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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340428/vaccination-as-a-control-strategy-against-salmonella-infection-in-pigs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
M L de la Cruz, I Conrado, A Nault, A Perez, L Dominguez, J Alvarez
Consumption or handling of improperly processed or cooked pork is considered one of the top sources for foodborne salmonellosis, a common cause of intestinal disease worldwide. Asymptomatic carrier pigs may contaminate pork at slaughtering; therefore, pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella load can contribute to reduce public health risk. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of vaccination on controlling Salmonella in swine farms, but results are highly variable due to the heterogeneity in vaccines and vaccination protocols...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340426/porcine-parvovirus-induces-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-pk-15-cells-mediated-by-toll-like-receptors
#2
Liyan Cao, Jianfei Chen, Yanwu Wei, Hongyan Shi, Xin Zhang, Jing Yuan, Da Shi, Jianbo Liu, Xiangdong Zhu, Xin Wang, Shangjin Cui, Li Feng
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a pathogenic factor that primarily induces severe reproductive failure of pregnant swine, which results in extensive losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, a potential mechanism of PPV-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) by infection in porcine kidney cells (PK-15) was elucidated for the first time. The subcellular localization of p65 analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that PPV infection induced p65 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#3
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335505/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-induces-autophagy-to-benefit-its-replication
#4
Xiaozhen Guo, Mengjia Zhang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Xin Tan, Hengke Guo, Wei Zeng, Guokai Yan, Atta Muhammad Memon, Zhonghua Li, Yinxing Zhu, Bingzhou Zhang, Xugang Ku, Meizhou Wu, Shengxian Fan, Qigai He
The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference...
March 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331099/interferon-inducible-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-protein-acts-as-an-antiviral-effector-against-classical-swine-fever-virus-via-the-mda5-mediated-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathway
#6
Lian-Feng Li, Jiahui Yu, Yuexiu Zhang, Qian Yang, Yongfeng Li, Lingkai Zhang, Jinghan Wang, Su Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), which poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) play a key role in host antiviral defense. We have previously screened the porcine 2' -5' -oligoadenylate synthase-like protein (pOASL) as a potential anti-CSFV ISG using a reporter CSFV. This study aimed to clarify the underlying antiviral mechanism of pOASL against CSFV. We confirmed that CSFV replication was significantly suppressed in lentivirus-delivered, pOASL-overexpressing PK-15 cells, whereas silencing the expression of endogenous pOASL by small interfering RNAs markedly enhanced CSFV growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#7
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321029/influenza-a-virus-infection-in-japanese-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-leucomystax
#8
Hiroshi Shimoda, Dung VAN Nguyen, Kenzo Yonemitsu, Shohei Minami, Nao Nagata, Nanami Hara, Ryusei Kuwata, Shin Murakami, Yuuji Kodera, Tsutomu Takeda, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Taisuke Horimoto, Ken Maeda
Serum samples were collected from 385 wild boars between 2010 and 2013 to examine the seroprevalence of influenza A virus (IAV) in Japan. Antibodies against IAV were identified using a commercial kit in 13 wild boars (3.4%). To identify the serotypes, positive sera were examined by virus-neutralization test using representative serotypes and strains. Three wild boars in Yamaguchi and four in Tochigi showed the highest antibody titers against the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus and classical swine H1N1 virus strains, respectively...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#9
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317153/pharmacokinetics-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-gamithromycin-after-intravenous-administration-in-foals
#10
S Berlin, T Randow, E Scheuch, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
The long-acting azalide antibiotic gamithromycin is marketed for intramuscular treatment of bovine and swine infections. Off-label use in foals leads to severe local lesions likely caused by hyperosmolality of the injected solution. We provide evidence from a pharmacokinetic study in 10 warm-blooded healthy foals for intravenous bolus injection of gamithromycin diluted in distilled water to be a safe and well tolerated alternative. By intravenous dosing, markedly higher plasma exposure and better penetration into bronchoalveolar lavage cells but lower distribution into epithelial lining fluid are achieved as after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301166/brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-regulates-mucin-glycosylation-synthesis-inducing-an-increased-expression-of-core-2-o-glycans-in-porcine-colon
#11
Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Macarena Paz Quintana-Hayashi, Maxime Mahu, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae causes swine dysentery (SD), leading to global financial losses to the pig industry. Infection with this pathogen results in an increase of B. hyodysenteriae binding sites on mucins, along with increased colonic mucin secretion. We here predict that B. hyodysenteriae modifies the glycosylation pattern of the porcine intestinal mucus layer to optimize its host niche. We characterized the swine colonic mucin O-glycome and identified the differences in glycosylation between B. hyodysenteriae infected and non-infected pigs...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300645/boar-hunting-and-brucellosis-caused-by-brucella-suis
#12
REVIEW
Carlos Franco-Paredes, Daniel Chastain, Peter Taylor, Stephen Stocking, Brenda Sellers
Brucellosis remains as a significant public health concern in many areas where the infection persists in domestic hosts (i.e. goats, cattle, and domestic swine) with subsequent risk of transmission to human populations. Brucellosis caused by B. suis remains an important threat to human populations in many countries exposed to domestic and feral swine. In the U.S., swine brucellosis has been under control for many years. Meanwhile, it is a widespread infection among feral swine, particularly in the Southeastern United States; and exposure to infected animals pose a growing threat to humans...
