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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631596/cholesterol-25-hydroxylase-acts-as-a-host-restriction-factor-on-pseudorabies-virus-replication
#1
Jiang Wang, Lei Zeng, Li Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shao-Fang Lu, Sheng-Li Ming, Guo-Li Li, Bo Wan, Ke-Gong Tian, Guo-Yu Yang, Bei-Bei Chu
Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) catalyses the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) from cholesterol by adding a second hydroxyl group at position 25. The aim of this study was to examine the antiviral effect of CH25H on pseudorabies virus (PRV), a swine pathogen that can cause devastating disease and economic losses worldwide. The results showed that porcine ch25h was induced by either interferon or PRV infection. PRV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/21 cells) was attenuated by CH25H overexpression and enhanced by silencing of CH25H...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624926/limited-awareness-of-animal-influenza-prevention-and-control-among-dai-lue-smallholder-farmers-in-southwest-china
#2
Xiang Zhao, Gareth Davey
Awareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18-83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622867/evaluation-of-the-involvement-of-mice-mus-musculus-in-the-epidemiology-of-porcine-proliferative-enteropathy
#3
Michelle de P Gabardo, José Paulo H Sato, Amanda Gabriele de S Daniel, Mariana R Andrade, Carlos Eduardo R Pereira, Talita P Rezende, Luísa V Arantes Otoni, Lucas Avelino Rezende, Roberto M C Guedes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal-oral transmission of L. intracellularis between mice and pigs. The study was divided into two parts. The first part aimed to determine whether mice could be infected by feces from pigs that are experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Thirty-four Swiss mice received L. intracellularis PCR-positive feces from experimentally infected pigs (M1) for four consecutive days. Twelve other mice received swine negative feces (M2). Pools of mice feces were collected on alternating days post-exposure (dpe)...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622866/pathology-and-genetic-findings-in-a-rare-case-of-mycobacterium-caprae-infection-in-a-sow
#4
Benedetta Amato, Teresa Maria Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Elena Mangano, Beatrice Maria Boniotti, Lodovica Maria Pacciarini, Sergio Migliore, Maria Vitale, Michele Fiasconaro, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti
Bovine tuberculosis, a reemerging zoonosis in diverse ecological scenarios, has been reported in the autochthonous Nebrodi black pig breed population used for meat production in Italy. During a routine abattoir inspection in 2013, 24 of 299 carcasses (8%) of Nebrodi black pigs presented tuberculosis-like lesions at pathologic examination. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 23 animals and M. caprae from a 3-year-old sow. The sow showed severe diffuse lesions involving the visceral organs, right coxofemoral joint, and mammary glands...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622863/down-regulating-heat-shock-protein-27-is-involved-in-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-escaping-from-host-antiviral-mechanism
#5
Min Sun, Zeyanqiu Yu, Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), is the etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED), causes high mortality with severe vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration in swine farms. In this study, the PEDV strain 85-7 could be proliferated effectively in MARC-145 cells, and caused a distinct inhibition of the expression of interferon-β (IFN-β, encoded by IFNB1), which suggested that a full understanding how this virus manipulates the host immune responses is critical in the fight against the spread of PEDV...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622862/identification-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-putative-hemolysin-protein-a-and-characterization-of-its-immunoreactivity
#6
Jehyung Kim, Gayeon Won, Suyeon Park, John Hwa Lee
Despite the recent global increase in fatal endemic outbreaks of proliferative enteropathy (PE) caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracelluralis (LI) in the swine industry, development of effective prevention strategies or immunodiagnostic tests has been delayed due to the difficulty of cultivating this pathogen in vitro. Although several genetic analyses have been performed at the level of gene transcription after the complete genome sequence of LI was made available, the mechanism of LI infection and virulence genes remain unidentified...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622852/efficacy-of-e2-glycoprotein-fused-to-porcine-cd154-as-a-novel-chimeric-subunit-vaccine-to-prevent-classical-swine-fever-virus-vertical-transmission-in-pregnant-sows
#7
Sara Muñoz-González, Yusmel Sordo, Marta Pérez-Simó, Marisela Suárez, Albert Canturri, Maria Pilar Rodriguez, María Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Mariano Domingo, Mario Pablo Estrada, Llilianne Ganges
