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african swine fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143187/multi-locus-sequence-typing-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-from-endemic-regions-of-kenya-and-eastern-uganda-2011-2013-reveals-rapid-b602l-central-variable-region-evolution
#1
C K Onzere, A D Bastos, E A Okoth, J K Lichoti, E N Bochere, M G Owido, G Ndambuki, M Bronsvoort, R P Bishop
The central variable region (CVR) within the B602L gene of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly polymorphic within the 23 ASFV genotypes defined by sequencing of the C-terminal end of the p72 locus. Sequencing the p54 gene further discriminates ASFV genotypes that are conserved at the p72 locus. Variation in the thymidine kinase locus is a novel additional tool for ASFV genotyping whose application for this purpose is described for the first time herein. We evaluated genetic variation at these four polymorphic loci in 39 ASFV isolates obtained from outbreaks in Kenya and a region of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2013...
November 15, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139069/piloting-the-effectiveness-of-pig-health-education-in-combination-with-oxfendazole-treatment-on-prevention-and-or-control-of-porcine-cysticercosis-gastrointestinal-parasites-african-swine-fever-and-ectoparasites-in-ang%C3%A3-nia-district-mozambique
#2
A G Chilundo, M V Johansen, A Pondja, R Miambo, S Afonso, S Mukaratirwa
A community-based intervention combining health education (HE) and treatment of pigs for control of porcine cysticercosis (PC), gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, African swine fever (ASF) and external parasites was tested involving six villages of resource-poor smallholder pig farmers. Farmers and pigs of six rural villages were randomly allocated into group 1 (HE), which served as controls, and group 2 (HE + OFZ) pigs received a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg OFZ. Farmers were trained in pig health, housing and feeding...
November 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124058/implementation-of-a-regional-training-program-on-african-swine-fever-as-part-of-the-cooperative-biological-engagement-program-across-the-caucasus-region
#3
Marco De Nardi, Anaïs Léger, Tatul Stepanyan, Bagrat Khachatryan, Talgat Karibayev, Igor Sytnik, Samat Tyulegenov, Assel Akhmetova, Serhiy Nychyk, Mykola Sytiuk, Oleg Nevolko, Roman Datsenko, Tengiz Chaligava, Lasha Avaliani, Otar Parkadze, Lena Ninidze, Natia Kartskhia, Tsira Napetvaridze, Zviad Asanishvili, Demna Khelaia, Ioseb Menteshashvili, Meruzhan Zadayan, Lyudmila Niazyan, Nataliya Mykhaylovska, Bradford Raymond Brooks, Gulnara Zhumabayeva, Saltanat Satabayeva, Magda Metreveli, Theresa Gallagher, Richard Obiso
A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF) was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland). Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120101/inferring-within-herd-transmission-parameters-for-african-swine-fever-virus-using-mortality-data-from-outbreaks-in-the-russian-federation
#4
C Guinat, T Porphyre, A Gogin, L Dixon, D U Pfeiffer, S Gubbins
Mortality data are routinely collected for many livestock and poultry species, and they are often used for epidemiological purposes, including estimating transmission parameters. In this study, we infer transmission rates for African swine fever virus (ASFV), an important transboundary disease of swine, using mortality data collected from nine pig herds in the Russian Federation with confirmed outbreaks of ASFV. Parameters in a stochastic model for the transmission of ASFV within a herd were estimated using approximate Bayesian computation...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117102/mechanisms-of-entry-and-endosomal-pathway-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#5
REVIEW
Elena G. Sánchez, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Yolanda Revilla
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) causes a serious swine disease that is endemic in Africa and Sardinia and presently spreading in Russia and neighboring countries, including Poland and recently, the Czech Republic. This uncontrolled dissemination is a world-wide threat, as no specific protection or vaccine is available. ASFV is a very complex icosahedral, enveloped virus about 200 nm in diameter, which infects several members of pigs. The virus enters host cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis that depends on energy, vacuolar pH and temperature...
November 8, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110237/prevalence-of-african-swine-fever-virus-and-classical-swine-fever-virus-antibodies-in-pigs-in-benue-state-nigeria
#6
A Asambe, A K B Sackey, L B Tekdek
This study investigated the prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) antibodies in pigs in Benue State, Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from a total of 460 pigs, including 416 from 74 piggeries and 44 from Makurdi slaughter slab. The samples were analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit to detect the presence of ASFV antibodies, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to detect antibodies to CSFV. Our findings showed a total ASF prevalence of 13 (2...
