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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157959/the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-following-influenza-virus-infection-a-systematic-and-narrative-review
#1
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Justin R Ortiz, Arnold S Monto
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in young children and older adults. Influenza is known to cause severe disease but the risk of developing LRTI following influenza virus infection in various populations has not been systematically reviewed. Such data are important for estimating the impact specific influenza vaccine programs would have on LRTI outcomes in a community. We sought to review the published literature to determine the risk of developing LRTI following an influenza virus infection in individuals of any age...
November 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153553/effectiveness-of-an-early-switch-from-intravenous-to-oral-antimicrobial-therapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-patients-with-severe-motor-intellectual-disabilities
#2
Masaru Kawamura, Takayuki Hoshina, Masato Ogawa, Takato Nakamoto, Koichi Kusuhara
An early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy is useful for reducing the duration of the hospitalization in adult patients with community acquired-pneumonia, whereas the efficacy of switch therapy for pediatric patients with community acquired (CA)-lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of switch therapy for LRTI in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities (SMID). This retrospective study was performed on 92 patients with SMID who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Hospital of University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017 for the suspicion of bacterial LRTI and were initially treated with an intravenous antimicrobial agent...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136326/dna-based-testing-in-lung-transplant-recipients-with-suspected-non-viral-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Nora Drick, Benjamin Seeliger, Mark Greer, Benjamin A Bollmann, Stefan Ziesing, Tobias Welte, Jens Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Non-viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are common among lung transplant (LTx) recipients with increased mortality. Early pathogen identification is crucial to guide therapy and avoid adverse events. Results from cultures may require up to 72 hours. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) may allow faster pathogen identification, but its utility in LTx recipients with suspected non-viral LRTI remains unclear. METHODS: In a prospective open-label observational trial, LTx recipients presenting with suspected LRTI received bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)...
November 14, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128553/pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-patients-who-survive-critical-illness-frequently-have-significant-but-recoverable-decline-in-functional-status
#4
M S Zinter, R Holubkov, M A Steurer, C C Dvorak, C N Duncan, A Sapru, R F Tamburro, P S McQuillen, M M Pollack
BACKGROUND: The number of pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients who survive pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission is increasing, yet little is known about their functional morbidity after PICU discharge. We hypothesized that relative to controls, pediatric HCT patients who survive PICU admission would have greater rates of new functional morbidity at the time of PICU discharge, and only a minority of these patients would return to their functional baseline by the end of the hospitalization...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118126/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-targeting-the-g-protein-provides-a-new-approach-for-an-old-problem
#5
Ralph A Tripp, Ultan F Power, Peter J M Openshaw, Lawrence M Kauvar
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) annually affecting >2 million children in the US <5 years old. In the elderly (>65 years old), RSV results in ∼175,000 hospitalizations annually in the US with worldwide incidence ∼34 million. There is no approved RSV vaccine and treatments are limited. Recently, a Phase 3 trial in the elderly using a recombinant RSV F protein vaccine failed to meet its efficacy objectives, namely prevention of moderate-to-severe RSV-associated LRTI and reduced incidence of acute respiratory disease...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113779/hospital-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-high-risk-hospitalized-patients-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-china-an-economic-burden-analysis
#6
Tianyuan Yan, Yingxia Li, Yu Sun, Haiyan Wang, Jingna Wang, Weili Wang, Yunhong Liu, Xiaohui Wu, Shuhui Wang
BACKGROUND: Data on the economic burden of hospital-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among high risk hospitalized patients are lacking in China. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap. METHODS: We used a prospective matched cohort design, comparing patients with LRTIs and 1:1 matched patients without LRTIs. Study period was from January 2013 to December 2015 analyzing inpatients from high risk wards - intensive care unit (ICU), dialysis, hematology, etc...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108950/amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-subgroup-analysis-by-bacterial-and-viral-etiology
