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Muscle skeletal research

Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Agnieszka Jacoszek, Agnieszka Pollak, Rafał Płoski, Monika Ołdak
Hearing plays a crucial role in human development. Receiving and processing sounds are essential for the advancement of the speech ability during the early childhood and for a proper functioning in the society. Hearing loss is one of the most frequent disabilities that affect human senses. It can be caused by genetic or environmental factors or both of them. Calcium- and integrin-binding protein 2 (CIB2) is one of the recently identified genes, involved in HI pathogenesis. CIB2 is widely expressed in various human and animal tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle, nervous tissue, inner ear, and retina...
October 22, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Zhiyuan Xia, Xiandun Zhai, Beibei Liu, Yaonan Mo
Precise measurement of cadaver decomposition rate is the basis to accurate post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. There are many approaches explored in recent years, however, it is still unsolved completely. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), which is an important index to predict meat freshness and shelf life in food science, could serve as an indicator for measuring PMI associated decomposition rate of cadavers. The aim of this work was to establish a practical method to determine TVB-N in cadaver soft tissues (mainly skeletal muscle) for measuring decomposition rate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
James E Baily, William C W Chen, Nusrat Khan, Iain R Murray, Zaniah N González Galofre, Johnny Huard, Bruno Péault
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were conventionally isolated, through their plastic adherence, from primary tissue digests whilst their anatomical tissue location remained unclear. The recent discovery of defined perivascular and MSC cell marker expression by perivascular cells in multiple tissues by our group and other researchers has provided an opportunity to prospectively isolate and purify specific homogenous subpopulations of multipotent perivascular precursor cells. We have previously demonstrated the use of fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify microvascular CD146(+)CD34(-) pericytes and vascular CD34(+)CD146(-) adventitial cells from human skeletal muscle...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ikram Bezrati, Raouf Hammami, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Domenico Martone, Johnny Padulo, Moncef Feki, Anis Chaouachi, Naziha Kaabachi
Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included 125 children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25-OHD < 20 ng/mL. Physical performance testing included measurements of muscle strength (maximal isometric contraction), jumping ability (vertical jump, standing broad jump, triple hop test), linear sprint (10 m and 20 m), and agility (9 × 4-m shuttle run)...
July 13, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Sophie Joanisse, Joshua P Nederveen, Tim Snijders, Bryon R McKay, Gianni Parise
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Ultimately, sarcopenia results in the loss of independence, which imposes a large financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. A critical facet of sarcopenia is the diminished ability for aged muscle to regenerate, repair and remodel. Over the years, research has focused on elucidating underlying mechanisms of sarcopenia and the impaired ability of muscle to respond to stimuli with aging. Muscle-specific stem cells, termed satellite cells (SC), play an important role in maintaining muscle health throughout the lifespan...
October 20, 2016: Gerontology
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hee-Jae Kim, Ilhyoek Park, Hyo Joo Lee, On Lee
PURPOSE: Gait speed is an important objective values associated with several health-related outcomes including functional mobility in aging people. However, walking test methodologies and descriptions are not standardized considering specific aims of research. This study examine the reliability and validity of gait speed measured at various distances and paces in elderly Koreans. METHODS: Fifty-four female participants ≥70 years of age were recruited from a local retirement community...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Hideaki Kaneto, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Masashi Shimoda, Seizo Okauchi, Naoki Shimo, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Kohei Kaku
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in various insulin target tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors which are newly developed anti-diabetic agents decrease blood glucose levels by enhancing urinary glucose excretion and thereby function in an insulin-independent manner. SGLT2 inhibitors exert beneficial effects for the reduction of insulin resistance as well as for the preservation of pancreatic β-cell function...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Lewan Parker, Itamar Levinger, Aya Mousa, Kirsten Howlett, Barbora de Courten
Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OH)D concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0...
