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A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Prawin Kumar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Vishnu S Mishra, Mojahidul Islam, Shivani Randev, Aparna Mukherjee, Rama Chaudhry, Arti Kapil, Kana Ram Jat, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil K Kabra
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. OBJECTIVE: To document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus/es using multiplex real time PCR assay...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anita Sadhu, Ryan P Calfee, Andre Guthrie, Lindley B Wall
PURPOSE: To test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in patient-reported and objective outcomes of revision ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) compared with primary LRTI. METHODS: This case-control investigation enrolled 10 patients who had undergone revision LRTI at a tertiary care center. All patients had previously undergone primary trapeziectomy with LRTI. Patients with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were eligible. All patients completed an in-office study evaluation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Simon B Drysdale, Mireia Alcazar, Theresa Wilson, Melvyn Smith, Mark Zuckerman, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Sebastian L Johnston, Anne Greenough
: Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Shadi Shahriari, James Gordon, Reena Ghildyal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children, the elderly, and the immunosuppressed. Currently, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available that effectively target RSV infections, proving a significant challenge in regards to prevention and treatment. An in-depth understanding of the host-virus interactions that underlie assembly and budding would inform new targets for antiviral development.Current research suggests that the polymerised form of actin, the filamentous or F-actin, plays a role in RSV assembly and budding...
September 26, 2016: Virology Journal
Urshila Durani, Maria V Dioverti Prono, Pritish K Tosh, Mrinal Patnaik, Jason N Barreto, Aaron J Tande
While lymphopenia is a well-defined risk factor for severe influenza, the effect of neutropenia is unknown. This was a retrospective single centre study of adult patients with documented neutropenia and influenza between 2005 and 2013. Forty patients were included with a median follow-up of 2 years (IQR 0.8-4.0). Median ANC at influenza diagnosis was 0.3 × 10(9)/L (IQR 0.1-0.4 × 10(9)/L). Outcomes included hospitalization (N = 28, 70%), pneumonia (N = 9, 23%), ICU admission (N = 9, 23%) and mechanical ventilation (N = 7, 18%)...
September 16, 2016: Infectious Diseases
M Peghin, H H Hirsch, Ó Len, G Codina, C Berastegui, B Sáez, J Solé, E Cabral, A Solé, F Zurbano, F López-Medrano, A Román, J Gavaldá
The epidemiology of respiratory viruses (RVs) in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) and the relationship of RVs to lung function, acute rejection (AR) and opportunistic infections in these patients are not well known. We performed a prospective cohort study (2009-2014) by collecting nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) from asymptomatic LTRs during seasonal changes and from LTRs with upper respiratory tract infectious disease (URTID), lower respiratory tract infectious disease (LRTID) and AR. NPSs were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Giorgio Fedele, Maria Carollo, Raffaella Palazzo, Paola Stefanelli, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi, Rita Carsetti, Alberto Villani, Ambra Nicolai, Fabio Midulla, Clara Maria Ausiello
PURPOSE: This study was planned to collect evidences of familial pertussis transmission to infants younger than 6 months of age. Understanding the dynamics of transmission of pertussis in families is essential to plan effective prevention strategies that could be integrated in pertussis control. METHODS: The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT-IgG) and prolonged cough symptoms were evaluated in parents of 55 infants aged <6 months hospitalized for confirmed pertussis...
September 10, 2016: Infection
Xuan Xu, Xianxian Yang, Shangyingying Li, Mei Luo, Ying Qing, Xipeng Zhou, Jian Xue, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) after tracheal intubation under general anesthesia poses a serious threat to worldwide health care systems, especially those in developing countries. However, a significant number of studies have found inconsistent results in their investigation of the corresponding risk factors. METHODS: Relevant articles published up to September 2015 were retrieved from PubMed, Ovid, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biological Medical Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang Data...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Kim R Spekreijse, Ruud W Selles, Muhammed A Kedilioglu, Harm P Slijper, Reinier Feitz, Steven E Hovius, Guus M Vermeulen
PURPOSE: To compare the long-term outcomes of trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI) with trapeziometacarpal arthrodesis for osteoarthritis (OA) of the basal thumb joint. METHODS: Patients were evaluated for pain, daily functioning, strength, and complications after a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. Generalized estimating equations statistics were used to compare repeated measurements over time in both groups. RESULTS: After 5 years, patients who had trapeziectomy with LRTI had significantly better pain reduction and function than the arthrodesis group...
