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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727764/vaccinia-virus-and-cowpox-virus-are-not-susceptible-to-the-interferon-induced-antiviral-protein-mxa
#1
María M Lorenzo, Juana M Sanchez-Puig, Rafael Blasco
MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Here, we investigated if some well characterized DNA viruses belonging to the Poxviridae family are sensitive to human MxA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#2
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716195/quantitative-assessment-of-social-and-economic-impact-of-african-swine-fever-outbreaks-in-northern-uganda
#3
Erika Chenais, Sofia Boqvist, Ulf Emanuelson, Claudia von Brömssen, Emily Ouma, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. Animal disease impact is multidimensional and include social and economic impact along the value chain. In low-income settings, this impact keep people poor and push those that have managed to escape poverty back again. If the diseases can be controlled, their negative consequences can be mitigated...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710823/the-african-swine-fever-epidemic-in-west-africa-1996-2002
#4
REVIEW
A-A Brown, M L Penrith, F O Fasina, D Beltran-Alcrudo
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious, highly fatal, haemorrhagic viral disease that only affects members of the Suidae family. Currently, no vaccine or treatment exists, so the disease has potentially devastating consequences for the pig industries, availability of affordable protein livelihoods and trade. This study aimed to consolidate historical information generated by working towards the control and eradication of ASF in previously unaffected countries in West Africa during 1996-2002. This descriptive analysis entailed the evaluation and review of archived records and reports of outbreaks, data from veterinary services, veterinary consultants and peer-reviewed publications...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691128/virulent-strain-of-african-swine-fever-virus-eclipses-its-attenuated-derivative-after-challenge
#5
Ilya Titov, Galina Burmakina, Yuriy Morgunov, Sergey Morgunov, Andrey Koltsov, Alexander Malogolovkin, Denis Kolbasov
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the swine industry worldwide. No effective vaccine is currently available for disease prevention and control. Although live attenuated vaccines (LAV) have demonstrated great potential for immunizing against homologous strains of African swine fever virus (ASFV), adverse reactions from LAV remain a concern. Here, by using a homologous ASFV Congo strain system, we show passage-attenuated Congo LAV to induce an efficient protective immune response against challenge with the virulent parental Congo strain...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656732/niche-conservatism-and-the-invasive-potential-of-the-wild-boar
#6
Lilian Patrícia Sales, Bruno R Ribeiro, Matt Warrington Hayward, Adriano Paglia, Marcelo Passamani, Rafael Loyola
1.Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unraveling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. 2.Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modeling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs pooled (native plus invaded) species records...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599000/modeling-the-live-pig-trade-network-in-georgia-implications-for-disease-prevention-and-control
#7
Esther Andrea Kukielka, Beatriz Martínez-López, Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo
Live pig trade patterns, drivers and characteristics, particularly in backyard predominant systems, remain largely unexplored despite their important contribution to the spread of infectious diseases in the swine industry. A better understanding of the pig trade dynamics can inform the implementation of risk-based and more cost-effective prevention and control programs for swine diseases. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire elaborated by FAO and implemented to 487 farmers was used to collect data regarding basic characteristics about pig demographics and live-pig trade among villages in the country of Georgia, where very scarce information is available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587154/redistribution-of-endosomal-membranes-to-the-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-site
#8
Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo, Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site...
June 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573011/behaviour-of-free-ranging-wild-boar-towards-their-dead-fellows-potential-implications-for-the-transmission-of-african-swine-fever
#9
Carolina Probst, Anja Globig, Bent Knoll, Franz J Conraths, Klaus Depner
The behaviour of free ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) towards carcasses of their conspecifics potentially infected with African swine fever (ASF) may significantly influence the course of an ASF epidemic. This study aims to better understand the behaviour of wild boar towards their dead fellows. Thirty-two wild boar carcasses on nine study sites in northeast Germany were monitored under field conditions by photo-trapping from October 2015 until October 2016. During this period, a total of 122 160 pictures were taken, thereof 16 111 pictures of wild boar...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528879/functional-annotation-and-analysis-of-the-ornithodoros-moubata-midgut-genes-differentially-expressed-after-blood-feeding
#10
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the African swine fever and the human relapsing fever in Africa. As part of the host-parasite-pathogen interface, the tick midgut expresses key proteins for tick survival and tick-borne pathogen transmission. Accordingly, midgut proteins are potential targets for the development of new drugs and vaccines aimed at tick control, and obtaining proteomic and transcriptomic data from the O. moubata midgut would facilitate the identification of such target candidates...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502836/selection-of-differently-temporally-regulated-african-swine-fever-virus-promoters-with-variable-expression-activities-and-their-application-for-transient-and-recombinant-virus-mediated-gene-expression
#11
Raquel S Portugal, Anja Bauer, Guenther M Keil
African swine fever virus threatens pig production worldwide due to the lack of vaccines, for which generation of both deletion and insertion mutants is considered. For development of the latter, operational ASFV promoters of different temporal regulation and strengths are desirable. We therefore compared the capacities of putative promoter sequences from p72, CD2v, p30, viral DNA polymerase and U104L genes to mediate expression of luciferase from transfected plasmids after activation in trans, or p30-, DNA polymerase- and U104L promoters in cis, using respective ASFV recombinants...