November 6, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102127/transmission-of-african-swine-fever-virus-from-infected-pigs-by-direct-contact-and-aerosol-routes
#7
Ann Sofie Olesen, Louise Lohse, Anette Boklund, Tariq Halasa, Carmina Gallardo, Zygmunt Pejsak, Graham J Belsham, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Anette Bøtner
In 2014, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Baltic states and Poland. Since then, the disease has continued to spread within these regions, and recently, cases were reported in the Czech Republic and Romania. Currently, there is an increasing risk of ASFV introduction into Western Europe. Hence, there is an urgent need to assess current contingency plans. For this purpose, knowledge of modes-of-transmission and clinical outcome in pigs infected with new European ASFV strains is needed...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081590/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-based-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus
#8
Jianchang Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Yunyun Geng, Wanzhe Yuan
A recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based method was developed for rapid and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV), the etiologic agent of African swine fever, a devastating disease of swine. Primers and the exo probe targeting the conserved region of the P72 gene of ASFV were designed and the reaction was run on the Genie III scanner device. Using recombinant plasmid DNA containing the P72 gene as template, we showed that the amplified product could be detected in less than 10 min and that the detection limit was 10(2) copies DNA/reaction [same detection limit as real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041944/differential-expression-of-porcine-micrornas-in-african-swine-fever-virus-infected-pigs-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Lester Josué Pérez, Marta Muñoz, Gonzalo Vera, Francesc Accensi, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez, José I Núñez
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a re-expanding devastating viral disease currently threatening the pig industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of 17-25 nucleotide non- coding RNAs that have been shown to have critical functions in a wide variety of biological processes, such as cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis, regulation of immunity as well as in viral infections by cleavage or translational repression of mRNAs. Nevertheless, there is no information about miRNA expression in an ASFV infection...
October 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027378/why-is-african-swine-fever-still-present-in-sardinia
#10
C Jurado, E Fernández-Carrión, L Mur, S Rolesu, A Laddomada, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious disease of swine that has been present in Sardinia since 1978. Soon after introduction of the disease, several control and eradication programmes were established with limited success. Some researchers attributed the persistence of the disease in central and eastern areas to certain socio-economic factors, the existence of some local and traditional farming practices (i.e., unregistered free-ranging pigs known as brado animals) and the high density of wild boar in the region...
October 12, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021398/characterization-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-decapping-enzyme-during-infection
#11
Ana Quintas, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Elena G Sánchez, Maria L Nogal, Matthias W Hentze, Alfredo Castelló, Yolanda Revilla
African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection is characterized by a progressive decrease in cellular protein synthesis with a concomitant increase in viral protein synthesis, though the mechanism by which the virus achieves this phenomenon is still unknown. Decrease of cellular mRNA is observed during ASFV infection, suggesting that inhibition of cellular proteins is due to an active mRNA degradation process. ASFV carries a gene (Ba71V D250R/Malawi g5R) that encodes a decapping protein (ASFV-DP) which has a Nudix hydrolase motif and decapping activity in vitro Here we show that ASFV-DP was expressed from early times and accumulated throughout the infection with a subcellular localization typical of the endoplasmic reticulum, co-localizing with the cap structure and interacting with the ribosomal protein L23a...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991171/approaches-and-perspectives-for-development-of-african-swine-fever-virus-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Marisa Arias, Ana de la Torre, Linda Dixon, Carmina Gallardo, Ferran Jori, Alberto Laddomada, Carlos Martins, R Michael Parkhouse, Yolanda Revilla, Fernando And Jose-Manuel Rodriguez
African swine fever (ASF) is a complex disease of swine, caused by a large DNA virus belonging to the family Asfarviridae. The disease shows variable clinical signs, with high case fatality rates, up to 100%, in the acute forms. ASF is currently present in Africa and Europe where it circulates in different scenarios causing a high socio-economic impact. In most affected regions, control has not been effective in part due to lack of a vaccine. The availability of an effective and safe ASFV vaccines would support and enforce control-eradication strategies...
October 7, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986685/contribution-of-market-value-chain-to-the-control-of-african-swine-fever-in-zambia
#13
C Siamupa, N Saasa, A M Phiri
African swine fever (ASF) is a worldwide disease of pigs endemic in most sub-Saharan African countries. Zambia has been experiencing outbreaks of ASF for many years because the disease is endemic in the eastern part of the country, with incursion into the central part of Lusaka Province. The latest outbreaks of ASF in Lusaka occurred in 2013 with substantial pig mortalities, loss in trade, and cost of control measures and compensation of affected farmers. The aims of the study were to identify market value chain-related factors that were associated with ASF outbreaks and assess why these outbreaks are becoming frequent despite control measures being put in place...
