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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236418/one-year-observational-study-of-palivizumab-prophylaxis-on-infants-at-risk-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-latin-america
#1
Leandro Martin Castillo, Gabriela Bugarin, Juan Carlos Arias, Jairo Israel Barajas Rangel, Maria Elina Serra, Nestor Vain
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe real world palivizumab use and effectiveness in high-risk Latin American infants and young children. METHOD: Prospective, multicenter observational study with infants at risk for severe RSV infection who received palivizumab according to routine clinical practice. Subjects were followed for one year with monthly visits after the first dose of palivizumab. An infant was considered adherent if receiving all the expected injections or five or fewer injections within appropriate inter-dose intervals...
February 22, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231310/breastfeeding-and-the-risk-of-respiratory-tract-infections-after-infancy-the-generation-r-study
#2
Ilse Tromp, Jessica Kiefte-de Jong, Hein Raat, Vincent Jaddoe, Oscar Franco, Albert Hofman, Johan de Jongste, Henriëtte Moll
BACKGROUND: The protection of breastfeeding against respiratory tract infections in the first year of life has often been suggested. Few studies examined the effect of breastfeeding on respiratory tract infections after infancy. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between breastfeeding with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) after infancy up to 4 years of age (n = 5322). METHODS: This study was embedded in The Generation R study, a Dutch population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214925/missed-opportunities-in-neonatal-deaths-in-rwanda-applying-the-three-delays-model-in-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-neonatal-death
#3
Efua Wilmot, Marcel Yotebieng, Alison Norris, Fidele Ngabo
Objective Administered in a timely manner, current evidence-based interventions could reduce neonatal deaths from infections, intrapartum injuries and complications due to prematurity. The three delays model (delay in seeking care, in arriving at a health facility, and in receiving adequate care), which has been applied to understanding maternal deaths, may be useful for understanding neonatal deaths. We assess the main causes of neonatal deaths in Rwanda and their associated delays. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated data from 2012 from 40 facilities in which babies were delivered...
February 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208857/emergence-of-hospital-acquired-carbapenem-resistant-non-fermenters-in-teaching-institute
#4
Hariom Sharan, Neeraj Katare, Aparna Pandey, Ganesh Shivmurti Bhatambare, Trupti Bajpai
INTRODUCTION: Non-Fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli (NFGNB) are emerging now-a-days because of their tendency to colonize various surfaces and inherent resistance to commonly used disinfectants. They are responsible for multi-drug resistant hospital acquired infections. Detection of carbapenem resistance mechanisms is essential for treatment and infection control purpose as can spread to other organisms causing hospital outbreaks. AIM: To characterize non-fermenters from various clinical samples and to detect different carbapenem resistance mechanisms in meropenem resistant isolates...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167875/locking-plate-arthrodesis-compares-favorably-with-lrti-for-thumb-trapeziometacarpal-arthrosis-early-outcomes-from-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#5
Nikolas H Kazmers, K J Hippensteel, Ryan P Calfee, Lindley B Wall, Martin I Boyer, Charles A Goldfarb, Richard H Gelberman, Daniel A Osei
BACKGROUND: Trapeziometacarpal arthrodesis (TMA) has been complicated by nonunion and hardware failure. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We hypothesized that modification of the TMA technique with a locking cage plate construct would afford reliable bony union while producing greater hand function than trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) at early follow-up. METHODS: We enrolled 36 consecutive patients with trapeziometacapal osteoarthritis (14 TMA patients (15 thumbs), 22 LRTI patients (22 thumbs))...
February 2017: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164439/seasonal-changes-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-lung-transplant-recipients-during-the-first-post-transplant-year-the-hungarian-experience
#6
Zsuzsanna Kovats, Aniko Bohacs, Zoltan Sutto, Krisztina Vincze, Jozsef Lukacsovits, Gyorgy Losonczy, Veronika Müller
BACKGROUND: After lung transplantation (LuTX) a high level of immunosuppression is needed to prevent rejection of the graft. Together with earlier colonization by pathogens, immunosuppression makes recipients more susceptible to infections, especially during the first postoperative year. As seasonality of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is well known in chronic lung diseases, we assessed seasonal changes of pathogen spectrum and number of infections in the first postoperative year in LuTX recipients...
February 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160900/evidence-based-practice-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-thumb-carpometacarpal-joint-arthritis
#7
Frank Yuan, Oluseyi Aliu, Kevin C Chung, Elham Mahmoudi
PURPOSE: Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis contributes considerably to functional disability in the aging adult United States (US) population. Owing to the increasing growth in this segment of our population, its burden on health care resources will increase in the future. Variations exist in the degree of complexity and cost among different surgical treatments. We examined the national trends of the surgical treatment of thumb CMC arthritis and hypothesized that current practice patterns are not supported by evidence favoring the simpler trapeziectomy-only procedure...
February 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149211/biomechanical-comparison-of-suture-button-suspensionplasty-and-lrti-for-basilar-thumb-arthritis
#8
Mihir J Desai, David M Brogan, Marc J Richard, Suhail K Mithani, Fraser J Leversedge, David S Ruch
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the initial biomechanical strength of trapeziectomy and suture-button suspensionplasty (SBS) with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) for thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis in a cadaveric model. Methods: Eight matched pairs of below-elbow cadaveric arms were used for this study. Each specimen was randomly assigned to either receive a trapeziectomy and LRTI (LRTI group) or trapeziectomy and SBS (SBS group). Using previously described and validated testing protocols, physiological key pinch was simulated...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148246/development-of-a-respiratory-severity-score-for-hospitalized-adults-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting-south-africa-2010-2011
#9
Alexander J Millman, Adena Greenbaum, Sibongile Walaza, Adam L Cohen, Michelle J Groome, Carrie Reed, Meredith McMorrow, Stefano Tempia, Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen, Ebrahim Variava
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in South Africa; however, existing respiratory severity scores may underestimate mortality risk in HIV-infected adults in resource limited settings. A simple predictive clinical score for low-resource settings could aid healthcare providers in the management of patients hospitalized with LRTI. METHODS: We analyzed 1,356 LRTI hospitalizations in adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) surveillance in three South African hospitals from January 2010 to December 2011...
