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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884552/estimated-saving-of-antibiotics-in-pharyngitis-and-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-if-general-practitioners-used-rapid-tests-and-followed-guidelines
#1
Carles Llor, Ana Moragas, Josep M Cots, Beatriz González López-Valcárcel
INTRODUCTION: General practitioners (GP) in Spain do not have access to rapid tests and adherence to guidelines is usually suboptimal. The aim of the study is to evaluate the estimated number of antibiotics that could have been saved if GPs had appropriately used these tests and had followed the guidelines. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Primary care centres from eight Autonomous Communities in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: GPs who had not participated in previous studies on rational use of antibiotics...
November 21, 2016: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882804/a-comparison-of-high-frequency-chest-wall-oscillation-and-intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-for-airway-clearance-in-pediatric-patients-with-tracheostomy
#2
Aneela Bidiwala, Linda Volpe, Claudia Halaby, Melissa Fazzari, Christina Valsamis, Melodi Pirzada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare two modes of airway clearance, the intrapulmonary percussive ventilation system (IPV) to high frequency chest wall oscillation system (HFCWO) in medically complex pediatric patients with tracheostomy requiring long term care. METHODS: This was a single center, retrospective study comparing the number of respiratory illnesses, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), utilization of bronchodilator and systemic steroids, and respiratory illnesses requiring acute care hospitalizations...
November 24, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873511/human-coronavirus-in-the-2014-winter-season-as-a-cause-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#3
Kyu Yeun Kim, Song Yi Han, Ho Seong Kim, Hyang Min Cheong, Sung Soon Kim, Dong Soo Kim
PURPOSE: During the late autumn to winter season (October to December) in the Republic of Korea, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Interestingly, in 2014, human coronavirus (HCoV) caused not only upper respiratory infections but also LRTIs more commonly than in other years. Therefore, we sought to determine the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and severity of illnesses associated with HCoV infections at a single center in Korea...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859623/plasma-cytokines-eotaxin-mip-1%C3%AE-mcp-4-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#4
Mette Marie Relster, Anette Holm, Court Pedersen
Major overlaps of clinical characteristics and the limitations of conventional diagnostic tests render the initial diagnosis and clinical management of pulmonary disorders difficult. In this pilot study, we analyzed the predictive value of eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854115/an-investigation-into-respiratory-tract-viruses-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-or-wheezing
#5
Demet Dabaniyasti, Fahriye Eksi, Özlem Keskin, Mehmet Y Özkars, Tekin Karsligil, Iclal Balci
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the frequencies of respiratory tract viruses in patient (acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or wheezing) and control (history of asthma without symptoms) groups. METHODS: Using multiplex-PCR, respiratory tract viruses were investigated in the respiratory tract specimens from patient and control groups followed in the Pediatric Clinic. RESULTS: The viruses detected in the patient and control groups (p=0...
November 17, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851998/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-adenovirus-type-2-3-and-7-infections-in-children-in-an-outbreak-in-taiwan-2011
#6
Ming-Ru Lin, Shu-Li Yang, Yu-Nong Gong, Ching-Chia Kuo, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chih-Jung Chen, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chen-Yen Kuo, Chun-Wan Fang, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Yhu-Chering Huang
OBJECTIVES: We studied pediatric patients with human adenovirus (HAdV) infection during the 2011 outbreak in northern Taiwan in order to define the clinical features of different HAdV genotypes in children. METHODS: Between January and December 2011, 637 patients <19 years of age exhibited culture-confirmed adenoviral infection in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and provided specimens available for genotyping by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were retrospectively collected...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762515/a-cross-sectional-cohort-analyses-assessing-response-to-levosalbutamol-bronchodilatory-cough-formulations-in-outpatient-community-settings-of-india-bus-analyses
#7
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753796/etiology-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-infants-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#8
Prawin Kumar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Vishnu S Mishra, Mojahidul Islam, Shivani Randev, Aparna Mukherjee, Rama Chaudhry, Arti Kapil, Kana Ram Jat, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus/es using multiplex real time PCR assay...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751779/revision-ligament-reconstruction-tendon-interposition-for-trapeziometacarpal-arthritis-a-case-control-investigation
#9
Anita Sadhu, Ryan P Calfee, Andre Guthrie, Lindley B Wall
PURPOSE: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in patient-reported and objective outcomes of revision ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) compared with primary LRTI. METHODS: This case-control investigation enrolled 10 patients who had undergone revision LRTI at a tertiary care center. All patients had previously undergone primary trapeziectomy with LRTI. Patients with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were eligible. All patients completed an in-office study evaluation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737646/maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-to-prevent-acute-respiratory-infections-in-infancy-in-dhaka-bangladesh-mdari-trial-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-nested-within-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695990/functional-and-genetic-predisposition-to-rhinovirus-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-prematurely-born-infants
#11
Simon B Drysdale, Mireia Alcazar, Theresa Wilson, Melvyn Smith, Mark Zuckerman, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Sebastian L Johnston, Anne Greenough
: Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670781/host-cytoskeleton-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-assembly-and-budding
#12
Shadi Shahriari, James Gordon, Reena Ghildyal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development.Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding...
