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Muscle skeletal research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#1
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772730/at-the-crossroads-of-clinical-and-preclinical-research-for-muscular-dystrophy-are-we-closer-to-effective-treatment-for-patients
#2
REVIEW
Kinga I Gawlik
Among diseases affecting skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophy is one of the most devastating and complex disorders. The term 'muscular dystrophy' refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases associated with a primary muscle defect that leads to progressive muscle wasting and consequent loss of muscle function. Muscular dystrophies are accompanied by numerous clinical complications and abnormalities in other tissues that cause extreme discomfort in everyday life. The fact that muscular dystrophy often takes its toll on babies and small children, and that many patients die at a young age, adds to the cruel character of the disease...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760587/the-role-of-adipokines-in-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, David J Baker, Simon W Jones
Background: There is currently an unmet clinical need to develop better pharmacological treatments to improve glucose handling in Type II Diabetes patients with obesity. To this end, determining the effect of obesity-associated adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity has emerged as an important area of drug discovery research. This review draws together the data on the functional role of adipokines on skeletal muscle insulin signalling, highlights several understudied novel adipokines and provides a perspective on the direction of future research...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760352/time-dependent-changes-in-local-and-serum-levels-of-inflammatory-cytokines-as-markers-for-incised-wound-aging-of-skeletal-muscles
#4
Mohammed Hassan Gaballah, Tetsuya Horita, Masataka Takamiya, Keisuke Yokoji, Mamiko Fukuta, Hideaki Kato, Yasuhiro Aoki
Wound age estimation is an important research field in forensic pathology. The expression levels of cytokines in the incised skeletal muscle were analyzed using a mouse model to explore the applicability for wound aging. A 5-mm long incisional wound was made at the biceps femoris muscle, and the muscle and serum were sampled at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after injury. Using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay, we measured the tissue levels of nine cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-7, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL10), which are all involved in the pathways of inflammatory response and tissue injury...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746477/an-overview-of-technical-considerations-when-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-human-exercise-research
#5
Jujiao Kuang, Xu Yan, Amanda J Genders, Cesare Granata, David J Bishop
Gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in skeletal muscle is routine in exercise studies. The reproducibility and reliability of the data fundamentally depend on how the experiments are performed and interpreted. Despite the popularity of the assay, there is a considerable variation in experimental protocols and data analyses from different laboratories, and there is a lack of consistency of proper quality control steps throughout the assay. In this study, we present a number of experiments on various steps of quantitative PCR workflow, and demonstrate how to perform a quantitative PCR experiment with human skeletal muscle samples in an exercise study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745361/a-window-beneath-the-skin-how-computed-tomography-assessment-of-body-composition-can-assist-in-the-identification-of-hidden-wasting-conditions-in-oncology-that-profoundly-impact-outcomes
#6
L E Daly, C M Prado, A M Ryan
Advancements in image-based technologies and body composition research over the past decade has led to increased understanding of the importance of muscle abnormalities, such as low muscle mass (sarcopenia), and more recently low muscle attenuation (MA), as important prognostic indicators of unfavourable outcomes in patients with cancer. Muscle abnormalities can be highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging between 10 and 90 %), depending on the cohort under investigation and diagnostic criteria used...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740336/mediators-and-patterns-of-muscle-loss-in-chronic-systemic-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Sandra Pérez-Baos, Iván Prieto-Potin, Jorge A Román-Blas, Olga Sánchez-Pernaute, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Besides its primary function in locomotion, skeletal muscle (SKM), which represents up to half of human's weight, also plays a fundamental homeostatic role. Through the secretion of soluble peptides, or myokines, SKM interacts with major organs involved in metabolic processes. In turn, metabolic cues from these organs are received by muscle cells, which adapt their response accordingly. This is done through an intricate intracellular signaling network characterized by the cross-talking between anabolic and catabolic pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739270/bioinspired-3d-human-neuromuscular-junction-development-in-suspended-hydrogel-arrays
#8
Thomas Dixon, Eliad Cohen, Dana Meredith Cairns, Maria Rodriguez, Juanita Mathews, Rod Jose, David L Kaplan
The physical connection between motoneurons and skeletal muscle targets is responsible for the creation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which allow electrical signals to be translated to mechanical work. NMJ pathology contributes to the spectrum of neuromuscular, motoneuron, and dystrophic disease. Improving in vitro tools that allow for recapitulation of the physiology of the neuromuscular connection will enable researchers to better understand the development and maturation of NMJs, and will help to decipher mechanisms leading to NMJ degeneration...
May 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738109/sarcopenic-obesity-in-cirrhosis-the-confluence-of-two-prognostic-titans
#9
Tannaz Eslamparast, Aldo J Montano-Loza, Maitreyi Raman, Puneeta Tandon
Sarcopenia and obesity are two major health conditions with a growing prevalence in cirrhosis. The concordance of these two conditions, sarcopenic obesity, is associated with higher rates of mortality and impact on the metabolic profile and physical function than either condition alone. To date, there is little consensus surrounding the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, obesity or as a result, sarcopenic obesity in patients with cirrhosis. Cross-sectional imaging, although the most accurate diagnostic technique, has practical limitations for routine use in clinical practice...
May 8, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729216/exacta-skeletal-muscle-in-the-fight-against-chronic-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
Anika Westphal, Ralf Mrowka
The causes for the development of chronic diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer are multifactorial and often influence each other. With increasing age the risk for developing type 2 diabetes increases and the risk to suffer from cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease is increased once a patient is diabetic. Besides pharmacological treatment there is one strategy to combat the development or progress of most chronic disease: physical activity. Research is going on to understand the impact of skeletal muscle and exercise on improving the health status in e...
