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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#1
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#3
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421170/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-induces-stress-granule-formation-depending-on-protein-kinase-r-like-endoplasmic-reticulum-kinase-perk-in-marc-145-cells
#4
Yanrong Zhou, Liurong Fang, Dang Wang, Kaimei Cai, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
Stress granules (SGs) are sites of mRNA storage that are formed in response to various conditions of stress, including viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. In this study, we found that infection of PRRSV strain WUH3 (genotype 2 PRRSV) induced stable formation of robust SGs in MARC-145 cells, as demonstrated by the recruitment of marker proteins of SGs, including TIA1, G3BP1, and eIF3η...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420390/a-novel-viewrna-in-situ-hybridization-method-for-the-detection-of-the-dynamic-distribution-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-rna-in-pk15-cells
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao, Qin Wang
BACKGROUND: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mechanism of CSF. With the development of novel RNA in situ Hybridization method, quantitatively localization and visualization of the virus RNA molecular in cultured cell or tissue section becomes very important tool to address these pivotal pathogenic questions. In this study, we established ViewRNA ISH method to reveal the dynamic distribution of CSFV RNA in PK15 cells...
April 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417300/a-live-gi-ge-deleted-pseudorabies-virus-prv-protects-weaned-piglets-against-lethal-variant-prv-challenge
#6
Yue Yin, Zhiwen Xu, Xiaowan Liu, Ping Li, Fan Yang, Jun Zhao, Yi Fan, Xiangang Sun, Ling Zhu
Emerging pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant has led to frequent outbreaks of PRV infection among Bartha-K61-vaccinated swine population in Chinese swine farms and caused high mortality in pigs of all age since late 2011. Here, we generated a gE/gI-deleted PRV (rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP) based on PRV variant strain (PRV-XJ) through homologous DNA recombination. Compared to parental strain, rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP showed similar growth kinetics in vitro. Its safety and immunogenicity were evaluated in weaned piglets. Our results showed that piglets immunized with rPRVXJ-delgI/gE-EGFP did not exhibit any clinical symptoms, and a high level of gB-specific antibody was detected...
April 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417007/reappearance-of-buffalo-origin-like-porcine-circovirus-type-2-strains-in-swine-herds-in-southern-china
#7
S-L Zhai, X Zhou, T Lin, H Zhang, X-H Wen, X-R Zhou, C-L Jia, D Tu, X-L Zhu, Q-L Chen, W-K Wei, D-H Lv
Previously, we identified three porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains in buffalo meat samples from southern China. In this study, we confirmed the reappearance of those buffalo-origin-like PCV2 strains in swine herds in this region, which supported the possible cross-species infection of PCV2 between buffalos and pigs under field conditions.
May 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415629/a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-infection-vaccine-inefficiency
#8
Nehemya Friedman, Yaron Drori, Rakefet Pando, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Hanna Sefty, Ravit Bassal, Yaniv Stein, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim
The last influenza pandemic, caused by the swine A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, began in North America at 2009. Since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended integration of the swine-based virus A/California/07/2009 strain in yearly vaccinations. Yet, infections with A(H1N1)pdm09 have continued in subsequent years. The reasons for this are currently unknown. During the 2015-2016 influenza season, we noted an increased prevalence of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection in Israel. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that the circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains belonged to 6B...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414720/land-altitude-slope-and-coverage-as-risk-factors-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-prrs-outbreaks-in-the-united-states
#9
Andréia Gonçalves Arruda, Carles Vilalta, Andres Perez, Robert Morrison
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is, arguably, the most impactful disease on the North American swine industry. The Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) is a national volunteer initiative aimed at monitoring incidence and, ultimately, supporting swine disease control, including PRRS. Data collected through the SHMP currently represents approximately 42% of the sow population of the United States. The objective of the study here was to investigate the association between geographical factors (including land elevation, and land coverage) and PRRS incidence as recorded in the SHMP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414053/inhibition-effects-of-novel-polyketide-compound-ppq-b-against-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-interfering-with-the-cellular-egfr-pathway
#10
Miaomiao Wang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Weiming Zhu
Development of anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs with novel targets and low toxicity is critical for preparedness against influenza outbreaks. In the current study, our results indicated that the novel polyketide compound purpurquinone B (PPQ-B) derived from acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium purpurogenum strain JS03-21 suppressed the replication of IAV in vitro with low toxicity, and may block some stages after virus adsorption. PPQ-B could inhibit H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/34; PR8), H1N1 (A/California/04/2009; Cal09) and H3N2 (A/swine/Minnesota/02719/2009) virus replication in vitro, suggesting that PPQ-B possesses broad-spectrum anti-IAV activities...