September 26, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636702/influenza-infection-in-neutropenic-adults
#13
Urshila Durani, Maria V Dioverti Prono, Pritish K Tosh, Mrinal Patnaik, Jason N Barreto, Aaron J Tande
While lymphopenia is a well-defined risk factor for severe influenza, the effect of neutropenia is unknown. This was a retrospective single centre study of adult patients with documented neutropenia and influenza between 2005 and 2013. Forty patients were included with a median follow-up of 2 years (IQR 0.8-4.0). Median ANC at influenza diagnosis was 0.3 × 10(9)/L (IQR 0.1-0.4 × 10(9)/L). Outcomes included hospitalization (N = 28, 70%), pneumonia (N = 9, 23%), ICU admission (N = 9, 23%) and mechanical ventilation (N = 7, 18%)...
September 16, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615811/epidemiology-and-immediate-indirect-effects-of-respiratory-viruses-in-lung-transplant-recipients-a-5-year-prospective-study
#14
M Peghin, H H Hirsch, Ó Len, G Codina, C Berastegui, B Sáez, J Solé, E Cabral, A Solé, F Zurbano, F López-Medrano, A Román, J Gavaldá
The epidemiology of respiratory viruses (RVs) in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) and the relationship of RVs to lung function, acute rejection (AR) and opportunistic infections in these patients are not well known. We performed a prospective cohort study (2009-2014) by collecting nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from asymptomatic LTRs during seasonal changes and from LTRs with upper respiratory tract infectious disease (URTID), lower respiratory tract infectious disease (LRTID) and AR. NPSs were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614887/parents-as-source-of-pertussis-transmission-in-hospitalized-young-infants
#15
Giorgio Fedele, Maria Carollo, Raffaella Palazzo, Paola Stefanelli, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi, Rita Carsetti, Alberto Villani, Ambra Nicolai, Fabio Midulla, Clara Maria Ausiello
PURPOSE: This study was planned to collect evidences of familial pertussis transmission to infants younger than 6 months of age. Understanding the dynamics of transmission of pertussis in families is essential to plan effective prevention strategies that could be integrated in pertussis control. METHODS: The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT-IgG) and prolonged cough symptoms were evaluated in parents of 55 infants aged <6 months hospitalized for confirmed pertussis...
September 10, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614709/risk-factors-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-patients-after-tracheal-intubation-under-general-anesthesia-in-the-chinese-health-care-system-a-meta-analysis
#16
Xuan Xu, Xianxian Yang, Shangyingying Li, Mei Luo, Ying Qing, Xipeng Zhou, Jian Xue, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) after tracheal intubation under general anesthesia poses a serious threat to worldwide health care systems, especially those in developing countries. However, a significant number of studies have found inconsistent results in their investigation of the corresponding risk factors. METHODS: Relevant articles published up to September 2015 were retrieved from PubMed, Ovid, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biological Medical Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang Data...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570226/trapeziometacarpal-arthrodesis-or-trapeziectomy-with-ligament-reconstruction-in%C3%A2-primary-trapeziometacarpal-osteoarthritis-a%C3%A2-5-year-follow-up
#17
Kim R Spekreijse, Ruud W Selles, Muhammed A Kedilioglu, Harm P Slijper, Reinier Feitz, Steven E Hovius, Guus M Vermeulen
PURPOSE: To compare the long-term outcomes of trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) with trapeziometacarpal arthrodesis for osteoarthritis (OA) of the basal thumb joint. METHODS: Patients were evaluated for pain, daily functioning, strength, and complications after a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. Generalized estimating equations statistics were used to compare repeated measurements over time in both groups. RESULTS: After 5 years, patients who had trapeziectomy with LRTI had significantly better pain reduction and function than the arthrodesis group...
September 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537430/down-s-syndrome-is-a-risk-factor-for-severe-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#18
Constanza Galleguillos, Bárbara Galleguillos, Guillermo Larios, Gonzalo Menchaca, Louis Bont, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez
AIM: Previous studies have suggested that Down's syndrome is an independent risk factor for severe respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We compared the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalised due to RSV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared data from hospitalisations due to RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children under 14 years of age with (n = 58) and without (n = 58) Down's syndrome...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522636/human-metapneumovirus-hmpv-infection-in-immunocompromised-children
#19
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500954/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-other-viral-infections-among-children-under-two-years-old-in-southern-vietnam-2009-2010-clinical-characteristics-and-disease-severity
#20
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
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