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african swine fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096614/evidence-of-hemolysis-in-pigs-infected-with-highly-virulent-african-swine-fever-virus
#1
Zaven Karalyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Elina Arakelova, Violeta Aivazyan, Marina Tatoyan, Armen Kotsinyan, Roza Izmailyan, Elena Karalova
AIM: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. RESULTS: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062012/characterization-of-the-interaction-of-african-swine-fever-virus-with-monocytes-and-derived-macrophage-subsets
#2
Giulia Franzoni, Simon P Graham, Silvia Dei Giudici, Piero Bonelli, Giovannantonio Pilo, Antonio G Anfossi, Marco Pittau, Paola S Nicolussi, Alberto Laddomada, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine available. The ASF virus (ASFV) primarily infects cells of the myeloid lineage and this tropism is thought to be crucial for disease pathogenesis. A detailed in vitro characterization of the interactions of a virulent Sardinian isolate (22653/14) and a tissue culture adapted avirulent strain (BA71V) of ASFV with porcine monocytes, un-activated (moMΦ), classically (moM1) and alternatively (moM2) activated monocyte-derived macrophages was conducted in an attempt to better understand this relationship...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061875/regional-level-risk-factors-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-african-swine-fever-in-west-and-east-africa
#3
Zheng Y X Huang, Frank van Langevelde, Karanina J Honer, Marc Naguib, Willem F de Boer
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) causes severe socio-economic impacts due to high mortality and trade restrictions. Many risk factors of ASF have been identified at farm level. However, understanding the risk factors, especially wild suid hosts, determining ASF transmission at regional level remains limited. METHODS: Based on ASF outbreak data in domestic pigs during 2006-2014, we here tested, separately for West and East Africa, which risk factors were linked to ASF presence at a regional level, using generalized linear mixed models...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053104/structural-insight-into-african-swine-fever-virus-a179l-mediated-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#4
Suresh Banjara, Sofia Caria, Linda K Dixon, Mark G Hinds, Marc Kvansakul
: Programmed cell death is a tightly controlled process critical for the removal of damaged or infected cells. Pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family are pivotal mediators of this process. African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus, the only member of the Asfarviridae family, and harbors A179L, a putative Bcl-2 like protein. A179L has been shown to bind to several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, however the hierarchy of binding and the structural basis for apoptosis inhibition are currently not understood...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031363/unravelling-the-armour-of-a-killer-evasion-of-host-defence-s-by-african-swine-fever-virus
#5
Ana Luisa Reis, Chris Netherton, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever is an acute haemorrhagic disease of pigs. Extensive recent spread in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe has increased the risk to global pig production. The virus is a large DNA virus and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family. In pigs the virus replicates predominantly in macrophages. We review how the virus overcomes the barriers to replication in the macrophage and the virus mechanism to inhibit key host defence pathways.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974557/african-swine-fever-virus-gets-undressed-new-insights-on-the-entry-pathway
#6
Germán Andrés
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large multienveloped DNA virus composed of a genome-containing core successively wrapped by an inner lipid envelope, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. In keeping with this structural complexity, recent studies have revealed an intricate entry program. This Gem article highlights how ASFV uses two alternative pathways, macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, to enter into the host macrophage and how the endocytosed particles undergo a stepwise, low pH-driven disassembly leading to inner envelope fusion and core delivery in the cytoplasm...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966070/african-swine-fever-outbreak-on-a-medium-sized-farm-in-uganda-biosecurity-breaches-and-within-farm-virus-contamination
#7
Erika Chenais, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin, Sofia Boqvist, Lihong Liu, Neil LeBlanc, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination...
December 13, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938676/control-of-african-swine-fever-epidemics-in-industrialized-swine-populations
#8
Tariq Halasa, Anette Bøtner, Sten Mortensen, Hanne Christensen, Nils Toft, Anette Boklund
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF)...
December 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931922/qualitative-analysis-of-the-risks-and-practices-associated-with-the-spread-of-african-swine-fever-within-the-smallholder-pig-value-chains-in-uganda
#9
Michel Dione, Emily Ouma, Felix Opio, Brian Kawuma, Danilo Pezo
A study was undertaken between September 2014 and December 2014 to assess the perceptions of smallholder pig value chain actors of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever (ASF) disease within the pig value chains. Data was collected from 136 value chain actors and 36 key informants through 17 group discussions and two key informant interview (KII) sessions respectively using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. Results from this study revealed that according to value chain actors and stakeholders, the transporting, slaughtering, and collecting/bulking nodes represent the highest risk, followed by the inputs and services (feeds and drugs) supply nodes...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915438/variations-in-clinical-presentation-and-anatomical-distribution-of-gross-lesions-of-african-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-in-the-southern-highlands-of-tanzania-a-field-experience
#10
Maulilio John Kipanyula, Solomon Wilson Nong'ona
African swine fever is a contagious viral disease responsible for up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and anatomical distribution of gross lesions in affected pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania during the 2010 to 2014 outbreaks. Data were collected during clinical and postmortem examination by field veterinarians and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 118 respondents (100%) showed awareness about African swine fever. During previous outbreaks, the mortality rate was almost 100%, while in 2014 it was estimated to be less than 50%...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908827/different-routes-and-doses-influence-protection-in-pigs-immunised-with-the-naturally-attenuated-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-ourt88-3
#11
Pedro J Sánchez-Cordón, Dave Chapman, Tamara Jabbar, Ana L Reis, Lynnette Goatley, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Maria Montoya, Linda Dixon
This study compares different combinations of doses and routes of immunisation of pigs with low virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype I isolate OURT88/3, including the intramuscular and intranasal route, the latter not previously tested. Intranasal immunisations with low and moderate doses (10(3) and 10(4) TCID50) of OURT88/3 provided complete protection (100%) against challenge with virulent genotype I OURT88/1 isolate. Only mild and transient clinical reactions were observed in protected pigs...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899125/preventive-measures-aimed-at-minimizing-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-virus-spread-in-pig-farming-systems
#12
REVIEW
Silvia Bellini, Domenico Rutili, Vittorio Guberti
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs; it has a drastic impact on the pig industry, causing serious socio-economic consequences to pig farmers and pork producers. In Europe, there are currently two main clusters of infection; one in Sardinia caused by strains of African swine fever virus (ASFV) belonging to genotype I and another in Eastern Europe caused by strains of ASFV belonging to genotype II. The latter is inducing an acute form of ASF and it represents a serious threat to the pig sector...