March 12, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298603/african-swine-fever-virus-np868r-capping-enzyme-promotes-reovirus-rescue-during-reverse-genetics-by-promoting-reovirus-protein-expression-virion-assembly-and-rna-incorporation-into-infectious-virions
#13
Heather E Eaton, Takeshi Kobayashi, Terence S Dermody, Randal N Johnston, Philippe H Jais, Maya Shmulevitz
Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296281/understanding-african-swine-fever-infection-dynamics-in-sardinia-using-a-spatially-explicit-transmission-model-in-domestic-pig-farms
#14
L Mur, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, E Fernández-Carrión, C Jurado, S Rolesu, F Feliziani, A Laddomada, B Martínez-López
African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence...
March 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296132/polyvalent-2d-entry-inhibitors-for-pseudorabies-and-african-swine-fever-virus
#15
Benjamin Ziem, Jessica Rahn, Ievgen Donskyi, Kim Silberreis, Luis Cuellar, Jens Dernedde, Günther Keil, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Rainer Haag
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most dangerous viruses for pigs and is endemic in Africa but recently also spread into the Russian Federation and the Eastern border of the EU. So far there is no vaccine or antiviral drug available to curtail the infection. Thus, control strategies based on novel inhibitors are urgently needed. Another highly relevant virus infection in pigs is Aujeszky's disease caused by the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV). This article reports the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel extracellular matrix-inspired entry inhibitors based on polyglycerol sulfate-functionalized graphene sheets...
March 15, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293559/data-driven-risk-assessment-from-small-scale-epidemics-estimation-and-model-choice-for-spatio-temporal-data-with-application-to-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#16
Kokouvi Gamado, Glenn Marion, Thibaud Porphyre
Livestock epidemics have the potential to give rise to significant economic, welfare, and social costs. Incursions of emerging and re-emerging pathogens may lead to small and repeated outbreaks. Analysis of the resulting data is statistically challenging but can inform disease preparedness reducing potential future losses. We present a framework for spatial risk assessment of disease incursions based on data from small localized historic outbreaks. We focus on between-farm spread of livestock pathogens and illustrate our methods by application to data on the small outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) that occurred in 2000 in East Anglia, UK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284628/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-diagnosis-and-control-in-domestic-animals
#17
REVIEW
Karen L Mansfield, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Ashley C Banyard, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. The virus contains a positive sense RNA genome within a host-derived membrane and is classified within the family Flaviviridae. Like many flaviviruses, it is transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly those of the genus Culex in a natural cycle involving birds and some livestock species. Spill-over into domestic animals results in a spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic infection in some species to acute neurological signs in others...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284612/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-triple-reassortant-h3n2-swine-influenza-a-viruses-is-attenuated-following-turkey-embryo-propagation
#18
Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran, Rahul Tevatia, Tanya Leroith
Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284605/pro-apoptotic-effect-of-a-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-putative-type-i-signal-peptidase-on-pk-15-swine-cells
#19
Jéssica A Paes, Veridiana G Virginio, Martín Cancela, Fernanda M A Leal, Thiago J Borges, Natália Jaeger, Cristina Bonorino, Irene S Schrank, Henrique B Ferreira
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284596/kinetics-of-single-and-dual-infection-of-pigs-with-swine-influenza-virus-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#20
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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