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african swine fever

Yuzi Luo, Stella A Atim, Lina Shao, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Yuan Sun, Yan Liu, Shengwei Ji, Xing-Yu Meng, Su Li, Yongfeng Li, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Frederik Widén, Lihong Liu, Hua-Ji Qiu
Due to the current unavailability of vaccines or treatments for African swine fever (ASF), which is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), rapid and reliable detection of the virus is essential for timely implementation of emergency control measures and differentiation of ASF from other swine diseases with similar clinical presentations. Here, an improved PCR assay was developed and evaluated for sensitive and universal detection of ASFV. Primers specific for ASFV were designed based on the highly conserved region of the vp72 gene sequences of all ASFV strains available in GenBank, and the PCR assay was established and compared with two OIE-validated PCR tests...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Virology
Claire Guinat, Ben Wall, Linda Dixon, Dirk Udo Pfeiffer
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable, virulent swine disease, and is a major threat to animal health and trade for many European Union (EU) countries. Early detection of the introduction of ASF virus is of paramount importance to be able to limit the potential extent of outbreaks. However, the timely and accurate reporting of ASF primary cases strongly depends on how familiar pig farmers are with the clinical signs, and their motivation to report the disease. Here, an online questionnaire survey was conducted between December 2014 and April 2015 to investigate English pig farmers' knowledge and behaviour towards ASF in terms of clinical suspicion and reporting...
2016: PloS One
F I Korennoy, V M Gulenkin, A E Gogin, T Vergne, A K Karaulov
In 1977, Ukraine experienced a local epidemic of African swine fever (ASF) in the Odessa region. A total of 20 settlements were affected during the course of the epidemic, including both large farms and backyard households. Thanks to timely interventions, the virus circulation was successfully eradicated within 6 months, leading to no additional outbreaks. Detailed report of the outbreak's investigation has been publically available from 2014. The report contains some quantitative data that allow studying the ASF-spread dynamics in the course of the epidemic...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Astghik Hakobyan, Erik Arabyan, Aida Avetisyan, Liana Abroyan, Lina Hakobyan, Hovakim Zakaryan
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most devastating diseases of domestic pigs for which no effective vaccines are available. Flavonoids, natural products isolated from plants, have been reported to have significant in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against different viruses. Here, we tested the antiviral effect of five flavonoids on the replication of ASFV in Vero cells. Our results showed a potent, dose-dependent anti-ASFV effect of apigenin in vitro. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that apigenin was highly effective at the early stages of infection...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
P Sastre, C Gallardo, A Monedero, T Ruiz, M Arias, A Sanz, P Rueda
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia. Since 2007, it has also been present in different countries of Eastern Europe, where control measures have not been effective so far. The continued spread poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. In the absence of vaccine, early detection of infected animals is of paramount importance for control of the outbreak, to prevent the transmission of the virus to healthy animals and subsequent spreading of the disease...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Cameron L Martin, Neha Sangewar, Chloe Charendoff, Rashmi Shetti, Clay Ashley, Chang-Hsin Chen, Luc R Berghman, Duncan Mwangi, Paul J Dominowski, Dennis L Foss, Sharath Rai, Shaunak Vora, Lindsay Gabbert, Thomas G Burrage, David Brake, John Neilan, Waithaka Mwangi
The African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine and, at present, no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains, however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection...
September 14, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Lina Mur, Belen Rivera, Mark Mogler, Yaxuan Sun, Sergio Lizano, Christa Goodell, D L Hank Harris, Raymond R R Rowland, Carmina Gallardo, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jeff Zimmerman
In the absence of effective vaccine(s), control of African swine fever caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) must be based on early, efficient, cost-effective detection and strict control and elimination strategies. For this purpose, we developed an indirect ELISA capable of detecting ASFV antibodies in either serum or oral fluid specimens. The recombinant protein used in the ELISA was selected by comparing the early serum antibody response of ASFV-infected pigs (NHV-p68 isolate) to three major recombinant polypeptides (p30, p54, p72) using a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA)...
2016: PloS One
Lian F Thomas, Richard P Bishop, Cynthia Onzere, Michael T Mcintosh, Karissa A Lemire, William A de Glanville, E Anne J Cook, Eric M Fèvre
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs, outbreaks of which can have a devastating impact upon commercial and small-holder pig production. Pig production in western Kenya is characterised by low-input, free-range systems practised by poor farmers keeping between two and ten pigs. These farmers are particularly vulnerable to the catastrophic loss of livestock assets experienced in an ASF outbreak. This study wished to expand our understanding of ASFV epidemiology during a period when no outbreaks were reported...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Magdalena Frączyk, Grzegorz Woźniakowski, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Łukasz Bocian, Edyta Kozak, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Zygmunt Pejsak
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable and one of the most complex and devastating infectious disease of pigs, wild boars and other representatives of Suidae family. African swine fever virus (ASFV) developed various molecular mechanisms to evade host immune response including alteration of interferon production by multigene family protein (MGF505-2R), inhibition of NF-κB and nuclear activating factor in T-cells by the A238L protein, or modulation of host defense by CD2v lectin-like protein encoded by EP402R and EP153R genes...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Tariq Halasa, Anette Bøtner, Sten Mortensen, Hanne Christensen, Nils Toft, Anette Boklund
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
J Bosch, I Iglesias, M J Muñoz, A de la Torre
The current African swine fever (ASF) epidemic in Eurasia represents a risk for the swine industry with devastating socio-economic and political consequences. Wild boar appears to be a key factor in maintaining the disease in endemic areas (mainly the Russian Federation) and spreading the disease across borders, including within the European Union. To help predict and interpret the dynamics of ASF infection, we developed a standardized distribution map based on global land cover vegetation (GLOBCOVER) that quantifies the quality of available habitats (QAH) for wild boar across Eurasia as an indirect index for quantifying numbers of wild boar...
