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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599000/modeling-the-live-pig-trade-network-in-georgia-implications-for-disease-prevention-and-control
#1
Esther Andrea Kukielka, Beatriz Martínez-López, Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo
Live pig trade patterns, drivers and characteristics, particularly in backyard predominant systems, remain largely unexplored despite their important contribution to the spread of infectious diseases in the swine industry. A better understanding of the pig trade dynamics can inform the implementation of risk-based and more cost-effective prevention and control programs for swine diseases. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire elaborated by FAO and implemented to 487 farmers was used to collect data regarding basic characteristics about pig demographics and live-pig trade among villages in the country of Georgia, where very scarce information is available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587154/redistribution-of-endosomal-membranes-to-the-african-swine-fever-virus-replication-site
#2
Miguel Ángel Cuesta-Geijo, Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site...
June 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573011/behaviour-of-free-ranging-wild-boar-towards-their-dead-fellows-potential-implications-for-the-transmission-of-african-swine-fever
#3
Carolina Probst, Anja Globig, Bent Knoll, Franz J Conraths, Klaus Depner
The behaviour of free ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) towards carcasses of their conspecifics potentially infected with African swine fever (ASF) may significantly influence the course of an ASF epidemic. This study aims to better understand the behaviour of wild boar towards their dead fellows. Thirty-two wild boar carcasses on nine study sites in northeast Germany were monitored under field conditions by photo-trapping from October 2015 until October 2016. During this period, a total of 122 160 pictures were taken, thereof 16 111 pictures of wild boar...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528879/functional-annotation-and-analysis-of-the-ornithodoros-moubata-midgut-genes-differentially-expressed-after-blood-feeding
#4
Ana Oleaga, Prosper Obolo-Mvoulouga, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the African swine fever and the human relapsing fever in Africa. As part of the host-parasite-pathogen interface, the tick midgut expresses key proteins for tick survival and tick-borne pathogen transmission. Accordingly, midgut proteins are potential targets for the development of new drugs and vaccines aimed at tick control, and obtaining proteomic and transcriptomic data from the O. moubata midgut would facilitate the identification of such target candidates...
May 13, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502836/selection-of-differently-temporally-regulated-african-swine-fever-virus-promoters-with-variable-expression-activities-and-their-application-for-transient-and-recombinant-virus-mediated-gene-expression
#5
Raquel S Portugal, Anja Bauer, Guenther M Keil
African swine fever virus threatens pig production worldwide due to the lack of vaccines, for which generation of both deletion and insertion mutants is considered. For development of the latter, operational ASFV promoters of different temporal regulation and strengths are desirable. We therefore compared the capacities of putative promoter sequences from p72, CD2v, p30, viral DNA polymerase and U104L genes to mediate expression of luciferase from transfected plasmids after activation in trans, or p30-, DNA polymerase- and U104L promoters in cis, using respective ASFV recombinants...
May 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494933/comparative-phenotypic-and-functional-analyses-of-the-effects-of-autologous-plasma-and-recombinant-human-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-m-csf-on-porcine-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#6
Giulia Franzoni, Piero Bonelli, Simon Paul Graham, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Silvia Dei Giudici, Giovannantonio Pilo, Marco Pittau, Paola Nicolussi, Annalisa Oggiano
Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. However, the lack of a standardized method for moMΦ differentiation hampers the comparison of results coming from the use of different laboratory protocols. In this study we compared the use of varying concentrations of autologous plasma (10, 20 and 30% v/v) or recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hM-CSF; 50, 100, and 200ng/ml) to differentiate porcine monocytes into macrophages...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494931/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-acute-african-swine-fever-clinic
#7
Z R Karalyan, Z R Ter-Pogossyan, N Yu Karalyan, Z B Semerjyan, M R Tatoyan, S A Karapetyan, E M Karalova
INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) usually has been defined as the combination of a proliferation of cytologically benign, actively phagocytic macrophages in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, etc. in association with fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly, and hypertriglyceridemia. HLH is often triggered by viral infection. The aim of this study was to ascertain the features of HLH involvement in African swine fever virus (ASFV) (genotype II) pathogenesis. METHODS: The serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), as well as the histological constitution (for hemophagocytic macrophages detection) of various organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489063/african-swine-fever-virus-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Inmaculada Galindo, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine which causes high mortality, approaching 100%, in domestic pigs. ASF is caused by a large, double stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV), which replicates predominantly in the cytoplasm of macrophages and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, genus Asfivirus. The natural hosts of this virus include wild suids and arthropod vectors of the Ornithodoros genus. The infection of ASFV in its reservoir hosts is usually asymptomatic and develops a persistent infection...
