJ1761/H10N3 and SX3180/H10N7, with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.39, 1.60, and 1.27, respectively. These H10 viruses showed a complex pathology pattern in different species, although full genome characterizations of the viruses could not identify any molecular determinant underlying the observed phenotypes. Our findings describe the pathobiology of the three H10 subtype AIVs in chickens, ducks, and mice...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Haibo Wu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND: H5N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect individuals that are in frequent contact with infected birds. In 2013, we isolated a novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N2 AIV strain [A/duck/Zhejiang/6DK19/2013(H5N2) (6DK19)] from a duck in Eastern China. This study was undertaken to understand the adaptive processes that led enhanced replication and increased virulence of 6DK19 in mammals. 6DK19 was adapted to mice using serial lung-to-lung passages (10 passages total). The virulence of the wild-type virus (WT-6DK19) and mouse-adapted virus (MA-6DK19) was determined in mice...
2016: Virology Journal
Pengfei Cui, Guohua Deng, Jianzhong Shi, Huihui Kong, Liling Liu, Yuntao Guan, Yasuo Suzuki, Hualan Chen
H7N7 avian influenza viruses have been widely detected in wild birds and domestic poultry since they were first detected in chickens in Italy in 1902. They can occasionally transmit to humans. Here, we isolated six H7N7 viruses in live poultry markets during routine surveillance from 2010 to 2013. Sequences analysis revealed that these viruses are reassortants bearing genes of H3N8, H7N3, H7N7, and H10N7 influenza viruses detected in wild birds and ducks, and can be categorized into three genotypes (A, B, and C)...
September 20, 2016: Virology
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Niranjan Mishra, Rohit Kumar Khetan, Vijendra Pal Singh
Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Eric DeJesus, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Diane Smith, Dong-Hun Lee, Erica Spackman, Darrell R Kapczynski, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary L Killian, David L Suarez, David E Swayne, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the United States (U.S.) during 2015. In order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission of poultry H5N2 viruses were investigated in chickens and mallards in comparison to the wild duck 2014 U.S. index H5N2 virus. The four poultry isolates examined had a lower mean bird infectious dose than the index virus but still transmitted poorly to direct contacts. In mallards, two of the H5N2 poultry isolates had similar high infectivity and transmissibility as the index H5N2 virus, the H5N8 U...
September 12, 2016: Virology
Shaohui Wang, Xin Liu, Xuan Xu, Denghui Yang, Dong Wang, Xiangan Han, Yonghong Shi, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Daxin Peng, Shengqing Yu
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
De-Kang Zhu, Xiao-Heng Song, Jiang-Bo Wang, Wang-Shu Zhou, Xu-Ming Ou, Hong-Xi Chen, Ma-Feng Liu, Ming-Shu Wang, Ren-Yong Jia, Shun Chen, Kun-Feng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiao-Yue Chen, An-Chun Cheng
Avian tuberculosis is a contagious disease affecting various domestic and wild bird species, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium . It is reported extremely rarely in commercial poultry flocks and has not been reported in commercial domestic ducks to date, with domestic ducks reported to be moderately resistant to M. avium infection. Here, we report the outbreak of avian tuberculosis in commercial Pekin duck ( Anas platyrhynchos domestica) flocks. Postmortem and histopathologic findings included nodules presenting in the visceral organs of ducks, and granulomas with central caseous necrosis surrounded by infiltrating lymphocytes...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Danielle M Yugo, Ruediger Hauck, H L Shivaprasad, Xiang-Jin Meng
Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Tian-Fei Yu, Bo Ma, Jun-Wei Wang
Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Qingqing Li, Renyong Jia, Siyang Liu, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Anchun Cheng
BACKGROUND: The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) strain, designated SCP01, was isolated and identified from a Sichuan Cherry Valley duck in Southwestern China. To determine the origination and evolution of this isolated strain, we carried out complete genome sequencing of this strain. FINDINGS: Sequencing of the nucleotide sequence of DHBV strain SCP01 revealed a genome size of 3021 bp that contained three open reading frames, designated as C, S, and P, which were consistent with those of other duck hepatitis B viruses nucleotide sequences available in the GenBank of NCBI...
2016: SpringerPlus
H Nuradji, J Bingham, J Payne, J Harper, S Lowther, H Wibawa, N T Long, J Meers
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes high mortality of infected birds, with infection in multiple organs, including in feathers. Feathers have been proposed as samples for diagnosis of HPAI infection in birds, and this study is part of a broader investigation validating the use of feathers for diagnostic purposes. To understand and characterize the morphological basis for feather infection, sections from 7 different skin tracts of ducks and chickens infected with 3 different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus from Indonesia and Vietnam were examined histologically...
August 31, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
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