#7
Robin Bruyndonckx, Beth Stuart, Paul Little, Niel Hens, Margareta Ieven, Christopher C Butler, Theo Verheij, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of amoxicillin treatment in adult patients presenting to primary care with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) who are infected with a potential bacterial, viral, or mixed bacterial/viral infection. METHODS: The multicenter randomized controlled trial focused on adults with LRTI not suspected for pneumonia. Patients were randomized to receive either antibiotic (amoxicillin 1g) or placebo three times daily for seven consecutive days using computer-generated random numbers (follow-up 28 days)...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106950/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoralkyl-substances-pfass-associated-with-respiratory-tract-infections-but-not-allergy-and-asthma-related-health-outcomes-in-childhood
#8
A Impinen, U C Nygaard, K C Lødrup Carlsen, P Mowinckel, K H Carlsen, L S Haug, B Granum
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported to be associated with immunosuppression in early childhood, but with contradictory findings related to atopic and lung diseases. AIM: We aimed to determine if prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with asthma or other allergic diseases or respiratory tract infections in childhood. METHODS: Nineteen PFASs were measured in cord blood available from 641 infants in the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) prospective birth cohort study...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077711/prenatal-vitamin-d-supplementation-reduces-risk-of-asthma-recurrent-wheeze-in-early-childhood-a-combined-analysis-of-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Helene M Wolsk, Bo L Chawes, Augusto A Litonjua, Bruce W Hollis, Johannes Waage, Jakob Stokholm, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, Scott T Weiss
BACKGROUND: We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance. OBJECTIVE: To perform a combined analysis of the two trials and investigate whether maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at trial entry modified the intervention effect. METHODS: VDAART (N = 806) and COPSAC2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066468/choosing-wisely-campaign-report-card-and-achievable-benchmarks-of-care-for-children-s-hospitals
#10
Mario Reyes, Evan Paulus, Carla Hronek, Veronica Etinger, Matt Hall, Joyee Vachani, Jennifer Lusk, Christopher Emerson, Patty Huddleson, Ricardo A Quinonez
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) released 5 pediatric recommendations for the Choosing Wisely Campaign (CWC). Our goals were to develop a report card on the basis of those recommendations, calculate achievable benchmarks of care (ABCs), and analyze performance among hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System. METHODS: Children hospitalized between January 2013 and September 2015 from 32 Pediatric Health Information System hospitals were studied...
October 24, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046200/-readmission-of-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-a-clinical-analysis-of-121-cases
#11
Jing-Yi You, Chang Shu, Cai-Hui Gong, Sha Liu, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of readmitted children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the first 2 years of life. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 242 children with BPD who were readmitted due to recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Among all the 242 children with BPD, 115(47.5%) had wheezing, and the children aged 1-2 years had a significantly higher incidence rate of wheezing than those aged less than 1 year (P<0...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045699/impact-of-hiv-on-the-burden-and-severity-of-influenza-illness-in-malawian-adults-a-prospective-cohort-and-parallel-case-control-study
#12
Antonia Ho, Stephen J Aston, Hannah Jary, Tamara Mitchell, Maaike Alaerts, Mavis Menyere, Jane Mallewa, Mulinda Nyirenda, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French
Background: The impact of HIV infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, but is rarely implemented in Africa. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)), and mild influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI))...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042873/comparison-of-cytokine-expression-profiles-in-infants-with-a-rhinovirus-induced-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-or-without-wheezing-a-comparison-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#13
Da Eun Roh, Sook-Hyun Park, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether infants with rhinovirus (RV) infection-induced wheezing and those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced wheezing have different cytokine profiles in the acute stage. METHODS: Of the infants with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) between September 2011 and May 2012, 88 were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized. Systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and Treg-type cytokine (IL-10) responses were examined with multiplex assay using acute phase serum samples...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029245/host-transcription-profile-in-nasal-epithelium-and-whole-blood-of-hospitalised-children-under-two-years-of-age-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#14
