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Jian Shi, Francesc Miralles, Lutz Birnbaumer, William A Large, Anthony P Albert
In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs mediate Ca(2+) entry pathways which regulate contractility, proliferation and migration. It is therefore important to understand how these channels are activated. Studies have shown that stimulation of TRPC1-based SOCs requires Gαq/PLCβ1 activities and PKC phosphorylation, but it is unclear how store depletion stimulates this gating pathway. The present work examines this issue by focusing on the role of STIM1, an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Mohsen Golabi, Filiz Kuralay, Edwin W H Jager, Valerio Beni, Anthony P F Turner
Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities...
September 26, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Dongqing Kong, Sai Bi, Zonghua Wang, Jianfei Xia, Feifei Zhang
In this work, an in situ growth protocol is introduced to fabricate three-dimensional graphene films (3D GFs) on gold substrates, which are successfully utilized as working electrode for electrochemical detection of nucleic acid (microRNA) and protein (lysozyme) based on a signal-on sensing mechanism. To realize the bridge between the gold substrate and graphene film, a monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol is self-assembled on the substrate, which is then served as connectors for the growth of 3D GFs on the gold substrate by the hydrothermal reduction (HR) technique...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Guang-Yao Zhang, Yu-Hong Zhuang, Dan Shan, Guo-Fang Su, Serge Cosnier, Xueji Zhang
A simple and rapid photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor is developed for the label-free detection of a phosphoprotein (α-casein) based on a zirconium based porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF), PCN-222, which exhibits an enhanced photocurrent response towards dopamine under the O2-saturated aqueous media. In this work, in terms of PEC measurements and cyclic voltammetry, the PEC behaviors of PCN-222 in aqueous media were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Additionally, in the virtue of the steric hindrance effect from the coordination of the phosphate groups and inorganic Zr-O clusters as binding sites in PCN-222, this biosensor shows high sensitivity for detecting α-casein and the limit of detection (LOD) is estimated to be 0...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Rong-Wei Si, Yuan Yang, Yangyang Yu, Song Han, Chun-Lian Zhang, De-Zhen Sun, Dan-Dan Zhai, Xiang Liu, Yang-Chun Yong
A whole-cell bioelectrochemical biosensing system for amperometric detection of riboflavin was developed. A "bioelectrochemical wire" (BW) consists of riboflavin and cytochrome C between S. oneidensis MR-1 and electrode was characterized. Typically, strong electrochemical response was observed when riboflavin was added to reinforce this BW. Impressively, the electrochemical response of riboflavin with this BW was over 200 times higher than that without bacteria. Uniquely, this electron rewiring process enabled the development of a biosensing system for amperometric detection of riboflavin...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Rainer von Coelln, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies on clinical, genetic and pathological heterogeneity of Parkinson disease have renewed the old debate whether we should think of Parkinson disease as one disease with variations, or as a group of independent diseases that happen to present with similar phenotypes. Here, we provide an overview of where the debate is coming from, and how recent findings in clinical subtyping, genetics and clinico-pathological correlation have shaped this controversy over the last few years...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Gao-Chao Fan, Xiao-Mei Shi, Jianrong Zhang, Jun-Jie Zhu
Generally, photoanode-based photoelectrochemical immunoassay possesses obvious photocurrent response and lower detection limit for ideal sample detection, but it has the inherent imperfection of poor anti-interference capability for real sample detection. Photocathode-based immunoassay can well avoid the intrinsic drawback of photoanode-based immunoassay, but it has low photocurrent response resulting in less good sensitivity. Herein, a promising new cathode photoelectrochemical immunosensing platform integrating photocathode with photoanode was reported for accurate and sensitive detection of biomarkers...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Alejandra Tello, Roberto Cao, María José Marchant, Humberto Gomez
Conformation constitutes a vital property of biomolecules, especially in the cases of enzymes and aptamers, and is essential in defining their molecular recognition ability. When biomolecules are immobilized on electrode surfaces, it is very important to have a control on all the possible conformational changes that may occur, either upon the recognition of their targets or by undesired alterations. Both, enzymes and aptamers, immobilized on electrodes are susceptible to conformational changes as a response to the nature of the charge of the surface and of the surrounding environment (pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc...
October 17, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
C Dincer, A Kling, C Chatelle, L Armbrecht, J Kieninger, W Weber, G A Urban
Here, we present a novel approach to increase the degree of miniaturization as well as the sensitivity of biosensor platforms by the optimization of microfluidic stop-flow techniques independent of the applied detection technique (e.g. electrochemical or optical). The readout of the labeled bioassays, immobilized in a microfluidic channel, under stop-flow conditions leads to a rectangular shaped peak signal. Data evaluation using the peak height allows for a high level miniaturization of the channel geometries...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
Andrew Kd Younger, Neil Chandra Dalvie, Austin G Rottinghaus, Joshua N Leonard
Efforts to engineer microbial factories have benefitted from mining biological diversity and high throughput synthesis of novel enzymatic ensembles, yet screening and optimizing metabolic pathways remain rate-limiting steps. Metabolite-responsive biosensors may help to address these persistent challenges by enabling the monitoring of metabolite levels in individual cells and metabolite-responsive feedback control. We are currently limited to naturally-evolved biosensors, which are insufficient for monitoring many metabolites of interest...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Sanjiv Sharma, Zhenyi Huang, Michelle Rogers, Martyn Boutelle, Anthony E G Cass
We describe here a minimally invasive glucose biosensor based on a microneedle array electrode fabricated from an epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU8 50) and designed for continuous measurement in the dermal compartment with minimal pain. These minimally invasive, continuous monitoring sensor devices (MICoMS) were produced by casting the structures in SU8 50, crosslinking and then metallising them with platinum or silver to obtain the working and reference electrodes, respectively. The metallised microneedle array electrodes were subsequently functionalised by entrapping glucose oxidase in electropolymerised polyphenol (PP) film...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
I Velázquez-López, E León-Cruz, J P Pardo, A Sosa-Peinado, M González-Andrade
Eight new fluorescent biosensors of human calmodulin (hCaM) using Alexa Fluor(®) 350, 488, 532, and 555 dyes were constructed. These biosensors are thermodynamically stable, functional, and highly sensitive to ligands of the CaM. They resolve the problem of CaM ligands with similar spectroscopic properties to the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorophores of other biosensors previously reported. Additionally, they can be used in studies of protein-protein interaction through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Oliver G Weingart, Martin J Loessner
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known, and their neurotoxic properties and paralysing effects are exploited for medical treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders. To accurately quantify the potency of a pharmaceutical BoNT preparation, its physiological key activities (binding to membrane receptor, translocation, and proteolytic degradation of SNARE proteins) need to be determined. To date, this was only possible using animal models, or, to a limited extent, cell-based assays. We here report a novel in vitro system for BoNT/B analysis, based on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes presenting motoneuronal membrane receptors required for BoNT binding...
