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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908827/different-routes-and-doses-influence-protection-in-pigs-immunised-with-the-naturally-attenuated-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-ourt88-3
#1
Pedro J Sánchez-Cordón, Dave Chapman, Tamara Jabbar, Ana L Reis, Lynnette Goatley, Christopher L Netherton, Geraldine Taylor, Maria Montoya, Linda Dixon
This study compares different combinations of doses and routes of immunisation of pigs with low virulent African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotype I isolate OURT88/3, including the intramuscular and intranasal route, the latter not previously tested. Intranasal immunisations with low and moderate doses (10(3) and 10(4) TCID50) of OURT88/3 provided complete protection (100%) against challenge with virulent genotype I OURT88/1 isolate. Only mild and transient clinical reactions were observed in protected pigs...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899125/preventive-measures-aimed-at-minimizing-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-virus-spread-in-pig-farming-systems
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Bellini, Domenico Rutili, Vittorio Guberti
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most severe diseases of pigs; it has a drastic impact on the pig industry, causing serious socio-economic consequences to pig farmers and pork producers. In Europe, there are currently two main clusters of infection; one in Sardinia caused by strains of African swine fever virus (ASFV) belonging to genotype I and another in Eastern Europe caused by strains of ASFV belonging to genotype II. The latter is inducing an acute form of ASF and it represents a serious threat to the pig sector...
November 29, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898335/genetically-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-show-no-resistance-following-infection-with-the-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-georgia-2007-1
#3
Luca Popescu, Natasha N Gaudreault, Kristen M Whitworth, Maria V Murgia, Jerome C Nietfeld, Alan Mileham, Melissa Samuel, Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather, Raymond R R Rowland
African swine fever is a highly contagious, often fatal disease of swine for which there is no vaccine or other curative treatment. The macrophage marker, CD163, is a putative receptor for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Pigs possessing a complete knockout of CD163 on macrophages were inoculated with Georgia 2007/1, a genotype 2 isolate. Knockout and wild type pen mates became infected and showed no differences in clinical signs, mortality, pathology or viremia. There was also no difference following in vitro infection of macrophages...
November 26, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875662/influence-of-age-and-dose-of-african-swine-fever-virus-infections-on-clinical-outcome-and-blood-parameters-in-pigs
#4
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
November 22, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865870/african-and-classical-swine-fever-situation-in-ivory-coast-and-neighboring-countries-2008-2013
#5
K V Kouakou, V Michaud, H G Biego, H P G Gnabro, A V Kouakou, A M Mossoun, J A Awuni, G L Minoungou, G L Aplogan, F K Awoumé, E Albina, R Lancelot, E Couacy-Hymann
This study was conducted from 2008 to 2013 to determine the animal health status of Ivory Coast and neighboring countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Benin) for African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF), and to assess the risk factors for ASF introduction in Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast had probably been free from ASF from 1998 to 2014 when it was re-introduced in this country. However, the ASF virus was found in all neighboring countries. In contrast, no evidence of CSF infection was found so far in Ivory Coast and neighboring countries...
November 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856577/complete-genome-sequence-of-an-african-swine-fever-virus-isolate-from-sardinia-italy
#6
Fredrik Granberg, Claudia Torresi, Annalisa Oggiano, Maja Malmberg, Carmen Iscaro, Gian Mario De Mia, Sándor Belák
Previous genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from the Italian island of Sardinia, where the virus has been present since 1978, has largely been limited to a few selected genomic regions. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the isolate 47/Ss/08 collected during an outbreak in 2008.