November 29, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898335/genetically-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-show-no-resistance-following-infection-with-the-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-georgia-2007-1
#13
Luca Popescu, Natasha N Gaudreault, Kristen M Whitworth, Maria V Murgia, Jerome C Nietfeld, Alan Mileham, Melissa Samuel, Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather, Raymond R R Rowland
African swine fever is a highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine for which there is no vaccine or other curative treatment. The macrophage marker, CD163, is a putative receptor for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Pigs possessing a complete knockout of CD163 on macrophages were inoculated with Georgia 2007/1, a genotype 2 isolate. Knockout and wild type pen mates became infected and showed no differences in clinical signs, mortality, pathology or viremia. There was also no difference following in vitro infection of macrophages...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875662/influence-of-age-and-dose-of-african-swine-fever-virus-infections-on-clinical-outcome-and-blood-parameters-in-pigs
#14
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
January 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865870/african-and-classical-swine-fever-situation-in-ivory-coast-and-neighboring-countries-2008-2013
#15
K V Kouakou, V Michaud, H G Biego, H P G Gnabro, A V Kouakou, A M Mossoun, J A Awuni, G L Minoungou, G L Aplogan, F K Awoumé, E Albina, R Lancelot, E Couacy-Hymann
This study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 to determine the animal health status of Ivory Coast and neighboring countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin) for African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF), and to assess the risk factors for ASF introduction in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast had probably been free from ASF from 1998 to 2014 when it was re-introduced in this country. However, the ASF virus was found in all neighboring countries. In contrast, no evidence of CSF infection was found so far in Ivory Coast and neighboring countries...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856577/complete-genome-sequence-of-an-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-from-sardinia-italy
#16
Fredrik Granberg, Claudia Torresi, Annalisa Oggiano, Maja Malmberg, Carmen Iscaro, Gian Mario De Mia, Sándor Belák
Previous genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from the Italian island of Sardinia, where the virus has been present since 1978, has largely been limited to a few selected genomic regions. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the isolate 47/Ss/08 collected during an outbreak in 2008.
November 17, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852963/effectiveness-and-practicality-of-control-strategies-for-african-swine-fever-what-do-we-really-know
#17
C Guinat, T Vergne, C Jurado-Diaz, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, L Dixon, D U Pfeiffer
African swine fever (ASF) is a major pig health problem, and the causative virus is moving closer to Western European regions where pig density is high. Stopping or slowing down the spread of ASF requires mitigation strategies that are both effective and practical. Based on the elicitation of ASF expert opinion, this study identified surveillance and intervention strategies for ASF that are perceived as the most effective by providing the best combination between effectiveness and practicality. Among the 20 surveillance strategies that were identified, passive surveillance of wild boar and syndromic surveillance of pig mortality were considered to be the most effective surveillance strategies for controlling ASF virus spread...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833640/molecular-detection-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-and-coinfection-with-african-swine-fever-virus-in-blood-samples-of-pigs-from-some-slaughterhouses-in-nigeria
#18
Pam D Luka, Joseph Erume, Bitrus Yakubu, Olajide A Owolodun, David Shamaki, Frank N Mwiine
Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b) infection is present in pig herds worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b infections in domestic pigs from some slaughterhouses in Nigeria as well as coinfection with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and described the phylogeny in relation to global strains. One hundred and eighty-one (181) blood samples from four slaughterhouses were used for the study and viral nucleic acid detection was carried out by PCR. Comparative sequence analysis was carried out to infer phylogeny...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795430/simultaneous-deletion-of-the-9gl-and-uk-genes-from-the-african-swine-fever-virus-georgia-2007-isolate-offers-increased-safety-and-protection-against-homologous-challenge
#19
Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R Risatti, Lauren G Holinka, Peter W Krug, Jolene Carlson, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Paul A Azzinaro, Douglas P Gladue, Manuel V Borca
: African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African swine fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experimental vaccines have been derived from naturally occurring, cell culture-adapted, or genetically modified live attenuated ASFV. Recombinant viruses harboring engineered deletions of specific virulence-associated genes induce solid protection against challenge with parental viruses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782090/association-of-the-host-immune-response-with-protection-using-a-live-attenuated-african-swine-fever-virus-model
#20
Jolene Carlson, Vivian O'Donnell, Marialexia Alfano, Lauro Velazquez Salinas, Lauren G Holinka, Peter W Krug, Douglas P Gladue, Stephen Higgs, Manuel V Borca
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated...
October 22, 2016: Viruses
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