February 2, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#10
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115334/risk-of-cardiovascular-events-arrhythmia-and-all-cause-mortality-associated-with-clarithromycin-versus-alternative-antibiotics-prescribed-for-respiratory-tract-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Ellen Berni, Hanka de Voogd, Julian P Halcox, Christopher C Butler, Christian A Bannister, Sara Jenkins-Jones, Bethan Jones, Mario Ouwens, Craig J Currie
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with clarithromycin for respiratory tract infections was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, arrhythmias or all-cause mortality compared with other antibiotics. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort design comparing clarithromycin monotherapy for lower (LRTI) or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with other antibiotic monotherapies for the same indication. SETTING: Routine primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and inpatient data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)...
January 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#12
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
February 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095451/comparing-human-metapneumovirus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-co-detections-genotypes-and-risk-factors-for-severe-disease
#13
Nina Moe, Sidsel Krokstad, Inger Heimdal Stenseng, Andreas Christensen, Lars Høsøien Skanke, Kari Ravndal Risnes, Svein Arne Nordbø, Henrik Døllner
BACKGROUND: It is unclarified as to whether viral co-detection and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) genotypes relate to clinical manifestations in children with HMPV and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), and if the clinical course and risk factors for severe LRTI differ between HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: We prospectively enrolled hospitalized children aged <16 years with LRTI from 2006 to 2015. Children were clinically examined, and nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed using semi-quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for HMPV, RSV and 17 other pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#14
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058797/estimating-the-burden-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-on-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-in-england-2007-2012
#15
Rachel Melanie Reeves, Pia Hardelid, Ruth Gilbert, Fiona Warburton, Joanna Ellis, Richard G Pebody
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of hospital admission in young children. With several RSV vaccines candidates undergoing clinical trials, recent estimates of RSV burden are required to provide a baseline for vaccine impact studies. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of RSV-associated hospital admissions in children aged <5 years in England over a 5-year period from 2007 using ecological time series modelling of national hospital administrative data...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054734/compassionate-use-experience-with-high-titer-respiratory-syncytical-virus-rsv-immunoglobulin-in-rsv-infected-immunocompromised-persons
#16
Ann R Falsey, Christine Koval, John P DeVincenzo, Edward E Walsh
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) may cause fatal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in immunocompromised patients. Ribavirin with or without standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is frequently given although efficacy is debated. Infusion of IVIG with high levels of neutralizing antibody against RSV may offer benefit in these patients. METHODS: RI-001 contains standardized levels of high-titer anti-RSV neutralizing antibody and was provided for compassionate use to 15 patients with RSV LRTI who either failed conventional therapy or had significant risk of progression...
January 5, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005485/infectious-disease-hospitalizations-among-american-indian-alaska-native-and-non-american-indian-alaska-native-persons-in-alaska-2010-2011
#17
Prabhu P Gounder, Robert C Holman, Sara M Seeman, Alice J Rarig, Mary McEwen, Claudia A Steiner, Michael L Bartholomew, Thomas W Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: Reports about infectious disease (ID) hospitalization rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have been constrained by data limited to the tribal health care system and by comparisons with the general US population. We used a merged state database to determine ID hospitalization rates in Alaska. METHODS: We combined 2010 and 2011 hospital discharge data from the Indian Health Service and the Alaska State Inpatient Database. We used the merged data set to calculate average annual age-adjusted and age-specific ID hospitalization rates for AI/AN and non-AI/AN persons in Alaska...
January 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927871/severity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-viral-coinfection-in-hiv-uninfected-children
#18
Natalie I Mazur, Louis Bont, Adam L Cohen, Cheryl Cohen, Anne von Gottberg, Michelle J Groome, Orienka Hellferscee, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Omphile Tschegofatso Mekgoe, Fathima Naby, Jocelyn Moyes, Stefano Tempia, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietje Venter, Sibongile Walaza, Nicole Wolter, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Molecular diagnostics enable sensitive detection of respiratory viruses but their clinical significance remains unclear in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We aimed to determine whether viral coinfections increased life-threatening disease in a large cohort. METHODS: Molecular testing was performed for respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children aged <5 years within 24 hours of hospital admission during sentinel surveillance for Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) hospitalisation conducted in South Africa during February 2009-December 2013...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915460/zinc-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-pneumonia-in-children-aged-2-months-to-59-months
#19
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Anoosh Moin, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily zinc supplements have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and reduce child mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months...
4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884552/estimated-saving-of-antibiotics-in-pharyngitis-and-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-if-general-practitioners-used-rapid-tests-and-followed-guidelines
#20
Carles Llor, Ana Moragas, Josep M Cots, Beatriz González López-Valcárcel
INTRODUCTION: General practitioners (GP) in Spain do not have access to rapid tests and adherence to guidelines is usually suboptimal. The aim of the study is to evaluate the estimated number of antibiotics that could have been saved if GPs had appropriately used these tests and had followed the guidelines. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Primary care centres from eight Autonomous Communities in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: GPs who had not participated in previous studies on rational use of antibiotics...
November 21, 2016: Atencion Primaria
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