September 5, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Z Karalyan, H Voskanyan, Z Ter-Pogossyan, D Saroyan, E Karalova
The interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 pathway plays a crucial role in various forms of inflammation but its function in acute African swine fever (ASF) is not well understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to find out whether IL-23/IL-17/G-CSF is released in acute ASF and what function it may have. The present study revealed that the production of IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly increased in the sera of ASFV infected pigs. Using ELISA, we found that the serum levels of IL-23 and IL-17 have overexpressed in ASF virus infected pigs compared with healthy controls...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
C Guinat, S Gubbins, T Vergne, J L Gonzales, L Dixon, D U Pfeiffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Ferdinando B Freitas, Gonçalo Frouco, Carlos Martins, Alexandre Leitão, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a highly-contagious and fatal disease of domestic pigs, leading to serious socio-economic impact in affected countries. To date, neither a vaccine nor a selective anti-viral drug are available for prevention or treatment of African swine fever (ASF), emphasizing the need for more detailed studies at the role of ASFV proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcription. Notably, ASFV encodes for a functional type II topoisomerase (ASFV-Topo II) and we recently showed that several fluoroquinolones (bacterial DNA topoisomerase inhibitors) fully abrogate ASFV replication in vitro...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
Sigrid Denver, Lis Alban, Anette Boklund, Hans Houe, Sten Mortensen, Erik Rattenborg, Trine Vig Tamstorf, Henrik Zobbe, Tove Christensen
The present paper provides an overview of the costs of preventive activities, currently undertaken in Denmark, related to foot and mouth disease (FMD) and classical and African swine fever (SF). Only costs held between outbreaks were included. Costs were divided into public costs and costs paid by the pig and cattle industries, respectively. Data were retrieved from multiple sources such as databases, legal documents, official statistics, yearly reports and expert opinions. As no previous studies have assessed such costs, data collection and estimation procedures were discussed and decided upon in a group of experts from universities, industry, and public authorities...
September 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Z A Karalyan, Z R Ter-Pogossyan, L O Abroyan, L H Hakobyan, A S Avetisyan, Karalyan N Yu, E M Karalova
AIM: Atypical lymphocytes usually described as lymphocytes with altered shape, increased DNA amount, and larger size. For analysis of cause of genesis and source of atypical lymphocytes during African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection, bone marrow, peripheral blood, and in vitro model were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Atypical lymphocytes under the influence of ASFV were studied for morphologic, cytophotometric, and membrane surface marker characteristics and were used in vivo and in vitro models...
July 2016: Veterinary World
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Ana Luisa Reis, Charles C Abrams, Lynnette C Goatley, Chris Netherton, Dave G Chapman, Pedro Sanchez-Cordon, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes multiple copies of MGF360 and MGF530/505 gene families. These genes have been implicated in the modulation of the type I interferon (IFN) response. We investigated the effect of modulating the IFN response on virus attenuation and induction of protective immunity by deleting genes MGF360 (MGF360-10L, 11L, 12L, 13L, 14L) and MGF530/505 (MGF530/505-1R, 2R and 3R) and interrupting genes (MGF360-9L and MGF530/505-4R) in the genome of the virulent ASFV isolate Benin 97/1...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Devendra K Rai, Brenton Sanford, Marialexia Alfano, Jolene Carlson, Paul A Azzinaro, Covadonga Alonso, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The viral genome encodes for more than 150 genes, and only a select few of these genes have been studied in some detail. Here we report the characterization of open reading frame Ep152R that has a predicted complement control module/SCR domain. This domain is found in Vaccinia virus proteins that are involved in blocking the immune response during viral infection...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
Patricia Sastre, Teresa Pérez, Sofia Costa, Xiaoping Yang, Alex Räber, Sandra Blome, Katja V Goller, Carmina Gallardo, Istar Tapia, Julia García, Antonio Sanz, Paloma Rueda
Classical swine fever (CSF) and African swine fever (ASF) are both highly contagious diseases of domestic pigs and wild boar and are clinically indistinguishable. For both diseases, antibody detection is an integral and crucial part of prevention and control measures. The purpose of our study was to develop and initially validate a duplex pen-side test for simultaneous detection and differentiation of specific antibodies against CSF virus (CSFV) and ASF virus (ASFV). The test was based on the major capsid protein VP72 of ASFV and the structural protein E2 of CSFV, both considered the most immunogenic proteins of these viruses...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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