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727607/rediscovery-of-otto-frank-s-contribution-to-science
#11
REVIEW
Johann P Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Angela Drake-Holland, Mark I M Noble, Brigitte Lohff, Jochen Schaefer
In the late 19th century, German physiologist Otto Frank (1865-1944) embarked on a near life-long research program of laying down the mathematical, methodological, and theoretical foundations in order to understand and define the performance of the heart and circulatory system in all their complexity. The existence of the "Frank-Starling law" testifies to this. Two of his seminal publications have been translated into English previously, introducing Frank's research on the dynamics of the heart and the arterial pulse to a wider audience...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727016/metabolic-stress-dependent-regulation-of-the-mitochondrial-biogenic-molecular-response-to-high-intensity-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#12
M Fiorenza, T P Gunnarsson, M Hostrup, F M Iaia, F Schena, H Pilegaard, J Bangsbo
KEY POINTS: Low-volume high-intensity exercise training promotes muscle mitochondrial adaptations that resemble the ones associated with high-volume moderate-intensity exercise training. These training-induced mitochondrial adaptations stem from the cumulative effects of transient transcriptional responses to each acute exercise bout. However, whether metabolic stress is a key mediator of the acute molecular responses to high-intensity exercise is still incompletely understood. Herein we show that, by comparing different work-matched low-volume high-intensity exercise protocols, more marked metabolic perturbations were associated with enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis-related muscle mRNA responses...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727014/a-novel-rabbit-model-of-moderate-knee-contracture-induced-by-direct-capsular-damage
#13
David Hazlewood, Yi Feng, Qinghua Lu, Xinmai Yang, Jinxi Wang
The treatment of joint contracture continues to represent a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation medicine. Existing animal models of knee contracture for evaluating new treatments are mostly created by extensive joint tissue damage with Kirschner-wire immobilization which requires a second surgery to remove Kirschner-wires. This study aimed to develop a less invasive rabbit model of moderate knee contracture through a single surgery. Skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits had their right knee operated to create surgical damage to the posterior capsule under direct visualization...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723655/effects-of-aging-and-insulin-resistant-states-on-protein-anabolic-responses-in-older-adults
#14
REVIEW
Jose A Morais, Kathryn Jacob, Stéphanie Chevalier
Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723585/platycodon-grandiflorum-derived-saponin-enhances-exercise-function-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-function
#15
Yong An Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Suck Hoon Oh, Gi Ho Lee, Hoa Thi Pham, Jae Ho Choi, Young Chul Chung, Wang Lok Lee, Sang Kyum Kim, Hye Gwang Jeong
Lower physical performance is an important risk factor in hypokinetic-related chronic disease, metabolic syndrome, and muscle atrophy. Our previous research demonstrated that Platycodon grandiflorum-derived saponin (PS) protects against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and mitochondrial function-related peroxisomal acyl-coenzme A oxidase (ACOX-1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1) in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and it inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of PS on physical performance remain unknown...
April 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722201/treating-cachexia-using-soluble-acvr2b-improves-survival-alters-mtor-localization-and-attenuates-liver-and-spleen-responses
#16
Tuuli A Nissinen, Jaakko Hentilä, Fabio Penna, Anita Lampinen, Juulia H Lautaoja, Vasco Fachada, Tanja Holopainen, Olli Ritvos, Riikka Kivelä, Juha J Hulmi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. METHODS: The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720183/disrupted-sphingolipid-metabolism-following-acute-clozapine-and-olanzapine-administration
#17
Katrina Weston-Green, Ilijana Babic, Michael de Santis, Bo Pan, Magdalene K Montgomery, Todd Mitchell, Xu-Feng Huang, Jessica Nealon
BACKGROUND: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) induce glucometabolic side-effects, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, which pose a therapeutic challenge for mental illness. Sphingolipids play a role in glycaemic balance and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to impaired insulin signalling and whole-body glucose intolerance. Diabetogenic SGA effects on ER stress and sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingomyelin, in peripheral metabolic tissues are unknown...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718795/dietary-flavanols-a-review-of-select-effects-on-vascular-function-blood-pressure-and-exercise-performance
#18
Yousef A Al-Dashti, Roberta R Holt, Charles L Stebbins, Carl L Keen, Robert M Hackman
An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718206/facioscapulohumeral-dystrophy-activating-an-early-embryonic-transcriptional-program-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#19
Amy E Campbell, Andrea Belleville, Rebecca Resnick, Sean C Shadle, Stephen J Tapscott
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most prevalent muscular dystrophy. A progressive disease, it presents clinically as weakness and wasting of the face, shoulder, and upper arm muscles, with later involvement of the trunk and lower extremities. FSHD develops through complex genetic and epigenetic events that converge on a common mechanism of toxicity with mis-expression of the transcription factor double homeobox 4 (DUX4). There is currently no treatment available for FSHD. However, the consensus that ectopic DUX4 expression in skeletal muscle is the root cause of FSHD pathophysiology has allowed research efforts to turn towards cultivating a deeper understanding of DUX4 biology and the pathways that underlie FSHD muscle pathology, and to translational studies aimed at developing targeted therapeutics using ever more sophisticated cell and animal-based models of FSHD...
April 28, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717675/quantitative-ultrasound-using-texture-analysis-of-myofascial-pain-syndrome-in-the-trapezius
#20
Dinesh A Kumbhare, Sara Ahmed, Michael G Behr, Michael D Noseworthy
Objective-The objective of this study is to assess the discriminative ability of textural analyses to assist in the differentiation of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) region from normal regions of skeletal muscle. Also, to measure the ability to reliably differentiate between three clinically relevant groups: healthy asymptomatic, latent MTrPs, and active MTrP. Methods-18 and 19 patients were identified with having active and latent MTrPs in the trapezius muscle, respectively. We included 24 healthy volunteers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
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