November 17, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852963/effectiveness-and-practicality-of-control-strategies-for-african-swine-fever-what-do-we-really-know
#7
C Guinat, T Vergne, C Jurado-Diaz, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, L Dixon, D U Pfeiffer
African swine fever (ASF) is a major pig health problem, and the causative virus is moving closer to Western European regions where pig density is high. Stopping or slowing down the spread of ASF requires mitigation strategies that are both effective and practical. Based on the elicitation of ASF expert opinion, this study identified surveillance and intervention strategies for ASF that are perceived as the most effective by providing the best combination between effectiveness and practicality. Among the 20 surveillance strategies that were identified, passive surveillance of wild boar and syndromic surveillance of pig mortality were considered to be the most effective surveillance strategies for controlling ASF virus spread...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833640/molecular-detection-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-and-coinfection-with-african-swine-fever-virus-in-blood-samples-of-pigs-from-some-slaughterhouses-in-nigeria
#8
Pam D Luka, Joseph Erume, Bitrus Yakubu, Olajide A Owolodun, David Shamaki, Frank N Mwiine
Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b) infection is present in pig herds worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b infections in domestic pigs from some slaughterhouses in Nigeria as well as coinfection with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and described the phylogeny in relation to global strains. One hundred and eighty-one (181) blood samples from four slaughterhouses were used for the study and viral nucleic acid detection was carried out by PCR. Comparative sequence analysis was carried out to infer phylogeny...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795430/simultaneous-deletion-of-the-9gl-and-uk-genes-from-the-african-swine-fever-virus-georgia-2007-isolate-offers-increased-safety-and-protection-against-homologous-challenge
#9
Vivian O'Donnell, Guillermo R Risatti, Lauren G Holinka, Peter Krug, Jolene Carlson, Lauro Velazquez-Salinas, Paul A Azzinaro, Douglas P Gladue, Manuel V Borca
: African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a contagious and often lethal viral disease of domestic pigs that has significant economic consequences for the swine industry. The control of African Swine Fever (ASF) has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. Successful experimental vaccines have been derived from naturally occurring, cell culture-adapted, or genetically modified live attenuated ASFV. Recombinant viruses harboring engineered deletions of specific virulence-associated genes induce solid protection against challenge with parental viruses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782090/association-of-the-host-immune-response-with-protection-using-a-live-attenuated-african-swine-fever-virus-model
#10
Jolene Carlson, Vivian O'Donnell, Marialexia Alfano, Lauro Velazquez Salinas, Lauren G Holinka, Peter W Krug, Douglas P Gladue, Stephen Higgs, Manuel V Borca
African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease of swine caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine to prevent the disease and current control measures are limited to culling and restricting animal movement. Swine infected with attenuated strains are protected against challenge with a homologous virulent virus, but there is limited knowledge of the host immune mechanisms generating that protection. Swine infected with Pretoriuskop/96/4 (Pret4) virus develop a fatal severe disease, while a derivative strain lacking virulence-associated gene 9GL (Pret4Δ9GL virus) is completely attenuated...
October 22, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770755/african-swine-fever-virus-a-new-old-enemy-of-europe
#11
Agata A Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756505/challenges-for-african-swine-fever-vaccine-development-%C3%A2-perhaps-the-end-of-the-beginning
#12
D L Rock
African swine fever (ASF), an acute, viral hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine with mortality rates approaching 100%, is arguably the most significant emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. Devastating ASF outbreaks and continuing epidemic in the Caucasus region and Russia (2007-to date) highlight significance of this disease threat. There is no vaccine for ASF, thus leaving animal slaughter the only effective disease control option. It is clear, however, that vaccination is possible since protection against reinfection with the homologous strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been clearly demonstrated...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714502/development-of-an-updated-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#13
Yuzi Luo, Stella A Atim, Lina Shao, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe, Yuan Sun, Yan Liu, Shengwei Ji, Xing-Yu Meng, Su Li, Yongfeng Li, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Frederik Widén, Lihong Liu, Hua-Ji Qiu
Due to the current unavailability of vaccines or treatments for African swine fever (ASF), which is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), rapid and reliable detection of the virus is essential for timely implementation of emergency control measures and differentiation of ASF from other swine diseases with similar clinical presentations. Here, an improved PCR assay was developed and evaluated for sensitive and universal detection of ASFV. Primers specific for ASFV were designed based on the highly conserved region of the vp72 gene sequences of all ASFV strains available in GenBank, and the PCR assay was established and compared with two OIE-validated PCR tests...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684556/english-pig-farmers-knowledge-and-behaviour-towards-african-swine-fever-suspicion-and-reporting
