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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545558/from-the-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-within-the-swine-reservoir-to-public-health-risk-mitigation-strategies-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Nicolas Rose
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans, an emerging zoonosis mainly transmitted via food in developed countries and for which domestic pigs are recognised as the main reservoir. It therefore appears important to understand the features and drivers of HEV infection dynamics on pig farms in order to implement HEV surveillance programmes and to assess and manage public health risks. The authors have reviewed the international scientific literature on the epidemiological characteristics of HEV in swine populations...
May 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542478/structural-basis-of-nectin-1-recognition-by-pseudorabies-virus-glycoprotein-d
#2
An Li, Guangwen Lu, Jianxun Qi, Lili Wu, Kegong Tian, Tingrong Luo, Yi Shi, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
An early and yet indispensable step in the alphaherpesvirus infection is the engagement of host receptors by the viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Of the thus-far identified gD receptors, nectin-1 is likely the most effective in terms of its wide usage by multiple alphaherpesviruses for cell entry. The molecular basis of nectin-1 recognition by the gD protein is therefore an interesting scientific question in the alphaherpesvirus field. Previous studies focused on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the Simplexvirus genus, for which both the free gD structure and the gD/nectin-1 complex structure were reported at high resolutions...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542463/insights-into-reston-virus-spillovers-and-adaption-from-virus-whole-genome-sequences
#3
César G Albariño, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M Jenks, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Thomas G Ksiazek, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol
Reston virus (family Filoviridae) is unique among the viruses of the Ebolavirus genus in that it is considered non-pathogenic in humans, in contrast to the other members which are highly virulent. The virus has however, been associated with several outbreaks of highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in non-human primates (NHPs), specifically cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in the Philippines. In addition, Reston virus has been isolated from domestic pigs in the Philippines. To better understand virus spillover events and potential adaption to new hosts, the whole genome sequences of representative Reston virus isolates were obtained using a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach and comparative genomic analysis and virus fitness analyses were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542321/early-protection-events-in-swine-immunized-with-an-experimental-live-attenuated-classical-swine-fever-marker-vaccine-flagt4g
#4
Lauren G Holinka, Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R Risatti, Paul Azzinaro, Jonathan Arzt, Carolina Stenfeldt, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Jolene Carlson, Douglas P Gladue, Manuel V Borca
Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF) vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#5
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532789/recombination-in-jxa1-r-vaccine-and-nadc30-like-strain-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses
#6
Jiankui Liu, Xia Zhou, Junqiong Zhai, Chunhua Wei, Ailing Dai, Xiaoyan Yang, Manlin Luo
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is considered one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, resulting in immense economic losses. PRRS virus (PRRSV) has undergone rapid evolution since its first recognition in 1990s. In the present study, a PRRSV strain named FJXS15 causing high morbidity and mortality was isolated from piglets and sows from a farm participating in vaccination in China. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that FJXS15 was highly similar to the JXA1-R vaccine strain (a live attenuated virus vaccine strain derived from the highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1) in the ORF1a (nt 901-)-ORF4 (-nt 419) coding regions, as well as to FJZ03 (lineage 1, NADC30-like) in the 5'-UTR, ORF5a-ORF7 coding regions, and 3'-UTR, suggestive of a natural recombination event...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528009/identification-of-novel-haemophilus-parasuis-serovar-5-vaccine-candidates-using-an-immunoproteomic-approach
#7
Gang Li, Fang Xie, Jianjun Li, Jiao Liu, Dapeng Li, Yanhe Zhang, Paul R Langford, Yanwen Li, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is the aetiological agent of Glässer's disease, which is responsible for cases of fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. No vaccine is known that provides cross-protection against all serovars. The identification of novel immunoprotective antigens would undoubtedly contribute to the development of efficient subunit vaccines. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was used to analyze secreted proteins of H. parasuis and six proteins with high immunogenicity were identified...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523920/expression-of-bovine-rotavirus-vp8-and-preparation-of-igy-antibodies-against-recombinant-vp8
#9
H S Kim, B Lee, S Y Han, Y T Jung
Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in cattle and swine. Although, vaccination against this virus is an effective strategy for prevention, additional strategy to control disease is necessary. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)-based passive immunization could be a better option in preventing this disease. Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is group A rotavirus and possesses a genome of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA. The outer layer of capsid is composed of two proteins (VP7 and VP4), which induce virus neutralizing antibodies...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520759/first-evidence-of-the-hepatitis-e-virus-in-environmental-waters-in-colombia
#10
Paula A Baez, Maria Camila Lopez, Alejandra Duque-Jaramillo, Dioselina Pelaez, Francisco Molina, Maria-Cristina Navas
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission. HEV has been detected in environmental samples in several countries from Europe and Asia, constituting a risk factor for waterborne infection. In Colombia, HEV has been identified in samples obtained from patients as well as from swine, but no environmental studies have been carried out. To determine if HEV is present in environmental waters, samples from the main source of drinking water plant and of wastewater system of eight municipalities and two villages of Antioquia state (North West Colombia), were collected between December 2012 and April 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516860/salmonella-diva-vaccine-reduces-disease-colonization-and-shedding-due-to-virulent-s-typhimurium-infection-in-swine
#11
Bradley L Bearson, Shawn M D Bearson, Brian W Brunelle, Darrell O Bayles, In Soo Lee, Jalusa D Kich
PURPOSE: Non-host-adapted Salmonella serovars, including the common human food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease. Interventions against Salmonella are needed to enhance food safety, protect animal health and allow the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). METHODOLOGY: An attenuated S. Typhimurium DIVA vaccine (BBS 866) was characterized for the protection of pigs following challenge with virulent S...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516843/potentially-hazardous-streptococcus-suis-strains-latent-in-asymptomatic-pigs-in-a-major-swine-production-area-of-thailand
#12
Nattakan Meekhanon, Sarawan Kaewmongkol, Waraphon Phimpraphai, Masatoshi Okura, Makoto Osaki, Tsutomu Sekizaki, Daisuke Takamatsu
PURPOSE: Carrier pigs have been considered as the major reservoir of Streptococcus suis and couldbe a significant source of human infection. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of latent S. suis in asymptomatic pigs in the pig-farming area of central Thailand, and compared the data to those previously reported in other regions. METHODOLOGY: We collected samples from 340 asymptomatic pigs. S. suis isolates from the samples were confirmed by species-specific PCR (recN PCR)...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514874/oncolytic-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vsv-is-nonpathogenic-and-non-transmissible-in-pigs-a-natural-host-of-vsv
#13
Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Shruthi Naik, Steven Pauszek, Kah-Whye Peng, Stephen J Russell, Luis Rodriguez
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a negative-stranded RNA virus that naturally causes disease in livestock including horses, cattle and pigs. The two main identified VSV strains are the New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana (VSIV) strains. VSV is a rapidly replicating, potently immunogenic virus that has been engineered to develop novel oncolytic therapies for cancer treatment. Swine are a natural host for VSV and provide a relevant and well-established model, amenable to biological sampling to monitor virus shedding and neutralizing antibodies...
