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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100299/pathogenicity-of-modified-bat-influenza-virus-with-different-m-genes-and-its-reassortment-potential-with-swine-influenza-a-virus
#1
Jianmei Yang, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuekun Lang, Jerome Nietfeld, Yuhao Li, Michael Duff, Yonghai Li, Yuju Yang, Haixia Liu, Bin Zhou, David E Wentworth, Juergen A Richt, Zejun Li, Wenjun Ma
In our previous studies the reassortant virus containing only the PR8 H1N1 matrix (M) gene in the background of the modified bat influenza Bat09:mH1mN1 virus could be generated. However, whether M genes from other origins can be rescued in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and whether the resulting novel reassortant virus is virulent remain unknown. Herein, two reassortant viruses were generated in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus containing either a North American or a Eurasian swine influenza virus M gene...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096614/evidence-of-hemolysis-in-pigs-infected-with-highly-virulent-african-swine-fever-virus
#2
Zaven Karalyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Elina Arakelova, Violeta Aivazyan, Marina Tatoyan, Armen Kotsinyan, Roza Izmailyan, Elena Karalova
AIM: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. RESULTS: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089613/high-frequency-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-from-south-brazil-and-close-similarity-to-human-hev-isolates
#3
Ana Maria Passos-Castilho, Celso Francisco Hernandes Granato
Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113nt sequence of ORF2...
January 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081123/yersinia-enterocolitica-a-neglected-cause-of-human-enteric-infections-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#4
Daniel Saraka, Cyril Savin, Stephane Kouassi, Bakary Cissé, Eugène Koffi, Nicolas Cabanel, Sylvie Brémont, Hortense Faye-Kette, Mireille Dosso, Elisabeth Carniel
BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#5
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077590/molecular-epidemiology-of-ascaris-infection-among-pigs-in-iowa
#6
Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai, Kaitlyn Murphy, Tymbrie Snobl, Christopher Bader, Cody West, Kylie Thompson, Matthew T Brewer
Ascaris is a large roundworm parasite that infects humans and pigs throughout the world. Molecular markers have been used to study parasite transmission in Ascaris-endemic and -nonendemic regions of the world. In the United States, ascariasis still persists in commercial swine and has been designated a neglected disease of poverty in humans. However, relatively few data are available for evaluation of zoonotic transmission. In the present study, we obtained adult worms from abattoirs and characterized each worm on the basis of the gene encoding nuclear internal transcribed sequence (ITS) and mitochondrial cox1 Restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of ITS revealed swine, human, and hybrid genotypes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069290/classical-swine-fever-vaccines-state-of-the-art
#7
Sandra Blome, Claudia Moß, Ilona Reimann, Patricia König, Martin Beer
Due to its impact on animal health and pig industry, classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs. To control the disease, safe and highly efficacious live attenuated vaccines exist for decades. These vaccines have usually outstanding efficacy and safety but lack differentiability of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA or marker strategy). In contrast, the first generation of E2 subunit marker vaccines shows constraints in efficacy, application, and production. To overcome these limitations, new generations of marker vaccines are developed...
January 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068884/evaluation-of-protein-spectra-cluster-analysis-for-streptococcus-spp-identification-from-various-swine-clinical-samples
#8
Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Renan E Mesquita, Daniela S Doto, Franco F Calderaro, Fernando N de Souza, Ana Paula G Christ, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Traditional microbiological methods enable genus-level identification of Streptococcus spp. isolates. However, as the species of this genus show broad phenotypic variation, species-level identification or even differentiation within the genus is difficult. Herein we report the evaluation of protein spectra cluster analysis for the identification of Streptococcus species associated with disease in swine by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 250 S...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063923/phylogenetic-analysis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-strains-isolated-from-slaughter-age-pigs-in-colombia
#9
Jorge E Forero, Cristian Gutiérrez-Vergara, Jaime Parra Suescún, Guillermo Correa, Berardo Rodríguez, Lina A Gutiérrez, Francisco J Díaz, Albeiro López-Herrera
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that causes acute hepatitis in humans, and can be transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Pigs are considered to be a reservoir for this infection-mainly where the disease is not endemic. In a previous study conducted in Antioquia, which is a region in Colombia where the production and consumption of pork meat is higher than in the rest of the country, the presence of anti-HEV IgG-type antibodies was reported in slaughter-age pigs. Aiming to identify the HEV genotype circulating in swine, animal liver, and feces samples from five swine cattle slaughterhouses located in six different sub-regions of Antioquia were collected...
