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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782515/simulation-of-dyslexia-how-literacy-and-cognitive-skills-can-help-distinguish-college-students-with-dyslexia-from-malingerers
#1
Madelon van den Boer, Elise H de Bree, Peter F de Jong
Academic accommodations associated with a diagnosis of dyslexia might be incentives for college students without reading or spelling difficulties to feign dyslexia and obtain the diagnosis unfairly. In the current study we examined malingering practices by comparing the performance of college students instructed to malinger dyslexia (n = 28) to that of students actually diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 16). We also included a control group of students without reading and spelling difficulties (n = 28). The test battery included tasks tapping literacy skills as well as underlying cognitive skills associated with literacy outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781730/the-positive-side-of-effort-a-review-of-the-impact-of-motivation-and-engagement-on-neuropsychological-performance
#2
Benjamin D Hill, Stephen L Aita
Almost the entirety of research on effort in clinical neuropsychology has focused on negative aspects of effort in neuropsychological assessment, with most work over the last 20 years emphasizing feigned cognitive impairment. In contrast, few studies have explored trait-level positive influences on motivation and engagement in regard to neuropsychological testing. This paper reviews potential constructs associated with positive aspects of effort in neuropsychological testing, including conation, grit, Need for Cognition, and personality factors from the Five Factor Model of personality (Big Five)...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760675/feigning-amnesia-moderately-impairs-memory-for-a-mock-crime-video
#3
Ivan Mangiulli, Kim van Oorsouw, Antonietta Curci, Harald Merckelbach, Marko Jelicic
Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749255/development-of-the-subtle-adhd-malingering-screener
#4
Sujith Ramachandran, Erin R Holmes, Meagen Rosenthal, Benjamin F Banahan, John Young, John P Bentley
The objective of this study was to develop a subtle self-report scale-the Subtle ADHD Malingering Screener (SAMS)-to screen for malingering among individuals reporting symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design with an ADHD group, a control group-comprising individuals without ADHD-and a malingering group-comprising individuals without ADHD who were instructed to feign ADHD in their responses. Factor analysis and psychometric testing were conducted to develop a final scale that could distinguish the malingering from the other groups...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690816/is-motor-activity-during-cognitive-assessment-an-indicator-for-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#5
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Tabea S Send, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVES: Several approaches, ranging from self-ratings of symptoms and impairments to objective neuropsychological testing, have been utilized during clinical evaluation in order to assess symptom and performance validity of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Motor activity has not been considered yet in this context, which is surprising given that hyperactivity is a prominent characteristic of ADHD. Hence, the goal of the present study was to explore the incremental value of motor activity when assessing the credibility of individuals with adult ADHD at clinical evaluation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627349/recurrent-ethylene-glycol-poisoning-with-elevated-lactate-levels-to-obtain-opioid-medications
#6
Matthew Zuckerman, Tim Vo
BACKGROUND: Malingering is when a patient feigns illness for secondary gain. While most patients with malingering manufacture or exaggerate symptoms, some patients may induce illness. Previous reports of malingering patients inducing illness include sepsis, kidney pain, migraine, and chest pain. However, acute poisoning as a manifestation of malingering appears to be rare. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 39-year-old man who presented to the emergency department complaining of diffuse body pain...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527095/aphids-playing-possum-defensive-or-mutualistic-response
#7
Aleksandra Bilska, Jacek Francikowski, Aleksandra Wyglenda, Adrian Masłowski, Natalia Kaszyca, Łukasz Depa
Paper presents the phenomenon of thanatosis or death-feigning in selected aphids species. This specific reaction was predominantly analysed on the example of aphid subfamily Lachninae. Individuals of this group were used in experiments, during which a thanatotic response was induced with various results. The response differed from prolonged thanatosis, lasting for several minutes ( Eulachnus rileyi ), through shrinking behaviour (e. g. in Stomaphis graffii ) to non-responsive species such as Cinara ( Sch i zolachnus ) pineti ...
2018: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479494/ground-beetles-in-city-forests-does-urbanization-predict-a-personality-trait
#8
Wiebke Schuett, Berit Delfs, Richard Haller, Sarah Kruber, Simone Roolfs, Desiree Timm, Magdalena Willmann, Claudia Drees
Background: Urbanization leads to substantial changes in natural habitats with profound effects on wildlife. Understanding behavioural responses to such environmental change is essential for identifying which organisms may adapt, as behaviour is often the first response to altered conditions. Individuals in more urbanized habitats may be expected to be more exploratory and bolder than their conspecifics in less urbanized habitats as they may be better able to cope with novel challenges...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469640/detecting-malingering-in-traumatic-brain-injury-combining-response-time-with-performance-validity-test-accuracy
#9
Robert J Kanser, Lisa J Rapport, Jesse R Bashem, Robin A Hanks
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the incremental utility of item-level response time (RT) variables on a traditional performance validity test in distinguishing adults with verified TBI from adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment. METHOD: Participants were 45 adults with moderate to severe TBI, 45 healthy adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment (SIM), and 61 healthy adult comparisons providing full effort (HC). All participants completed a computerized version of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM-C) in the context of a larger test battery...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457541/can-implicit-measures-detect-source-information-in-crime-related-amnesia
#10
Ivan Mangiulli, Tiziana Lanciano, Marko Jelicic, Kim van Oorsouw, Fabiana Battista, Antonietta Curci
Participants who are asked to simulate amnesia for a mock crime have a weaker memory for this event when they have to give up their role as a feigner, than those who are not asked to feign memory loss. According to the source monitoring framework (SMF), this memory-undermining effect of simulating amnesia for a crime would be due to misattribution of the right source of information. However, we know that the content of self-generated information (e.g., feigned version of the crime) might be preserved and recognised over time as a result of elaborative cognitive processing...