Here we evaluated the effect of double vaccination with a novel subunit marker vaccine candidate based in the CSFV E2 glycoprotein fused to the porcine CD154 to prevent CSFV vertical transmission. A lentivirus-based gene delivery system was used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2 fused to porcine CD154 molecule. Six pregnant sows were distributed in two groups and at 64days of gestation animals numbered 1-4 (group 1) were vaccinated via intramuscular inoculation with 50μg of E2-CD154 subunit vaccine...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620363/proteomic-analysis-of-trichinella-spiralis-adult-worm-excretory-secretory-proteins-recognized-by-sera-of-patients-with-early-trichinellosis
#8
Zhong Q Wang, Ruo D Liu, Ge G Sun, Yan Y Song, Peng Jiang, Xi Zhang, Jing Cui
The most commonly used serodiagnostic antigens for trichinellosis are the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML), but the specific antibodies against the ML ES antigens are usually negative during early stage of Trichinella infection. The recent studies demonstrated that T. spiralis adult worm (AW) antigens were recognized by mouse or swine infection sera on Western blot as early as 7-15 days post-infection (dpi), the AW antigens might contain the early diagnostic markers for trichinellosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619168/comparison-of-asian-porcine-high-fever-disease-isolates-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-to-united-states-isolates-for-their-ability-to-cause-disease-and-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-swine
#9
Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving, Mitchel V Palmer, Allyn Spear, Tracy L Nicholson, Kay S Faaberg, Kelly M Lager
Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isolates of PRRSV predispose to secondary bacterial infections as well, but the severity of disease that occurred in Asia in pigs infected with these HP-PRRSV strains has not been reported in the U.S. The objectives of this research were to compare the pathogenesis of Asian and U...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619150/alpha-beta-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-mice-significantly-enhances-susceptibility-of-the-animals-to-pseudorabies-virus-infection
#10
Jingyun Wei, Yanmei Ma, Long Wang, Xiaojuan Chi, Ruoxiang Yan, Song Wang, Xinxin Li, Xiaoyong Chen, Wenhan Shao, Ji-Long Chen
Pseudorabies virus, one of the neurotropic viruses, can infect numerous mammals. In particular, pseudorabies virus infection of swine occurs worldwide, and is a major threat to swine industry. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between pseudorabies virus and host innate immune system is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of interferon α/β (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) in the pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus in a mouse model. The results showed that IFNAR-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice were highly susceptible to the virus infection, as evidenced by markedly reduced survival rate of infected animals and increased viral replication...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619095/integrated-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-pk-pd-model-to-evaluate-the-in-vivo-antimicrobial-activity-of-marbofloxacin-against-pasteurella-multocida-in-piglets
#11
Qing Lin Zeng, Xian Mei, Jia Su, Xiao Hong Li, Wen Guang Xiong, Yan Lu, Zhen Ling Zeng
BACKGROUND: Marbofloxacin is a veterinary fluoroquinolone with high activity against Pasteurella multocida. We evaluated it's in vivo activity against P. multocida based on in vivo time-kill data in swine using a tissue-cage model. A series of dosages ranging from 0.15 to 2.5 mg/kg were administered intramuscularly after challenge with P. multocida type B, serotype 2. RESULTS: The ratio of the 24 h area under the concentration-time curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24TCF/MIC) was the best PK/PD index correlated with the in vivo antibacterial effectiveness of marbofloxacin (R2 = 0...
June 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612010/recombinant-swinepox-virus-expressing-glycoprotein-e2-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-confers-complete-protection-in-pigs-upon-viral-challenge
#12
Huixing Lin, Zhe Ma, Lei Chen, Hongjie Fan
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and serious viral disease that affects the pig industry worldwide. The glycoprotein E2 of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can induce neutralizing antibodies, and it is widely used for novel vaccine development. To explore the development of a vaccine against CSFV infections, the gene of glycoprotein E2 was inserted into the swinepox virus (SPV) genome by homologous recombination. The culture titers of rSPV-E2 remained at about 4.3 × 10(6) TCID50 for more than 60 passages in PK15 and swine testis cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611852/cnv-analysis-of-host-responses-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection
#13
El Hamidi A Hay, Igseo Choi, Lingyang Xu, Yang Zhou, Robert R R Rowland, Joan K Lunney, George E Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating disease with a significant impact on the swine industry causing major economic losses. The objective of this study is to examine copy number variations (CNVs) associated with the group-specific host responses to PRRS virus infection. We performed a genome-wide CNV analysis using 660 animals genotyped with on the porcine SNP60 BeadChip and discovered 7097 CNVs and 271 CNV regions (CNVRs). For this study, we used two established traits related to host response to the virus, i...