May 17, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509619/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-rate-and-detection-of-genotype-i-from-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-collected-from-jiangsu-china
#14
Hongliang Chu, Zhiming Wu, Hongna Chen, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Ran Liu, Gang Wang, Minghao Zhou, Tongyan Zhao
Information regarding the infection rate and genotype shifts for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important for JE vaccine application. In Jiangsu province, China, which is one of the provinces with a high prevalence of JE, JEV infection in swine and mosquitoes in certain cities has only been investigated in 2008-2009. Lianyungang City has one of the highest numbers of JE cases in Jiangsu province, and it has a high risk of JEV invasion via migrant birds. JEV infection in vectors in Lianyungang City, which has urban and rural parts, has not been investigated...
May 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506209/peptides-mimicking-viral-proteins-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-were-profiled-by-the-spectrum-of-mouse-anti-pcv2-antibodies
#15
Ling-Chu Hung, Cheng-Yao Yang, Ivan-Chen Cheng
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. RESULTS: The data showed that the sera from PCV2-infected pigs could react with the N-terminal (C1), middle region (C2), and C-terminal peptide (C3) of PCV2 capsid protein (CP), ORF3 protein (N1), ORF6 protein (N2) and ORF9 protein (N3)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497656/identification-of-atypical-porcine-pestivirus-infection-in-swine-herds-in-china
#16
K Zhang, K Wu, J Liu, S Ge, Y Xiao, Y Shang, Z Ning
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497552/a-novel-porcine-kobuvirus-emerged-in-piglets-with-severe-diarrhoea-in-china
#17
S-L Zhai, H Zhang, T Lin, S-N Chen, X Zhou, Q-L Chen, D-H Lv, X-H Wen, X-R Zhou, C-L Jia, W-K Wei
Since the first report of porcine kobuvirus (PKV) in 2008, it has been confirmed that PKV is widely present in several countries and plays an important role in diarrhoea outbreak in pigs. Studies have shown that the biggest difference among PKVs is the presence or absence of a specific 30-amino acid (aa) sequence in the 2B region of the polyprotein gene. Based on this unique feature, most PKV sequences could be divided into two groups (Group 1 without deletion and Group 2 with deletion), but a few sequences did not follow this rule due to possible recombination...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496988/randomised-controlled-field-study-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-and-clinical-safety-of-a-single-8%C3%A2-mg-kg-injectable-dose-of-marbofloxacin-compared-with-one-or-two-doses-of-7-5%C3%A2-mg-kg-injectable-enrofloxacin-for-the-treatment-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-infections
#18
Erik Grandemange, Pierre-Alexandre Perrin, Dejean Cvejic, Miriam Haas, Tim Rowan, Klaus Hellmann
BACKGROUND: Acute outbreaks of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) require rapid, effective, parenteral antimicrobial treatment. The efficacy and safety of a single, short-acting, high dose of marbofloxacin (Forcyl® swine 160 mg/mL) compared with 1 or 2 doses of 7.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin in APP outbreaks in European farms was studied. METHODS: A controlled, randomised block, blinded, multicentre, field study was conducted on four farms with acute respiratory disease associated with APP...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496435/serum-metabolomic-profiling-of-piglets-infected-with-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#19
Wenjie Gong, Junjie Jia, Bikai Zhang, Shijiang Mi, Li Zhang, Xiaoming Xie, Huancheng Guo, Jishu Shi, Changchun Tu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine infectious disease and causes significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether small molecule metabolites contribute to the pathogenesis of CSF. Birefly, serum metabolomics of CSFV Shimen strain-infected piglets were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494933/comparative-phenotypic-and-functional-analyses-of-the-effects-of-autologous-plasma-and-recombinant-human-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-m-csf-on-porcine-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#20
Giulia Franzoni, Piero Bonelli, Simon Paul Graham, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Silvia Dei Giudici, Giovannantonio Pilo, Marco Pittau, Paola Nicolussi, Annalisa Oggiano
Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. However, the lack of a standardized method for moMΦ differentiation hampers the comparison of results coming from the use of different laboratory protocols. In this study we compared the use of varying concentrations of autologous plasma (10, 20 and 30% v/v) or recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hM-CSF; 50, 100, and 200ng/ml) to differentiate porcine monocytes into macrophages...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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