February 18, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389175/comparability-of-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms-sirs-and-structured-interview-of-reported-symptoms-second-edition-sirs-2-classifications-with-external-response-bias-criteria
#11
Jessica L Tylicki, Dustin B Wygant, Anthony M Tarescavage, Richard I Frederick, Elizabeth A Tyner, Robert P Granacher, Martin Sellbom
Rogers, Sewell, and Gillard (2010) released a revised version of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992), the SIRS-2, which introduced several new scales, indices, and a new classification model with the overall goal of improving its classification of genuine versus feigned presentations. Since the release of the SIRS-2, several concerns have been raised regarding the quality of the SIRS-2 development and validation samples and the method used to calculate classification accuracy estimates...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386702/a-review-of-thanatosis-death-feigning-as-an-anti-predator-behaviour
#12
REVIEW
Rosalind K Humphreys, Graeme D Ruxton
Abstract: Thanatosis-also known as death-feigning and, we argue more appropriately, tonic immobility (TI)-is an under-reported but fascinating anti-predator strategy adopted by diverse prey late on in the predation sequence, and frequently following physical contact by the predator. TI is thought to inhibit further attack by predators and reduce the perceived need of the predator to subdue prey further. The behaviour is probably present in more taxa than is currently described, but even within well-studied groups the precise taxonomic distribution is unclear for a number of practical and ethical reasons...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345192/cross-validation-of-the-dot-counting-test-in-a-large-sample-of-credible-and-non-credible-patients-referred-for-neuropsychological-testing
#13
Courtney McCaul, Kyle B Boone, Annette Ermshar, Maria Cottingham, Tara L Victor, Elizabeth Ziegler, Michelle A Zeller, Matthew Wright
OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. METHOD: Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. RESULTS: Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227128/noncredible-cognitive-performance-at-clinical-evaluation-of-adult-adhd-an-embedded-validity-indicator-in-a-visuospatial-working-memory-test
#14
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Klaus W Lange, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
The assessment of performance validity is an essential part of the neuropsychological evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most available tools, however, are inaccurate regarding the identification of noncredible performance. This study describes the development of a visuospatial working memory test, including a validity indicator for noncredible cognitive performance of adults with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory of adults with ADHD (n = 48) was first compared to the test performance of healthy individuals (n = 48)...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227126/intentional-inattention-detecting-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-on-the-personality-assessment-inventory
#15
Shannon T Smith, Jennifer Cox, Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens
Given the increasing number of college students seeking Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnoses as well as the potential secondary gains associated with this disorder (e.g., access to stimulant medication, academic accommodations), the detection of malingered symptom presentations in this population is a major concern. The present study examined the ability of validity indicators on the widely used Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to distinguish between individuals experiencing genuine ADHD symptoms and individuals instructed to present with ADHD symptomatology for secondary gain...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227125/utility-of-the-conners-adult-adhd-rating-scale-validity-scales-in-identifying-simulated-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-random-responding
#16
Brittany D Walls, Elizabeth R Wallace, Stacey L Brothers, David T R Berry
Recent concern about malingered self-report of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college students has resulted in an urgent need for scales that can detect feigning of this disorder. The present study provided further validation data for a recently developed validity scale for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), the CAARS Infrequency Index (CII), as well as for the Inconsistency Index (INC). The sample included 139 undergraduate students: 21 individuals with diagnoses of ADHD, 29 individuals responding honestly, 54 individuals responding randomly (full or half), and 35 individuals instructed to feign...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227124/the-effects-of-symptom-information-coaching-on-the-feigning-of-adult-adhd
#17
Maryanne Edmundson, David T R Berry, Hannah L Combs, Stacey L Brothers, Jordan P Harp, Ande Williams, Stephanie L Rojas, Ahmed K Saleh, April B Scott
College students without ADHD may feign symptoms of ADHD to gain access to stimulant medications and academic accommodations. Unfortunately, research has shown that it can be difficult to discriminate malingered from genuine ADHD symptomatology, especially when evaluations are based only on self-report questionnaires. The present study investigated whether nonclinical college students given no additional information could feign ADHD as successfully as those who were coached on symptoms of the disorder. Similar to Jasinski et al...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186287/utility-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-in-detecting-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-feigned-adult-adhd-index
#18
Stephen L Aita, Channing A Sofko, Benjamin D Hill, Mandi W Musso, Anneliese C Boettcher
Objective: The high potential for secondary gain among college students presenting for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) evaluations highlights the need for psychometrically sound embedded validity indicators. The purpose of this study was to develop new validity indicators specific to feigned ADHD for the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and compare them to preexisting imbedded PAI validity measures. Method: PAI scales that were theoretically related to feigned ADHD were evaluated...
November 23, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169294/susceptibility-of-functional-impairment-scales-to-noncredible-responses-in-the-clinical-evaluation-of-adult-adhd
#19
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Marah Butzbach, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072481/classification-accuracy-of-the-minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-2-mmpi-2-restructured-form-validity-scales-in-detecting-malingered-pain-related-disability
#20
Kevin J Bianchini, Luis E Aguerrevere, Kelly L Curtis, Tresa M Roebuck-Spencer, F Charles Frey, Kevin W Greve, Matthew Calamia
The symptom reports of individuals with chronic pain are multidimensional (e.g., emotional, cognitive, and somatic) and significantly contribute to increased morbidity and lost work productivity. When pain occurs in the context of a legally compensable event, reliable assessment of a patient's multifactorial symptom experience during psychological or neuropsychological evaluations is a necessity. The Validity Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) have been shown useful in identifying symptom overreporting and feigning within chronic pain samples and a number of studies have emerged supporting the use of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in the detection of simulated or feigned impairment in a variety of populations...
October 26, 2017: Psychological Assessment
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