#14
Claire Guinat, Ben Wall, Linda Dixon, Dirk Udo Pfeiffer
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable, virulent swine disease, and is a major threat to animal health and trade for many European Union (EU) countries. Early detection of the introduction of ASF virus is of paramount importance to be able to limit the potential extent of outbreaks. However, the timely and accurate reporting of ASF primary cases strongly depends on how familiar pig farmers are with the clinical signs, and their motivation to report the disease. Here, an online questionnaire survey was conducted between December 2014 and April 2015 to investigate English pig farmers' knowledge and behaviour towards ASF in terms of clinical suspicion and reporting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667658/estimating-the-basic-reproductive-number-for-african-swine-fever-using-the-ukrainian-historical-epidemic-of-1977
#15
F I Korennoy, V M Gulenkin, A E Gogin, T Vergne, A K Karaulov
In 1977, Ukraine experienced a local epidemic of African swine fever (ASF) in the Odessa region. A total of 20 settlements were affected during the course of the epidemic, including both large farms and backyard households. Thanks to timely interventions, the virus circulation was successfully eradicated within 6 months, leading to no additional outbreaks. Detailed report of the outbreak's investigation has been publically available from 2014. The report contains some quantitative data that allow studying the ASF-spread dynamics in the course of the epidemic...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638776/apigenin-inhibits-african-swine-fever-virus-infection-in-vitro
#16
Astghik Hakobyan, Erik Arabyan, Aida Avetisyan, Liana Abroyan, Lina Hakobyan, Hovakim Zakaryan
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most devastating diseases of domestic pigs for which no effective vaccines are available. Flavonoids, natural products isolated from plants, have been reported to have significant in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against different viruses. Here, we tested the antiviral effect of five flavonoids on the replication of ASFV in Vero cells. Our results showed a potent, dose-dependent anti-ASFV effect of apigenin in vitro. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that apigenin was highly effective at the early stages of infection...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633968/development-of-a-novel-lateral-flow-assay-for-detection-of-african-swine-fever-in-blood
#17
P Sastre, C Gallardo, A Monedero, T Ruiz, M Arias, A Sanz, P Rueda
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral infectious disease of domestic and wild suids of all breeds and ages, causing a wide range of hemorrhagic syndromes and frequently characterized by high mortality. The disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia. Since 2007, it has also been present in different countries of Eastern Europe, where control measures have not been effective so far. The continued spread poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. In the absence of vaccine, early detection of infected animals is of paramount importance for control of the outbreak, to prevent the transmission of the virus to healthy animals and subsequent spreading of the disease...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628166/induction-of-robust-immune-responses-in-swine-by-using-a-cocktail-of-adenovirus-vectored-african-swine-fever-virus-antigens
#18
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Cameron L Martin, Neha Sangewar, Chloe Charendoff, Rashmi Shetti, Clay Ashley, Chang-Hsin Chen, Luc R Berghman, Duncan Mwangi, Paul J Dominowski, Dennis L Foss, Sharath Rai, Shaunak Vora, Lindsay Gabbert, Thomas G Burrage, David Brake, John Neilan, Waithaka Mwangi
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection...
November 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611939/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-antibodies-in-serum-and-oral-fluid-specimens-using-a-recombinant-protein-30-p30-dual-matrix-indirect-elisa
#19
Luis G Giménez-Lirola, Lina Mur, Belen Rivera, Mark Mogler, Yaxuan Sun, Sergio Lizano, Christa Goodell, D L Hank Harris, Raymond R R Rowland, Carmina Gallardo, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jeff Zimmerman
In the absence of effective vaccine(s), control of African swine fever caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV) must be based on early, efficient, cost-effective detection and strict control and elimination strategies. For this purpose, we developed an indirect ELISA capable of detecting ASFV antibodies in either serum or oral fluid specimens. The recombinant protein used in the ELISA was selected by comparing the early serum antibody response of ASFV-infected pigs (NHV-p68 isolate) to three major recombinant polypeptides (p30, p54, p72) using a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (FMIA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608711/evidence-for-the-presence-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-an-endemic-region-of-western-kenya-in-the-absence-of-any-reported-outbreak
#20
Lian F Thomas, Richard P Bishop, Cynthia Onzere, Michael T Mcintosh, Karissa A Lemire, William A de Glanville, E Anne J Cook, Eric M Fèvre
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a severe haemorrhagic disease of pigs, outbreaks of which can have a devastating impact upon commercial and small-holder pig production. Pig production in western Kenya is characterised by low-input, free-range systems practised by poor farmers keeping between two and ten pigs. These farmers are particularly vulnerable to the catastrophic loss of livestock assets experienced in an ASF outbreak. This study wished to expand our understanding of ASFV epidemiology during a period when no outbreaks were reported...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
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