October 13, 2016: Nutrients
Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall, David Bishop, Greg Shaw, Simon Green
A large proportion of empirical research and reviews investigating the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation have focused predominately on performance outcomes and only speculate about underlying mechanisms responsible for any benefit. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation on mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle fatigue as it translates directly to exercise performance. Mechanistic links between skeletal muscle fatigue, proton accumulation (or metabolic acidosis) and NaHCO3 supplementation have been identified to provide a more targeted, evidence-based approach to direct future research, as well as provide practitioners with a contemporary perspective on the potential applications and limitations of this supplement...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Akira Hanashima, Ken Hashimoto, Yoshihiro Ujihara, Takeshi Honda, Tomoko Yobimoto, Aya Kodama, Satoshi Mohri
Connectin, also called titin, is the largest protein with a critical function as a molecular spring during contraction and relaxation of striated muscle; its mutation leads to severe myopathy and cardiomyopathy. To uncover the cause of this pathogenesis, zebrafish have recently been used as disease models because they are easier to genetically modify than mice. Although the gene structures and putative primary structures of zebrafish connectin have been determined, the actual primary structures of zebrafish connectin in heart and skeletal muscles remain unclear because of its large size and the PCR amplification-associated difficulties...
October 7, 2016: Gene
Mayra de A Marques, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Inherited myopathies affect both skeletal and cardiac muscle and are commonly associated with genetic dysfunctions, leading to the production of anomalous proteins. In cardiomyopathies, mutations frequently occur in sarcomeric genes, but the cause-effect scenario between genetic alterations and pathological processes remains elusive. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was the first cardiac disease associated with a genetic background. Since the discovery of the first mutation in the β-myosin heavy chain, more than 1400 new mutations in 11 sarcomeric genes have been reported, awarding HCM the title of the "disease of the sarcomere...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Mahmoud A Mahmoud, Mohamed Abdelsalam, Olfat A Mahdy, Hala M F El Miniawy, Zakia A M Ahmed, Ahmed H Osman, Hussein M H Mohamed, A M Khattab, M A Zaki Ewiss
This paper is a part of a multi-disciplinary research "Application of Decentralized On-Site Water Treatment System in Egypt for Use in Agriculture and Producing Safe Fish and Animal Proteins". The project aimed to investigate the environmental impact of implementing sewage water before and after treatment using the effluent of the on-site decentralized Japanese' Johkasou system, in agriculture and producing fish protein. The aim is to establish such system in Egypt to strengthen the sanitary conditions of water resources...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts, Vincent J Dalbo, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Kristina L Kendall, Jordan R Moon, Jeffrey R Stout
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the chronic effects of different whey protein forms on body composition and performance when supplemented with resistance training. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (N = 56, 21.4 ± 0.4 years, 79.5 ± 1.0 kg) participated in an 8-week resistance training regimen (2 upper-body sessions and 2 lower-body sessions per week) and received one of 4 double-blinded treatments: 30 g/serving carbohydrate placebo (PLA) or 30 g/serving protein from either (a) 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC), (b) high-lactoferrin-containing WPC (WPC-L), or (c) extensively hydrolyzed WPC (WPH)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Chengjun Huang, Xiang Chen, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. APPROACH: Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Richard B Thompson, Corey R Tomczak, Mark J Haykowsky
Impaired exercise tolerance is a major determinant of decreased quality of life and survival in individuals with cardiovascular disease. The relative contribution that abnormal cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle function plays in limiting exercise tolerance and its improvement with exercise training in patients with cardiovascular disease is not fully known. In this review, we provide an overview of the functional impairment of these systems as they relate to exercise capacity and the emerging role of magnetic resonance imaging as a comprehensive tool to evaluate mechanisms that may explain exercise intolerance...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Sophie Wecht, Mauricio Rojas
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a populace of non-haematopoietic multipotent stromal cells, which have the ability to differentiate into tissue derived from a single germ layer. MSCs have been isolated from various sites, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, synovium, spleen, thymus, lung and amniotic fluid, but are most often isolated from bone marrow. MSCs have several valuable functions that make them a promising therapeutic option in the field of regenerative medicine, including the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, the migration of cells to the site of injury when administered and the ability to 'rescue' cells through the transfer of functional mitochondria...
November 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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