September 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Constanza Galleguillos, Bárbara Galleguillos, Guillermo Larios, Gonzalo Menchaca, Louis Bont, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez
AIM: Previous studies have suggested that Down's syndrome is an independent risk factor for severe respiratory infection due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We compared the clinical characteristics of children with and without Down's syndrome hospitalised due to RSV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared data from hospitalisations due to RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children under 14 years of age with (n = 58) and without (n = 58) Down's syndrome...
November 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Oded Scheuerman, Galia Barkai, Michal Mandelboim, Hagit Mishali, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infection (URTI, LRTI) in children. The prognosis of hMPV is unclear in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of hMPV infection in immunocompromised pediatric patients and to review the literature. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included 39 immunocompromised children (age 0-18 years) with proven hMPV infection attending two tertiary pediatric medical centers in 2004-2014...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Lien Anh Ha Do, Juliet E Bryant, Anh Tuan Tran, Bach Hue Nguyen, Thi Thu Loan Tran, Quynh Huong Tran, Quoc Bao Vo, Nguyen Anh Tran Dac, Hong Nhien Trinh, Thi Thanh Hai Nguyen, Bao Tinh Le Binh, Khanh Le, Minh Tien Nguyen, Quang Tung Thai, Thanh Vu Vo, Ngoc Quang Minh Ngo, Thi Kim Huyen Dang, Ngoc Huong Cao, Thu Van Tran, Lu Viet Ho, Jeremy Farrar, Menno de Jong, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity...
2016: PloS One
Stefania Vergnano, Jim Buttery, Ben Cailes, Ravichandran Chandrasekaran, Elena Chiappini, Ebiere Clark, Clare Cutland, Solange Dourado de Andrade, Alejandra Esteves-Jaramillo, Javier Ruiz Guinazu, Chrissie Jones, Beate Kampmann, Jay King, Sonali Kochhar, Noni Macdonald, Alexandra Mangili, Reinaldo de Menezes Martins, César Velasco Muñoz, Michael Padula, Flor M Muñoz, James Oleske, Melvin Sanicas, Elizabeth Schlaudecker, Hans Spiegel, Maja Subelj, Lakshmi Sukumaran, Beckie N Tagbo, Karina A Top, Dat Tran, Paul T Heath
Maternal vaccination is an important area of research and requires appropriate and internationally comparable definitions and safety standards. The GAIA group, part of the Brighton Collaboration was created with the mandate of proposing standardised definitions applicable to maternal vaccine research. This study proposes international definitions for neonatal infections. The neonatal infections GAIA working group performed a literature review using Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane collaboration and collected definitions in use in neonatal and public health networks...
August 1, 2016: Vaccine
Vinod K Ramani, Jayashree Pattankar, Suresh Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa
INTRODUCTION: Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. AIM: To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Padmaja Ananth Shenoy, Kiran Chawla, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Dipika Shaw
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilus influenzae is responsible for wide range of localized and invasive lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) with the highest burden of disease in low and middle income countries. AIM: The aim of the present study was to characterize the H.influenzae isolates from suspected LRTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted over a period of one and half years (December 2012 to May 2014) including patients with LRTI...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Andrea Orsi, Filippo Ansaldi, Cecilia Trucchi, Roberto Rosselli, Giancarlo Icardi
Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in adults, elderly and high-risk subjects worldwide. The clear benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in childhood have been accompanied by a decrease of vaccine-serotype invasive diseases among adults in several countries, mainly due to the herd effect mediated by the reduction of vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal colonization in both age groups, but this reduction in the incidence of pneumonia has not been observed...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aparajit Naram, Keith Lyons, Douglas M Rothkopf, Edward R Calkins, Thomas Breen, Marci Jones, John V Shufflebarger
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of basal joint arthritis of the thumb, recent studies suggest equivalent outcomes with regard to long-term pain, mobility, and strength, in patients undergoing either trapeziectomy alone or trapeziectomy with ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition (LRTI). The goal of this study was to investigate risk factors for complications in carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 5 surgeons at a single institution performing CMC arthroplasties from November 2006 to November 2012...
March 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Min-Chul Kim, Mi Young Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
Viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) can present with a variety of computed tomography (CT) findings. However, identifying the contribution of a particular virus to CT findings is challenging due to concomitant infections and the limited data on the CT findings in viral LRTIs. We therefore investigate the CT findings in different pure viral LRTIs.All patients who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were diagnosed with LRTIs caused by parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus, or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) between 1998 and 2014 were enrolled in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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