May 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481911/adenovirus-vectored-novel-african-swine-fever-virus-antigens-elicit-robust-immune-responses-in-swine
#9
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Neha Sangewar, Chloe Charendoff, Cameron L Martin, Wisam S Hassan, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Lindsay Gabbert, Thomas G Burrage, David Brake, John Neilan, Waithaka Mwangi
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a high-consequence transboundary animal pathogen that often causes hemorrhagic disease in swine with a case fatality rate close to 100%. Lack of treatment or vaccine for the disease makes it imperative that safe and efficacious vaccines are developed to safeguard the swine industry. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of seven adenovirus-vectored novel ASFV antigens, namely A151R, B119L, B602L, EP402RΔPRR, B438L, K205R and A104R. Immunization of commercial swine with a cocktail of the recombinant adenoviruses formulated in adjuvant primed strong ASFV antigen-specific IgG responses that underwent rapid recall upon boost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460754/pig-traders-networks-on-the-kenya-uganda-border-highlight-potential-for-mitigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus-transmission-and-improved-asf-disease-risk-management
#10
Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies, Yiheyis Maru, Philip M Kitala, Samuel M Githigia, Edward Okoth, Salome A Bukachi, Sam Okuthe, Richard P Bishop
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446673/pacmanvirus-a-new-giant-icosahedral-virus-at-the-crossroads-between-asfarviridae-and-faustoviruses
#11
Julien Andreani, Jacques Yaacoub Bou Khalil, Madhumati Sevvana, Samia Benamar, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Idir Bitam, Philippe Colson, Thomas Klose, Michael G Rossmann, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola
African swine fever virus, a double stranded DNA virus infecting pigs, is the only known member of the Asfarviridae family. Nevertheless, during our isolation and sequencing of the complete genome of Faustovirus followed by the description of Kaumoebavirus, carried out over the past two years, we observed the emergence of previously unknown related viruses within this group of viruses. Here, we describe the isolation of Pacmanvirus, a fourth member in this group, capable of infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#12
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#13
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418311/reemergence-of-african-swine-fever-in-zimbabwe-2015
#14
Juanita van Heerden, Kerstin Malan, Biko M Gadaga, Reverend M Spargo
Zimbabwe is the only country in southern Africa with no reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks during 1993-2014. However, the 2015 discovery of genotype II ASF virus in Zimbabwe indicates the reemergence of ASF in this country and suggests that this viral genotype may be spreading through eastern and southern Africa.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381576/dna-binding-properties-of-the-african-swine-fever-virus-pa104r-a-histone-like-protein-involved-in-viral-replication-and-transcription
#15
Gonçalo Frouco, Ferdinando B Freitas, João Coelho, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus (ASFV) codes for a putative histone-like protein (pA104R) with extensive sequence homology to bacterial proteins that are implicated in genome replication and packaging. Functional characterization of purified recombinant pA104R revealed that it binds to ssDNA and dsDNA over a wide range of temperatures, pH values, salt concentrations and in an ATP-independent manner, with an estimated binding site size of about 14-16 nucleotides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine located in pA104R's DNA-binding domain, at position 69, was found to be relevant for an efficient DNA-binding activity...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316972/prediction-of-pig-trade-movements-in-different-european-production-systems-using-exponential-random-graph-models
#16
Anne Relun, Vladimir Grosbois, Tsviatko Alexandrov, Jose M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Agnes Waret-Szkuta, Sophie Molia, Eric Marcel Charles Etter, Beatriz Martínez-López
In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303673/assessment-of-the-risk-of-african-swine-fever-introduction-into-finland-using-nora-a-rapid-tool-for-semiquantitative-assessment-of-the-risk
#17
J Kyyrö, L Sahlström, T Lyytikäinen
The NORA rapid risk assessment tool was developed for situations where there is a change in the disease status of easily transmissible animal diseases in neighbouring countries or in countries with significant interactions with Finland. The goal was to develop a tool that is quick to use and will provide consistent results to support risk management decisions. The model contains 63 questions that define the potential for entry and exposure by nine different pathways. The magnitude of the consequences is defined by 23 statements...
March 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299893/co-circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-african-swine-fever-viruses-among-domestic-pigs-in-zambia-2013-2015
#18
E Simulundu, H M Chambaro, Y Sinkala, M Kajihara, H Ogawa, A Mori, J Ndebe, G Dautu, L Mataa, C H Lubaba, C Simuntala, P Fandamu, M Simuunza, G S Pandey, K L Samui, G Misinzo, A Takada, A S Mweene
During 2013-2015, several and severe outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) affected domestic pigs in six provinces of Zambia. Genetic characterization of ASF viruses (ASFVs) using standardized genotyping procedures revealed that genotypes I, II and XIV were associated with these outbreaks. Molecular and epidemiological data suggest that genotype II ASFV (Georgia 2007/1-like) detected in Northern Province of Zambia may have been introduced from neighbouring Tanzania. Also, a genotype II virus detected in Eastern Province of Zambia showed a p54 phylogenetic relationship that was inconsistent with that of p72, underscoring the genetic variability of ASFVs...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298603/african-swine-fever-virus-np868r-capping-enzyme-promotes-reovirus-rescue-during-reverse-genetics-by-promoting-reovirus-protein-expression-virion-assembly-and-rna-incorporation-into-infectious-virions
#19
Heather E Eaton, Takeshi Kobayashi, Terence S Dermody, Randal N Johnston, Philippe H Jais, Maya Shmulevitz
Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. The traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme during reovirus rescue. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5- to 10-fold compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296281/understanding-african-swine-fever-infection-dynamics-in-sardinia-using-a-spatially-explicit-transmission-model-in-domestic-pig-farms
#20
L Mur, J M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, E Fernández-Carrión, C Jurado, S Rolesu, F Feliziani, A Laddomada, B Martínez-López
African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence...
March 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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