October 12, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Chan-I Chung, Ryoji Makino, Yuki Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Hiroshi Ueda
Fluorescence-based biosensor probes, especially those based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent protein (FP) variants, are widely used to monitor various biological phenomena, often detecting ligand-induced association of the receptor domains. While antibodies are fertile sources of specific receptors for various biomolecules, their potential has not been fully exploited. In this study, we used a fluorescent probe comprising FP-fused antibody variable region fragments to detect a bone metabolism biomarker, osteocalcin (BGP), by using fluorescence spectrometry/microscopy...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ming Dai, Xueliang Xiao, Xin Chen, Haoming Lin, Wanqing Wu, Siping Chen
With the increasing aging population as well as health concerns, chronic heart disease has become the focus of public attention. A comfortable, low-powered, and wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) system for continuously monitoring the elderly's ECG signals over several hours is important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Traditional ECG monitoring apparatus is often inconvenient to carry, has many electrodes to attach to the chest, and has a high-power consumption. There is also a challenge to design an electrocardiograph that satisfies requirements such as comfort, confinement, and compactness...
October 14, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Thomas H Charpentier, Gary L Waldo, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Krzysztof Krajewski, Brian D Strahl, Thomas L Kash, T Kendall Harden, John Sondek
In contrast to G protein-coupled receptors for which chemical and peptidic inhibitors have been extensively explored, few compounds are available that directly modulate heterotrimeric G proteins. Active Gaq binds its two major classes of effectors, the PLC-b isozymes and RhoGEFs related to Trio, in a strikingly similar fashion: a continuous helix-turn-helix of the effectors engages Gaq within its canonical binding site, consisting of a groove formed between switch II and helix a3. This information was exploited to synthesize peptides that bound active Gaq in vitro with affinities similar to full-length effectors and directly competed with effectors for engagement of Gaq...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ferdaous Maâtouk, Mouna Maâtouk, Karima Bekir, Houcine Barhoumi, Abderrazak Maaref, Hedi Ben Mansour
In this work we report the development of an electrochemical DNA biosensor with high sensitivity for mercury ion detection. A new matrix based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-glutathione (GSH)/cysteine was investigated. The interaction between DNA oligonucleotides and Hg(2+) ions followed by the formation of Thymine-Hg(2+)-Thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structures was quantified using different electrochemical methods. It has been shown that the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) confirmed the specific interaction between the oligonucleotide receptor layer and the Hg(2+) ions...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Giulio Rosati, Matteo Scaramuzza, Elisabetta Pasqualotto, Alessandro De Toni, Carlo Reggiani, Alessandro Paccagnella
In this work, we demonstrate how an innovative, out-of-cleanroom customized CD/DVD fabrication process can be successfully used for mass production of biosensors with thin-film electrodes. We show that silver and gold electrodes can be used for impedimetric and voltammetric biosensing applications, both in presence and absence of a redox mediator. We modeled the redox/non-redox electrodes impedance through equivalent electrical circuits, and we evaluated their transfer function sensitivity with a one-factor-at-a-time approach...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Tadao Takada, Misa Ido, Akane Ashida, Mitsunobu Nakamura, Kazushige Yamana
DNA is considered to be a promising biomolecule as a template and scaffold for arranging and organizing functional molecules on the nanoscale. The construction and evaluation of DNAs containing multiple functional molecules that are useful for optoelectronic devices and sensors has been studied. In this paper we report the efficient incorporation of perylenediimide (PDI) units into DNA by using abasic sites both as binding sites and as reactive sites and the construction of PDI stacks within the DNA structure, accomplished through the preorganization of the PDI units in the hydrophobic pocket within the DNA...
October 14, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Candace Colpitts, Amin M Ektesabi, Rachael A Wyatt, Bryan D Crawford, Amirkianoosh Kiani
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated a method to produce bioactive hybrid amorphous silicon and silicon oxide patterns using nanosecond laser pulses. METHODS: Microscale line patterns were made by laser pulses on silicon wafers at different frequencies (25, 70 and 100 kHz), resulting in ablation patterns with frequency-dependent physical and chemical properties. RESULTS: Incubating the laser-treated silicon substrates with simulated body fluid demonstrated that the physicochemical properties of the laser-treated samples were stable under these conditions, and favored the deposition of bone-like apatite...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
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