May 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494933/comparative-phenotypic-and-functional-analyses-of-the-effects-of-autologous-plasma-and-recombinant-human-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-m-csf-on-porcine-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#12
Giulia Franzoni, Piero Bonelli, Simon Paul Graham, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Silvia Dei Giudici, Giovannantonio Pilo, Marco Pittau, Paola Nicolussi, Annalisa Oggiano
Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. However, the lack of a standardized method for moMΦ differentiation hampers the comparison of results coming from the use of different laboratory protocols. In this study we compared the use of varying concentrations of autologous plasma (10, 20 and 30% v/v) or recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hM-CSF; 50, 100, and 200ng/ml) to differentiate porcine monocytes into macrophages...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494931/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-acute-african-swine-fever-clinic
#13
Z R Karalyan, Z R Ter-Pogossyan, N Yu Karalyan, Z B Semerjyan, M R Tatoyan, S A Karapetyan, E M Karalova
INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) usually has been defined as the combination of a proliferation of cytologically benign, actively phagocytic macrophages in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, etc. in association with fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly, and hypertriglyceridemia. HLH is often triggered by viral infection. The aim of this study was to ascertain the features of HLH involvement in African swine fever virus (ASFV) (genotype II) pathogenesis. METHODS: The serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), as well as the histological constitution (for hemophagocytic macrophages detection) of various organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489063/african-swine-fever-virus-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Inmaculada Galindo, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine which causes high mortality, approaching 100%, in domestic pigs. ASF is caused by a large, double stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV), which replicates predominantly in the cytoplasm of macrophages and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, genus Asfivirus. The natural hosts of this virus include wild suids and arthropod vectors of the Ornithodoros genus. The infection of ASFV in its reservoir hosts is usually asymptomatic and develops a persistent infection...
May 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481911/adenovirus-vectored-novel-african-swine-fever-virus-antigens-elicit-robust-immune-responses-in-swine
#15
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Neha Sangewar, Chloe Charendoff, Cameron L Martin, Wisam S Hassan, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Lindsay Gabbert, Thomas G Burrage, David Brake, John Neilan, Waithaka Mwangi
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a high-consequence transboundary animal pathogen that often causes hemorrhagic disease in swine with a case fatality rate close to 100%. Lack of treatment or vaccine for the disease makes it imperative that safe and efficacious vaccines are developed to safeguard the swine industry. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of seven adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigens, namely A151R, B119L, B602L, EP402RΔPRR, B438L, K205R and A104R. Immunization of commercial swine with a cocktail of the recombinant adenoviruses formulated in adjuvant primed strong ASFV antigen-specific IgG responses that underwent rapid recall upon boost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460754/pig-traders-networks-on-the-kenya-uganda-border-highlight-potential-for-mitigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus-transmission-and-improved-asf-disease-risk-management
#16
Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies, Yiheyis Maru, Philip M Kitala, Samuel M Githigia, Edward Okoth, Salome A Bukachi, Sam Okuthe, Richard P Bishop
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446673/pacmanvirus-a-new-giant-icosahedral-virus-at-the-crossroads-between-asfarviridae-and-faustoviruses
#17
Julien Andreani, Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil, Madhumati Sevvana, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Idir Bitam, Philippe Colson, Thomas Klose, Michael G Rossmann, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
African swine fever virus, a double-stranded DNA virus that infects pigs, is the only known member of the Asfarviridae family. Nevertheless, during our isolation and sequencing of the complete genome of faustovirus, followed by the description of kaumoebavirus, carried out over the past 2 years, we observed the emergence of previously unknown related viruses within this group of viruses. Here we describe the isolation of pacmanvirus, a fourth member in this group, which is capable of infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii Pacmanvirus A23 has a linear compact genome of 395,405 bp, with a 33...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#18
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418311/reemergence-of-african-swine-fever-in-zimbabwe-2015
#20
Juanita van Heerden, Kerstin Malan, Biko M Gadaga, Reverend M Spargo
Zimbabwe is the only country in southern Africa with no reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks during 1993-2014. However, the 2015 discovery of genotype II ASF virus in Zimbabwe indicates the reemergence of ASF in this country and suggests that this viral genotype may be spreading through eastern and southern Africa.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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