2017: Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611758/genome-wide-analyses-reveal-genes-subject-to-positive-selection-in-pasteurella-multocida
#14
Peili Cao, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Qian Jiang, Zhuofei Xu, Liandong Qu
Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, has led to a broad range of diseases in mammals and birds, including fowl cholera in poultry, pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis in swine and rabbit, hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle, and bite infections in humans. In order to better interpret the genetic diversity and adaptation evolution of this pathogen, seven genomes of P. multocida strains isolated from fowls, rabbit and pigs were determined by using high-throughput sequencing approach. Together with publicly available P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611246/inhibition-of-avian-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-human-cells-by-host-restriction-factor-tufm-is-correlated-with-autophagy
#15
Shu-Ming Kuo, Chi-Jene Chen, Shih-Cheng Chang, Tzu-Jou Liu, Yi-Hsiang Chen, Sheng-Yu Huang, Shin-Ru Shih
Avian influenza A viruses generally do not replicate efficiently in human cells, but substitution of glutamic acid (Glu, E) for lysine (Lys, K) at residue 627 of avian influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) can serve to overcome host restriction and facilitate human infectivity. Although PB2 residue 627 is regarded as a species-specific signature of influenza A viruses, host restriction factors associated with PB2627E have yet to be fully investigated. We conducted immunoprecipitation, followed by differential proteomic analysis, to identify proteins associating with PB2627K (human signature) and PB2627E (avian signature) of influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) virus, and the results indicated that Tu elongation factor, mitochondrial (TUFM), had a higher binding affinity for PB2627E than PB2627K in transfected human cells...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608816/mechanisms-of-adaptive-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#16
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
The adaptive immune response is necessary for the development of protective immunity against infectious diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a genetically heterogeneous and rapidly evolving RNA virus, is the most burdensome pathogen of swine health and wellbeing worldwide. Viral infection induces antigen-specific immunity that ultimately clears the infection. However, the resulting immune memory, induced by virulent or attenuated vaccine viruses, is inconsistently protective against diverse viral strains...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605956/generation-of-pcv2-in-pk15-cells-transfected-with-recombinant-baculovirus-containing-a-1-1-copy-of-the-pcv2-genome
#17
Jie Cai, Xiaohong Xie, Yi Hu, Yang Zhan, Wanting Yu, Aibing Wang, Naidong Wang
Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) caused by PCV2 are responsible for severe economic losses in the swine industry. The mechanism of PCV2 replication has not been fully elucidated yet. PCV2 may be successfully rescued by means of either an infectious DNA clone containing the full length of the viral genomic DNA, or from PCV2-infected clinical tissues in PK15 cell culture. However, viruses harvested by both methods have low titres. In this study, PCV2 was prepared with a higher titre from PK15 cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses containing 1PCV2 (one stem-loop structure) or 1...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603717/assessment-of-the-risk-to-public-health-due-to-use-of-antimicrobials-in-pigs-an-example-of-pleuromutilins-in-denmark
#18
Lis Alban, Johanne Ellis-Iversen, Margit Andreasen, Jan Dahl, Ute W Sönksen
Antibiotic consumption in pigs can be optimized by developing treatment guidelines, which encourage veterinarians to use effective drugs with low probability of developing resistance of importance for human health. In Denmark, treatment guidelines for use in swine production are currently under review at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. Use of pleuromutilins in swine has previously been associated with a very low risk for human health. However, recent international data and sporadic findings of novel resistance genes suggest a change of risk...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602591/skin-grafts-from-genetically-modified-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-miniature-swine-a-functional-equivalent-to-allografts
#19
D A Leonard, C Mallard, A Albritton, R Torabi, M Mastroianni, D H Sachs, J M Kurtz, C L Cetrulo
Burn is associated with a considerable burden of morbidity worldwide. Early excision of burned tissue and skin grafting of the resultant wound has been established as a mainstay of modern burn therapy. However, in large burns, donor sites for autologous skin may be limited. Numerous alternatives, from cadaver skin to synthetic substitutes have been described, each with varying benefits and limitations. We previously proposed the use of genetically modified (alpha-1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout, GalT-KO) porcine skin as a viable skin alternative...
June 8, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601004/novel-thioglycosyl-analogs-of-glycosyltransferase-substrates-as-antiviral-compounds-against-classical-swine-fever-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus
#20
Gabriela Pastuch-Gawolek, Binay Chaubey, Boguslaw Szewczyk, Ewelina Krol
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are important pathogens for which new therapeutic approaches are in high demand. Herein, we report the synthesis of newly designed thioglycosyl analogs of glycosyltransferase substrates which were evaluated using cell-based assays for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against both viruses. The antiviral activity of synthesized compounds against CSFV and HCV was confirmed using pseudo-plaque reduction assays where a significant arrest of viral growth was observed in the presence of selected compounds...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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