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Muscle skeletal research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339839/recent-advances-in-understanding-pelvic-floor-tissue-of-women-with-and-without-pelvic-organ-prolapse-considerations-for-physical-therapists
#1
Kimberly Saunders
Pelvic organ prolapse is a fairly common condition that imposes significant symptoms, diminished quality of life, social burden, financial expense, and surgical risk on women. As evidence supporting the benefit of pelvic floor muscle training in non-surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse grows, physical therapists are becoming a provider of choice interacting with women affected by pelvic organ prolapse. This perspective will review recent research on tissue characteristics of three key components of pelvic organ support: skeletal muscle, ligament, and the vaginal wall...
February 28, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#2
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331906/associations-between-sarcopenia-and-degenerative-lumbar-scoliosis-in-older-women
#4
Yawara Eguchi, Munetaka Suzuki, Hajime Yamanaka, Hiroshi Tamai, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Miyako Suzuki, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuki Fujimoto, Hirohito Kanamoto, Koki Abe, Yasuchika Aoki, Tomoaki Toyone, Tomoyuki Ozawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia can cause various forms of physical disabilities. We investigated how sarcopenia affects degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). METHODS: Subjects comprised 40 elderly women (mean age 74 years) with spinal disease whose chief complaints were low back pain and lower limb pain. They included 15 cases of DLS (mean 74.8 years) and 25 cases of LSCS (mean age 72.9 years). We performed whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to analyze body composition, including appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; lean mass (kg)/height (m)(2)) and bone mineral density (BMD)...
2017: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331574/microrna-and-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle
#5
REVIEW
Duo Zhang, Yan Li, Shengnan Liu, Yu-Cheng Wang, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Jingjing Jiang, Hao Ying
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function of all organs or tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Due to the significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie TH action, it's widely accepted that TH signaling is regulated at multiple levels. A growing number of discoveries suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as fine-tune regulators of gene expression and adds sophisticated regulatory tiers to signaling pathways...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#6
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326484/genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-of-cardiovascular-related-genes-and-pathways-induced-by-pm2-5-in-human-myocardial-cells
#7
Lin Feng, Xiaozhe Yang, Collins Otieno Asweto, Jing Wu, Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Yanfeng Shi, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Air pollution has been a major environment-related health threat. Most of the studies on PM2.5 toxicity have verified on the cardiovascular system and endothelial cells. However, researches on PM2.5-induced myocardial-related toxicity are limited. This study aims to fully understand the toxic effects of PM2.5 on human myocardial cell (AC16) and explore its molecular mechanism based on microarray analysis and bioinformatics analysis. Microarray data analysis manifested that PM2.5-induced toxicity affected expression of 472 genes compared with the control group, including 166 upregulated genes and 306 downregulated genes in human myocardial (AC16) cells...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326296/association-between-sarcopenic-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-korean-national-health-and-nutritional-examination-surveys-from-2008-to-2011
#8
Sun-Young Kang, Gyeong Eun Lim, Yang Keun Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kayoung Lee, Tae-Jin Park, Jinseung Kim
BACKGROUND: Menopause contributes to an increase in visceral fat mass and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Therefore, we performed this study to examine their relationship how effect the changes of body composition as obesity and sarcopenia on metabolic syndrome (MS) as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we estimated that 4,183 postmenopausal women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326040/effects-of-topical-icing-on-inflammation-angiogenesis-revascularization-and-myofiber-regeneration-in-skeletal-muscle-following-contusion-injury
#9
Daniel P Singh, Zohreh Barani Lonbani, Maria A Woodruff, Tony J Parker, Roland Steck, Jonathan M Peake
Contusion injuries in skeletal muscle commonly occur in contact sport and vehicular and industrial workplace accidents. Icing has traditionally been used to treat such injuries under the premise that it alleviates pain, reduces tissue metabolism, and modifies vascular responses to decrease swelling. Previous research has examined the effects of icing on inflammation and microcirculatory dynamics following muscle injury. However, whether icing influences angiogenesis, collateral vessel growth, or myofiber regeneration remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322786/adp-ribosylation-factor-like-gtpase-15-enhances-insulin-induced-akt-phosphorylation-in-the-ir-irs1-akt-pathway-by-interacting-with-asap2-and-regulating-pdpk1-activity
#10
Jie Zhao, Min Wang, Wuquan Deng, Daping Zhong, Youzhao Jiang, Yong Liao, Bing Chen, Xiaoli Zhang
Decreased phosphorylation in the insulin signalling pathway is a hallmark of insulin resistance. The causes of this phenomenon are complicated and multifactorial. Recently, genomic analyses have identified ARL15 as a new candidate gene related to diabetes. However, the ARL15 protein function remains unclear. Here, we show that ARL15 is upregulated by insulin stimulation. This effect was impaired in insulin-resistant pathophysiology in TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes and in the skeletal muscles of leptin knockout mice...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320830/exercise-and-the-skeletal-muscle-epigenome
#11
Sean L McGee, Ken R Walder
An acute bout of exercise is sufficient to induce changes in skeletal muscle gene expression that are ultimately responsible for the adaptive responses to exercise. Although much research has described the intracellular signaling responses to exercise that are linked to transcriptional regulation, the epigenetic mechanisms involved are only just emerging. This review will provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and what is known in the context of exercise. Additionally, we will explore potential interactions between metabolism during exercise and epigenetic regulation, which serves as a framework for potential areas for future research...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299324/micrornas-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Yue Ding, Xue Sun, Peng-Fei Shan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Recently, although CVD morbidity and mortality have decreased as a result of comprehensive control of CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death of patients with diabetes in many countries, indicating the potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. MicroRNAs are a class of noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that are involved in β-cell function, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue and which play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291621/a-comparison-of-research-into-cachexia-wasting-and-related-skeletal-muscle-syndromes-in-three-chronic-disease-areas
