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african swine fever

D Cano-Terriza, M A Risalde, S Jiménez-Ruiz, J Vicente, J Isla, J Paniagua, I Moreno, C Gortázar, J A Infantes-Lorenzo, I García-Bocanegra
In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Giulia Franzoni, Simon P Graham, Giovanna Sanna, Pierpaolo Angioi, Mariangela S Fiori, Antonio Anfossi, Massimo Amadori, Silvia Dei Giudici, Annalisa Oggiano
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine. The ASF virus (ASFV) can infect dendritic cell (DC), but despite the critical role these cells play in induction of adaptive immunity, few studies investigated their response to ASFV infection. We characterized the in vitro interactions of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (moDC) with a virulent (22653/14), a low virulent (NH/P68) and an avirulent (BA71V) ASFV strain. At a high multiplicity of infection (MOI = 1), all three strains infected immature moDC...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Raquel Portugal, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins
ASFV causes an important disease of domestic swine and wild boar. Currently no vaccine is available, highlighting the necessity to understand ASFV modulation of innate immune responses in natural host cells. With this aim, macrophage cultures enriched in SWC9 and CD163 differentiation markers were infected in parallel with high virulent ASFV/L60 and low virulent ASFV/NHV, the latter lacking MGF 360 and 505/530 genes associated with type I interferon (IFN I) control. IFN I production and signaling were studied after completion of the viral cycles...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Rosemirta Birungi, Peter Lule, Lawrence Mayega, Kanar Dizyee
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Dickson Kinyanyi, George Obiero, George F O Obiero, Peris Amwayi, Stephen Mwaniki, Mark Wamalwa
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780...
2018: PeerJ
Moh A Alkhamis, Carmina Gallardo, Cristina Jurado, Alejandro Soler, Marisa Arias, José M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex infectious disease of swine that constitutes devastating impacts on animal health and the world economy. Here, we investigated the evolutionary epidemiology of ASF virus (ASFV) in Eurasia and Africa using the concatenated gene sequences of the viral protein 72 and the central variable region of isolates collected between 1960 and 2015. We used Bayesian phylodynamic models to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the virus, to identify virus population demographics and to quantify dispersal patterns between host species...
2018: PloS One
P J Sánchez-Cordón, M Montoya, A L Reis, L K Dixon
African swine fever (ASF) recently has spread beyond sub-Saharan Africa to the Trans-Caucasus region, parts of the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. In this new epidemiological scenario, the disease has similarities, but also important differences, compared to the situation in Africa, including the substantial involvement of wild boar. A better understanding of this new situation will enable better control and prevent further spread of disease. In this article, these different scenarios are compared, and recent information on the pathogenesis of ASF virus strains, the immune response to infection and prospects for developing vaccines is presented...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
M A Sargsyan, H E Voskanyan, E M Karalova, L H Hakobyan, Z A Karalyan
Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF), caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia. Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV) were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily...
January 2018: Veterinary World
Ferdinando B Freitas, Gonçalo Frouco, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus is the etiological agent of a contagious and fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease for which there are no vaccines or therapeutic options. The ASFV encodes for a putative E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (ORF I215L) that shows sequence homology with eukaryotic counterparts. In the present study, we showed that pI215L acts as an E2-ubiquitin like enzyme in a large range of pH values and temperatures, after short incubation times. Further experiments revealed that pI215L is polyubiquitinated instead of multi-mono-ubiquitinated and Cys85 residue plays an essential role in the transthioesterification reaction...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
A S Olesen, L Lohse, A Boklund, T Halasa, G J Belsham, T B Rasmussen, A Bøtner
Since the introduction of African swine fever virus (ASFV) into the Baltic states and Poland in 2014, the disease has continued to spread within these regions. In 2017, the virus spread further west and the first cases of disease were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania, in wild boar and domestic pigs, respectively. To control further spread, knowledge of different modes of transmission, including indirect transmission via a contaminated environment, is crucial. Up until now, such an indirect mode of transmission has not been demonstrated...