April 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413498/dynamic-variations-of-the-peripheral-blood-immune-cell-subpopulation-in-patients-with-critical-h7n9-swine-origin-influenza-a-virus-infection-a-retrospective-small-scale-study
#11
Cheng Chen, Wei Sun, Jun Chen, Jian-An Huang
H7N9 influenza is a recently emerging infection with a high mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate dynamic fluctuations of peripheral blood immune cell subgroups in patients with critical H7N9 infection. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cells in whole blood samples from 9 cases. With regard to the innate immune system, in the majority of patients, the natural killer (NK) cell counts were similar to those of monocytes, which demonstrated a gradual increase in the progression period and an early increase followed by a reduction during recovery...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413052/purified-natural-pig-immunoglobulins-can-substitute-dietary-zinc-in-reducing-piglet-post-weaning-diarrhoea
#12
Chris J Hedegaard, Charlotte Lauridsen, Peter M H Heegaard
Enteric infectious disease in weaner piglets, including postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), are usually treated and/or prevented with antibiotics and/or zinc oxide in the piglet feed. However extensive use of antibiotics and zinc oxide in intensive animal production is unwanted as it may promote microbial antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413045/effector-mechanisms-of-humoral-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#13
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to afflict swine nearly 30 years after it was first discovered as the causative agent of "mystery swine disease". Immunological tools of vaccination and exposure to virulent viruses have not succeeded in achieving control and prevention of PRRSV. Humoral immunity, mediated by antibodies, is a hallmark of anti-viral immunity, but little is known about the effector mechanisms of humoral immunity against PRRSV. It is essential to understand the immunological significance of antibody functions, including recently described broadly neutralizing antibodies and potential non-neutralizing activities, in the immune response to PRRSV...
April 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408777/efficacy-of-an-accelerated-hydrogen-peroxide-disinfectant-to-inactivate-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-swine-feces-on-metal-surfaces
#14
Derald J Holtkamp, Jacqueline Myers, Paul R Thomas, Locke A Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang
In May of 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected in swine for the first time in North America. It spread rapidly, in part due to contaminated livestock trailers. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectant for inactivating PEDV in the presence of feces on metal surfaces, such as those found in livestock trailers. Three-week-old barrows were inoculated intragastrically with 5 mL of PEDV-negative feces for the negative control, 5 mL of untreated PEDV-positive feces for the positive control, and 5 mL or 10 mL of PEDV-positive feces that was subjected to treatment with a 1:16 or 1:32 concentrations of accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectant for a contact time of 30 min at 20°C...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408775/detection-of-genome-antigen-and-antibodies-in-oral-fluids-from-pigs-infected-with-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#15
Chandrika Senthilkumaran, Ming Yang, Hilary Bittner, Aruna Ambagala, Oliver Lung, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Charles Nfon
Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF. The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406162/mucosal-iga-and-ifn-%C3%AE-cd8-t-cell-immunity-are-important-in-the-efficacy-of-live-salmonella-enteria-serovar-choleraesuis-vaccines
#16
Liangquan Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Qing Yin, Xianyong Liu, Xiang Chen, Chunjuan Huang, Xun Suo
Salmonellosis, a disease caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella strains which can be transmitted from swine to humans, is one of the leading public health problems around the world. Paratyphoid of swine is controlled by vaccinating swine with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) live vaccine strain C500 in China. Although the vaccine has good prophylactic efficacy, the mechanism of immunogenicity is unclear. Using a C500-derived paratyphoid thermo-stable live vaccine (PTSL vaccine), we demonstrated that the PTSL vaccine induces strong primary and memory immune responses in piglets...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405464/the-use-of-vaccines-to-control-pathogen-spread-in-pig-populations
#17
REVIEW
Nicolas Rose, Mathieu Andraud
Vaccine efficacy has often been studied from the viewpoint of individual direct clinical protection. For several vaccines, a decrease in pathogen shedding in vaccinated animals has also been documented, which suggests that transmission between individuals has the potential to be reduced. In addition, vaccination induces an immune response in the host potentially decreasing susceptibility to infection in comparison with immunologically naïve animals. As a collective result of individual vaccinations, vaccine programmes generally have a wider impact on pathogen diffusion at the population scale...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405463/the-use-of-oral-fluids-to-monitor-key-pathogens-in-porcine-respiratory-disease-complex
#18
Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Nardy Robben, Damien Magnée, Thomas Eley, Ian Dennis, Sara M Kayes, Jill R Thomson, Alexander W Tucker
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of oral fluid (OF) sampling for surveillance of infections in pig populations is already accepted but its value as a tool to support investigations of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) has been less well studied. This study set out to describe detection patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus type A (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) among farms showing differing severity of PRDC...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405461/feed-additives-decrease-survival-of-delta-coronavirus-in-nursery-pig-diets
#19
Katie M Cottingim, Harsha Verma, Pedro E Urriola, Fernando Sampedro, Gerald C Shurson, Sagar M Goyal
BACKGROUND: Feed contaminated with feces from infected pigs is believed to be a potential route of transmission of porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of commercial feed additives (e.i., acids, salt and sugar) to swine feed can be an effective strategy to inactive PDCoV. RESULTS: Six commercial feed acids (UltraAcid P, Activate DA, KEMGEST, Acid Booster, Luprosil, and Amasil), salt, and sugar were evaluated...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403874/intranasal-immunization-of-pigs-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-like-particles-plus-2-3-cgamp-vaccigrade%C3%A2-adjuvant-exacerbates-viremia-after-virus-challenge
#20
Alexandria Van Noort, April Nelsen, Angela E Pillatzki, Diego G Diel, Feng Li, Eric Nelson, Xiuqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections...
April 12, 2017: Virology Journal
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