Lien Anh Ha Do, Johann Pellet, H Rogier van Doorn, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Huu Mai Khanh Nguyen, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Bertrand De Meulder, Charles Auffray, Jorrit-Jan Hofstra, Jeremy Farrar, Juliet E Bryant, Menno de Jong, Martin L Hibberd
Most insights into the cascade of immune events following acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been obtained from animal experiments or in vitro models. Here we investigated host gene expression profiles in nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and whole blood samples during natural RSV and rhinovirus (hRV) infection (acute versus early recovery phase) in 83 hospitalised patients <2 years old with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). RSV infection induced strong and persistent innate immune responses including interferon signaling and pathways related to chemokine/cytokine signaling in both compartments...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026982/severe-hemoptysis-associated-with-bacterial-pulmonary-infection-clinical-features-significance-of-parenchymal-necrosis-and-outcome
#15
Guillaume Carteaux, Damien Contou, Guillaume Voiriot, Antoine Khalil, Marie-France Carette, Martine Antoine, Antoine Parrot, Muriel Fartoukh
PURPOSE: Severe hemoptysis (SH) associated with non-tuberculosis bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is poorly described, and the efficacy of the usual decision-making process is unknown. This study aimed at describing the clinical, radiological patterns, mechanism, and microbiological spectrum of SH related to bacterial LRTI, and assessing whether the severity of hemoptysis and the results of usual therapeutic strategy are influenced by the presence of parenchymal necrosis...
October 12, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990234/safety-of-atrovent-%C3%A2-cfc-free-inhaler-respiratory-events-reported-from-an-observational-cohort-study-in-england
#16
Vicki Osborne, Deborah Layton, Carole Fogg, Edward Tong, Saad A W Shakir
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify any unexpected clinical events associated with starting the new CFC-free formulation of Atrovent(®) MDI in general practice in England. METHODS: An active surveillance cohort study was conducted with a focus on selected clinical events, including respiratory symptoms, in past users of Atrovent(®) CFC MDI ('switchers') and Atrovent(®) naïve users. Incidence density rate ratios (with 99% confidence intervals) for events occurring in the first 3 months of exposure (risk period-ID1-3 ) compared to 3 months prior to starting treatment (reference period-IDR ) were calculated...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961971/oxygen-free-days-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#17
Alpana Waghmare, Hu Xie, Louise Kimball, Jessica Yi, Sezen Özkök, Wendy Leisenring, Guang-Shing Cheng, Janet A Englund, Timothy R Watkins, Jason W Chien, Michael Boeckh
Background: Clinically meaningful endpoints for RSV treatment trials are lacking for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We evaluated supplemental oxygen use among HCT recipients with RSV. Methods: Subjects were grouped: upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), URTI progressing to LRTI, and LRTI at presentation. LRTI was defined as positive lower tract sample with or without radiographic abnormality (proven or probable LRTI, respectively) or positive upper tract sample with radiographic abnormality (possible LRTI)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957358/drivers-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-children-and-adolescents-with-febrile-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#18
Verena Gotta, Philipp Baumann, Nicole Ritz, Aline Fuchs, Gurli Baer, Jessica M Bonhoeffer, Ulrich Heininger, Gabor Szinnai, Jan Bonhoeffer
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of key drivers for antibiotic prescribing in pediatric lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could support rational antibiotic use. Thus, we aimed to determine the impact of clinical and laboratory factors on antibiotic prescribing in children and adolescents with febrile LRTI. METHODS: Pediatric patients from the standard care control group of a randomized controlled trial (ProPAED) investigating procalcitonin guided antibiotic treatment in febrile LRTI were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the impact of laboratory and clinical factors on antibiotic prescribing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918409/qualitative-interview-study-of-parents-perspectives-concerns-and-experiences-of-the-management-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-in-primary-care
#19
Amy Halls, Catherine Van't Hoff, Paul Little, Theo Verheij, Geraldine M Leydon
OBJECTIVE: To explore parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children in primary care. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interview study. SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: 23 parents of children aged 6 months to 10 years presenting with LRTI in primary care. METHOD: Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews (either in person or by telephone) conducted with parents to explore their experiences and views on their children being prescribed antibiotics for LRTI...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#20
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
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