February 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Manuel V Borca, Lauren G Holinka, Keith A Berggren, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
James K Jankovich, Dave Chapman, Debra T Hansen, Mark D Robida, Andrey Loskutov, Felicia Craciunescu, Alex Borovkov, Karen Kibler, Lynnette Goatley, Katherine King, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Bertram Jacobs, Kathryn Sykes, Linda K Dixon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs with high socio-economic impact. No vaccine is available limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to one hundred percent protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xulong Wu, Lu Xiao, Hua Lin, Shijie Chen, Miao Yang, Wei An, Yin Wang, Zexiao Yang, Xueping Yao, Zizhong Tang
The aim of this study was to develop a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) method to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV). The methods of ASFV real-time PCR and ddPCR were established and optimal reaction conditions were confirmed. Each method was evaluated for linearity, limit of detection, and specificity. The results indicated that ASFV ddPCR had a high degree of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.998) and specificity. The detection limit was 10 copies/reaction, which was approximately a 10-fold greater sensitivity than real-time PCR...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Alexandra Hübner, Bjoern Petersen, Günther M Keil, Heiner Niemann, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Walter Fuchs
African swine fever is a devastating viral disease of domestic and wild pigs against which no vaccine or therapy is available. Therefore, we applied the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) - Cas9 nuclease system to target the double-stranded DNA genome of African swine fever virus (ASFV). To this end, a permissive wild boar lung (WSL) cell line was modified by stable transfection with a plasmid encoding Cas9 and a guide RNA targeting codons 71 to 78 of the phosphoprotein p30 gene (CP204L) of ASFV...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P Bishop, Eric M Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild
The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive but do not present with clinical symptoms of disease indicating some form of tolerance to infection...
2018: PloS One
Mallory E Heimerman, Maria V Murgia, Ping Wu, Andre D Lowe, Wei Jia, Raymond R Rowland
Protein p72 is the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and is an important target for test and vaccine development. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against a recombinant antigenic fragment, from amino acid (aa) 20-303, expressed in baculovirus. A total of 29 mAbs were recovered and tested by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining on ASFV Lisbon-infected Vero cells. Six antibodies were IFA-positive and selected for further characterization. Epitope mapping was performed against overlapping polypeptides expressed in E...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Stefanie Weber, Astghik Hakobyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Walter Doerfler
AIM: Sequence-specific CpG methylation of eukaryotic promoters is an important epigenetic signal for long-term gene silencing. We have now studied the methylation status of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA at various times after infection of Vero cells in culture. METHODS & RESULTS: ASFV DNA was detectable throughout the infection cycle and was found unmethylated in productively infected Vero cells as documented by bisulfite sequencing of 13 viral DNA segments...
January 12, 2018: Epigenomics
Zaven A Karalyan, Roza A Izmailyan, Liana O Abroyan, Aida S Avetisyan, Lina A Hakobyan, Hovakim S Zakaryan, Elena M Karalova
This article describes a simple method of measuring the number of viral genomes within viral factories. For this purpose, we use three DNA viruses replicating in the cytoplasm of the infected cells: wild-type African swine fever virus (ASFV)-Georgia 2007, culture-adapted type ASFV-BA71V, and Vaccinia virus (VV). The measurements are conducted in three steps. In the first step, after DNA staining, we evaluate Integrated Optical Density (IOD) of total DNA for each viral factory. The second step involves the calculations of the mass of DNA in the viral factories in picograms (pg)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
L Vial, E Ducheyne, S Filatov, A Gerilovych, D S McVey, I Sindryakova, S Morgunov, A A Pérez de León, D Kolbasov, E M De Clercq
Ticks are economically and medically important ectoparasites due to the injuries inflicted through their bite, and their ability to transmit pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. We thus developed a regional model to identify suitable spatial areas for a community of nine Ornithodoros tick species (O...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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