#13
Andrew J Stewart Coats, Louise G Shewan
INTRODUCTION: We compared the frequency of cancer, heart and lung related cachexia and cachexia-related research articles in the specialist journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) to those seen in a leading European journal in each specialist area during 2015 and 2016 to assess whether work on cachexia and related fields is relatively over or under represented in each specialist area. RESULTS: In the dedicated journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, there were 44 references related to cancer, 5 related to respiratory disease, 5 related to heart failure, and 21 related to more than one of these chronic diseases...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282858/the-impact-of-shiftwork-on-skeletal-muscle-health
#14
REVIEW
Brad Aisbett, Dominique Condo, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Séverine Lamon
(1) Background: About one in four workers undertake shift rosters that fall outside the traditional 7 a.m.-6 p.m. scheduling. Shiftwork alters workers' exposure to natural and artificial light, sleep patterns, and feeding patterns. When compared to the rest of the working population, shiftworkers are at a greater risk of developing metabolic impairments over time. One fundamental component of metabolic health is skeletal muscle, the largest organ in the body. However, cause-and-effect relationships between shiftwork and skeletal muscle health have not been established; (2) Methods: A critical review of the literature was completed using online databases and reference lists; (3) Results: We propose a conceptual model drawing relationships between typical shiftwork consequences; altered light exposure, sleep patterns, and food and beverage consumption, and drivers of skeletal muscle health-protein intake, resistance training, and hormone release...
March 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271805/endocrinology-and-pediatric-exercise-science-2016
#15
Alon Eliakim
The Pediatric Exercise Science Year That Was section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2016 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) Induction of T4 to T3 conversion by type 2 deiodinase following aerobic exercise in skeletal muscles was associated with concomitant increase in peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and therefore plays an important mechanistic role in the muscle adaptation to exercise training...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268790/analysis-of-causal-cardio-postural-interaction-under-orthostatic-stress-using-convergent-cross-mapping
#16
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Andrew Blaber, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Knowledge of a cause-and-effect relationship between different physiological systems is helpful in predicting their performance under perturbations, such as orthostatic challenge. The causal coupling between representative signals of the cardiovascular and postural systems under orthostatic challenge remains unknown. Understanding the causal relationship between these two systems is critical, as their interplay is vital to maintain stable upright posture of the human body during quiet standing. In this research, convergent cross mapping (CCM) method was applied to study the causal relationship between the cardiovascular and postural systems previously shown to have coherent activity during quiet standing...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263945/thin-polymeric-films-for-building-biohybrid-microrobots
#17
Leonardo Ricotti, Toshinori Fujie
This paper aims to describe the disruptive potential that polymeric thin films have in the field of biohybrid devices and to review the recent efforts in this area. Thin (thickness  <  1 mm) and ultra-thin (thickness  <  1 µm) matrices possess a series of intriguing features, such as large surface area/volume ratio, high flexibility, chemical and physical surface tailorability, etc. This enables the fabrication of advanced bio/non-bio interfaces able to efficiently drive cell-material interactions, which are the key for optimizing biohybrid device performances...
March 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262570/peripheral-muscle-abnormalities-in-cystic-fibrosis-etiology-clinical-implications-and-response-to-therapeutic-interventions
#18
Mathieu Gruet, Thierry Troosters, Samuel Verges
Peripheral muscle dysfunction is an important systemic consequence of cystic fibrosis (CF) with major clinical implications, such as exercise intolerance and reduced quality of life. Evidence is now accumulating that lack of physical activity is unlikely to be the sole explanation for peripheral muscle dysfunction of patients with CF. Particularly, the demonstration of CFTR expression in both murine and human skeletal muscle suggests the potential implication of intrinsic CF-related factors. By combining data from both human and animal models, this review describes CF peripheral muscle abnormalities and critically reviews the advances in understanding the impact of the underlying mechanisms...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261109/the-need-for-standardized-assessment-of-muscle-quality-in-skeletal-muscle-function-deficit-and-other-aging-related-muscle-dysfunctions-a-symposium-report
#19
REVIEW
Rosaly Correa-de-Araujo, Michael O Harris-Love, Iva Miljkovic, Maren S Fragala, Brian W Anthony, Todd M Manini
A growing body of scientific literature suggests that not only changes in skeletal muscle mass, but also other factors underpinning muscle quality, play a role in the decline in skeletal muscle function and impaired mobility associated with aging. A symposium on muscle quality and the need for standardized assessment was held on April 28, 2016 at the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a venue for basic science and clinical researchers and expert clinicians to discuss muscle quality in the context of skeletal muscle function deficit and other aging-related muscle dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255238/sarcopenia-correlates-with-systemic-inflammation-in-copd
#20
Min Kwang Byun, Eun Na Cho, Joon Chang, Chul Min Ahn, Hyung Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting and chronic inflammation are predominant features of patients with COPD. Systemic inflammation is associated with an accelerated decline in lung function. In this study, the prevalence of sarcopenia and the relationships between sarcopenia and systemic inflammations in patients with stable COPD were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, muscle strength and muscle mass were measured by handgrip strength (HGS) and bioelectrical impedance analysis in 80 patients with stable COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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