October 6, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978700/deletion-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-gene-dp148r-does-not-reduce-virus-replication-in-culture-but-reduces-virus-virulence-in-pigs-and-induces-high-levels-of-protection-against-challenge
#14
Ana L Reis, Lynnette C Goatley, Tamara Jabbar, Pedro J Sanchez-Cordon, Christopher L Netherton, Dave G Chapman, Linda K Dixon
Many of the approximately 165 proteins encoded by African swine fever virus do not have significant similarity to known proteins and have not been studied experimentally. One such protein is DP148R. We showed that the DP148R gene is transcribed at early times post-infection. Deletion of this gene did not reduce virus replication in macrophages showing that is not essential for replication in these cells. However deleting this gene from a virulent isolate, Benin 97/1, dramatically reduced the virulence of the virus in vivo All pigs infected with the BeninΔDP148R virus survived infection showing only transient mild clinical signs soon after immunisation...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970577/development-of-african-swine-fever-epidemic-among-wild-boar-in-estonia-two-different-areas-in-the-epidemiological-focus
#15
Imbi Nurmoja, Katja Schulz, Christoph Staubach, Carola Sauter-Louis, Klaus Depner, Franz J Conraths, Arvo Viltrop
African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar emerged in Estonia for the first time in September 2014. The first affected region was located in the South of Estonia close to the border with Latvia. It was considered to be epidemiologically connected to the outbreaks in the North of Latvia. About two weeks later, cases were detected in the North of Estonia, close to the Russian border. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the epidemiological courses of the disease in the South and in the North of Estonia. Potential associations between risk factors and the laboratory test results for ASF were examined...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941208/gaps-in-african-swine-fever-analysis-and-priorities
#16
M Arias, C Jurado, C Gallardo, J Fernández-Pinero, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno
African swine fever (ASF) causes greater sanitary, social and economic impacts on swine herds than many other swine diseases. Although ASF was first described in 1921 and it has affected more than fifty countries in Africa, Europe and South America, several key issues about its pathogenesis, immune evasion and epidemiology remain uncertain. This article reviews the main characteristics of the causative virus, its molecular epidemiology, natural hosts, clinical features, epidemiology and control worldwide. It also identifies and prioritizes gaps in ASF from a horizontal point of view encompassing fields including molecular biology, epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and vaccine development...
September 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921895/genetic-characterization-of-african-swine-fever-virus-isolates-from-soft-ticks-at-the-wildlife-domestic-interface-in-mozambique-and-identification-of-a-novel-genotype
#17
C J Quembo, F Jori, W Vosloo, L Heath
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious diseases of pigs. There are not sufficient data to indicate the importance of the sylvatic cycle in the spread and maintenance of the disease locally and potentially, globally. To assess the capacity to maintain ASF in the environment, we investigated the presence of soft tickreservoirs of ASFV in Gorongosa National Park (GNP) and its surrounding villages. A total of 1,658 soft ticks were recovered from warthog burrows and pig pens at the wildlife/livestock interface of the GNP and viral DNA was confirmed by nested PCR in 19% of Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus and 15% of O...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921878/simplifying-sampling-for-african-swine-fever-surveillance-assessment-of-antibody-and-pathogen-detection-from-blood-swabs
#18
J Carlson, L Zani, T Schwaiger, I Nurmoja, A Viltrop, A Vilem, M Beer, S Blome
African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable disease with serious socio-economic consequences that has been present in wild boar in the Baltic States and Poland since 2014. An introduction of ASF is usually accompanied by increased mortality, making fallen wild boar and hunted animals with signs of disease the main target for early warning and passive surveillance. It is difficult, however, to encourage hunters and foresters to report and take samples from these cases. A pragmatic and easy sampling approach with quick-drying swabs could facilitate this...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921873/diagnostic-specificity-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-antibody-detection-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-in-feral-and-domestic-pigs-in-the-united-states
#19
H C Bergeron, P S Glas, K R Schumann
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease of pigs that has the potential to cause mortality nearing 100% in naïve animals. While an outbreak of ASF in the United States' pig population (domestic and feral) has never been reported, an introduction of the disease has the potential to cause devastation to the pork industry and food security. During the recovery phase of an outbreak, an antibody detection diagnostic assay would be required to prove freedom of disease within the previously infected zone and eventually nationwide...
September 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916365/sodium-phenylbutyrate-abrogates-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-by-disrupting-the-virus-induced-hypoacetylation-status-of-histone-h3k9-k14
#20
Gonçalo Frouco, Ferdinando B Freitas, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study...
September 13, 2017: Virus Research
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