January 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063479/positive-immunomodulatory-effects-of-heterologous-dna-vaccine-modified-live-vaccine-prime-boost-immunization-against-the-highly-pathogenic-prrsv-infection
#10
Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Teerawut Nedumpun, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Jirapat Arunorat, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Sanipa Suradhat
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is one of the most important swine pathogens, and causes a major economic impact worldwide. Recently, a new variant type 2 PRRSV, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) has emerged and continued to circulate in Southeast Asia region. Currently, commercially available PRRSV vaccines, modified live PRRS vaccines (MLV) are not able to provide complete protection against HP-PRRSV and been reported to induce negative immunomodulatory effects. Interestingly, a novel DNA vaccine was developed and successfully used to improve PRRSV-specific immune responses following MLV vaccination...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062012/characterization-of-the-interaction-of-african-swine-fever-virus-with-monocytes-and-derived-macrophage-subsets
#11
Giulia Franzoni, Simon P Graham, Silvia Dei Giudici, Piero Bonelli, Giovannantonio Pilo, Antonio G Anfossi, Marco Pittau, Paola S Nicolussi, Alberto Laddomada, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine available. The ASF virus (ASFV) primarily infects cells of the myeloid lineage and this tropism is thought to be crucial for disease pathogenesis. A detailed in vitro characterization of the interactions of a virulent Sardinian isolate (22653/14) and a tissue culture adapted avirulent strain (BA71V) of ASFV with porcine monocytes, un-activated (moMΦ), classically (moM1) and alternatively (moM2) activated monocyte-derived macrophages was conducted in an attempt to better understand this relationship...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061998/effects-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-on-porcine-nasal-cavity-dendritic-cells
#12
Yumeng Shen, Weiwei Hu, Yanna Wei, Zhixin Feng, Qian Yang
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061875/regional-level-risk-factors-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-african-swine-fever-in-west-and-east-africa
#13
Zheng Y X Huang, Frank van Langevelde, Karanina J Honer, Marc Naguib, Willem F de Boer
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) causes severe socio-economic impacts due to high mortality and trade restrictions. Many risk factors of ASF have been identified at farm level. However, understanding the risk factors, especially wild suid hosts, determining ASF transmission at regional level remains limited. METHODS: Based on ASF outbreak data in domestic pigs during 2006-2014, we here tested, separately for West and East Africa, which risk factors were linked to ASF presence at a regional level, using generalized linear mixed models...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061786/attenuated-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-double-deletion-mutant-s-8%C3%A2-clpp-apxiic-confers-protection-against-homologous-or-heterologous-strain-challenge
#14
Fang Xie, Gang Li, Long Zhou, Yanhe Zhang, Ning Cui, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which leads to large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, S-8△clpP△apxIIC, a double-deletion mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae was constructed, and its safety and protective efficacy were evaluated in pigs. RESULTS: The S-8△clpP△apxIIC mutant exhibited attenuated virulence in a murine (BALB/c) model, and caused no detrimental effects on pigs even at a dose of up to 1...
January 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059118/pseudorabies-virus-infection-inhibits-autophagy-in-permissive-cells-in-vitro
#15
Mingxia Sun, Linlin Hou, Yan-Dong Tang, Yonggang Liu, Shujie Wang, Jingfei Wang, Nan Shen, Tongqing An, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
A large number of studies have demonstrated that autophagy is involved in the infection processes of different pathogens. Autophagy is now recognized as an essential component of innate and adaptive immunity. Several herpesviruses have developed various strategies to evade this antiviral mechanism. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a swine herpesvirus with a broad host range that causes devastating disease in infected pigs. In this study, we described the interaction between PRV and autophagy for the first time. PRV infection had a dual effect on the cell autophagy response; during the early period of infection, PRV virions induced autophagy without viral replication, and with viral protein expression, PRV reduced the basal level of autophagy in several permissive cells...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056961/rope-based-oral-fluid-sampling-for-early-detection-of-classical-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-at-group-level
#16
Klaas Dietze, Anna Tucakov, Tatjana Engel, Sabine Wirtz, Klaus Depner, Anja Globig, Robert Kammerer, Susan Mouchantat
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive sampling techniques based on the analysis of oral fluid specimen have gained substantial importance in the field of swine herd management. Methodological advances have a focus on endemic viral diseases in commercial pig production. More recently, these approaches have been adapted to non-invasive sampling of wild boar for transboundary animal disease detection for which these effective population level sampling methods have not been available. In this study, a rope-in-a-bait based oral fluid sampling technique was tested to detect classical swine fever virus nucleic acid shedding from experimentally infected domestic pigs...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056818/infectious-tenosynovitis-with-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-a-case-report-on-an-occupational-pathogen
#17
Kristine Hofseth, Håvard Dalen, Leif Kibsgaard, Solrun Nebb, Angela Kümmel, Arne Mehl
BACKGROUND: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an established animal pathogen, which may cause infections in humans. It is a gram-positive rod and found in the tonsils or the digestive tracts of animals. The bacterium is occupationally related, as usually only people with frequent animal contacts are infected. We report a case of a patient who was admitted with an infectious tenosynovitis with bloodstream infection due to E. rhusiopathiae, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of a tenosynovitis with systemic manifestation associated with this bacterium...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053104/structural-insight-into-african-swine-fever-virus-a179l-mediated-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#18
Suresh Banjara, Sofia Caria, Linda K Dixon, Mark G Hinds, Marc Kvansakul
: Programmed cell death is a tightly controlled process critical for the removal of damaged or infected cells. Pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are pivotal mediators of this process. African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus, the only member of the Asfarviridae family, and harbors A179L, a putative Bcl-2 like protein. A179L has been shown to bind to several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, however the hierarchy of binding and the structural basis for apoptosis inhibition are currently not understood...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045899/characterisation-of-antigen-b-protein-species-present-in-the-hydatid-cyst-fluid-of-echinococcus-canadensis-g7-genotype
#19
Ana Maite Folle, Eduardo S Kitano, Analía Lima, Magdalena Gil, Marcela Cucher, Gustavo Mourglia-Ettlin, Leo K Iwai, Mara Rosenzvit, Carlos Batthyány, Ana María Ferreira
The larva of cestodes belonging to the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) complex causes cystic echinococcosis (CE). It is a globally distributed zoonosis with significant economic and public health impact. The most immunogenic and specific Echinococcus-genus antigen for human CE diagnosis is antigen B (AgB), an abundant lipoprotein of the hydatid cyst fluid (HF). The AgB protein moiety (apolipoprotein) is encoded by five genes (AgB1-AgB5), which generate mature 8 kDa proteins (AgB8/1-AgB8/5). These genes seem to be differentially expressed among Echinococcus species...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044192/porcine-mast-cells-infected-with-h1n1-influenza-virus-release-histamine-and-inflammatory-cytokines-and-chemokines
#20
In Hong Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Sang Heui Seo
Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines...
January 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
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