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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526839/fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-reveals-a-cooperative-unfolding-of-monomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-with-a-low-gibbs-free-energy
#1
Mario Schneider, Stefan Walta, Chris Cadek, Walter Richtering, Dieter Willbold
The amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plays a major role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Due to its high toxicity, the 42 amino acid long isoform Aβ42 has become of considerable interest. The Aβ42 monomer is prone to aggregation down to the nanomolar range which makes conventional structural methods such as NMR or X-ray crystallography infeasible. Conformational information, however, will be helpful to understand the different aggregation pathways reported in the literature and will allow to identify potential conditions that favour aggregation-incompetent conformations...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525526/critical-analysis-of-the-council-for-international-organizations-of-medical-sciences-2016-international-guidelines-for-health-related-research-involving-humans
#2
REVIEW
Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang
This paper presents a preliminary discussion of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), recently issued “International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans” (2016) that acknowledges the document’s declared concern of the protection of human subjects and awareness of their needs and interests in “low-resource settings”. Nevertheless, guideline recommendations present exceptional situations –vulnerability, mental incompetence- wherein voluntary and consented participation may be reduced or omitted under three concurrent conditions: compelling scientific value, the need to include persons that will not benefit directly from participation, exposure to minimal or slight risks...
May 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#3
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517030/gerbode-defect-and-multivalvular-dysfunction-complex-complications-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Catarina Ruivo, Joana Guardado, Fernando Montenegro Sá, Fátima Saraiva, Alexandre Antunes, Joana Correia, João Morais
We report a clinical case of a 40-year-old male with surgically corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) 10 years earlier: closure of ostium primum, mitral annuloplasty, and aortic valve and root surgery. The patient was admitted with acute heart failure. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed a dysmorphic and severely incompetent aortic valve, a partial tear of the mitral valve cleft repair and annuloplasty ring dehiscence. A true left ventricular-to-right atrial shunt confirmed a direct Gerbode defect...
May 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513274/cognitive-functioning-and-adjudicative-competence-defendants-referred-for-neuropsychological-evaluation-in-a-psychiatric-inpatient-setting
#5
Beth C Arredondo, Bernice A Marcopulos, Jesse G Brand, Kristen T Campbell, Julie-Ann Kent
OBJECTIVE: A paucity of peer-reviewed research exists regarding the relation between cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence, despite increasing awareness of cognitive deficits associated with serious mental illness. This retrospective study sought to add to and expand upon existing research by considering performance validity and court determinations of competence, when available. METHOD: We compared demographic and cognitive variables of a group of defendants with presumed valid testing admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility for evaluation of adjudicative competence and referred for neuropsychological evaluation (n = 45) and compared individuals determined by the evaluator and/or the court to be competent (n = 30) and incompetent (n = 15)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509671/complications-in-facial-mohs-defect-reconstruction
#6
Angelique M Berens, Sarah R Akkina, Sapna A Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature in regards to complications after reconstruction of Mohs defects, outline common pitfalls and to discuss the literature on avoiding complications as outlined per aesthetic subunit. RECENT FINDINGS: Complications in facial Mohs reconstruction commonly consist of infection, wound necrosis and dehiscence, hematoma and suboptimal scarring. However, site-specific complications such as hairline or eyebrow distortion, eyelid retraction or ectropion, nasal contour abnormality, alar retraction, nasal valve compromise, significant facial asymmetry or even oral incompetence must also be considered...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505413/protein-displacement-by-herpes-helicase-primase-and-the-key-role-of-ul42-during-helicase-coupled-dna-synthesis-by-the-herpes-polymerase
#7
Sarah Michelle Dickerson, Robert D Kuchta
The herpes helicase-primase (UL5-UL8-UL52) very inefficiently unwinds double stranded DNA. To better understand the mechanistic consequences of this inefficiency, we investigated protein displacement activity by UL5-UL8-UL52, as well as the impact of coupling DNA synthesis by the herpes polymerase with helicase activity. While the helicase can displace proteins bound to the lagging strand template, bound proteins significantly impede helicase activity. Remarkably, UL5-UL8-UL52, an extremely inefficient helicase, disrupts the exceptionally tight interaction between streptavidin and biotin on the lagging strand template...
May 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502693/prolonged-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-following-laser-interstitial-ablation-in-epilepsy-a-case-series-with-a-case-report-of-post-ablation-optic-neuritis
#8
Saint-Aaron Morris, Matthew Rollo, Patrick Rollo, Jessica Johnson, Gerald A Grant, Elliott Friedman, Giridhar Kalamangalam, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has become increasingly popular for targeting epileptic foci in a minimally invasive fashion. Despite its use in more than a thousand patients, the chronic effects of photo-thermal injury on brain physiology remain poorly understood. METHODS: We prospectively followed the clinical and radiographic courses of a cohort undergoing laser ablation for focal epilepsy. Only patients with non-enhancing lesions and those who had a delayed post-operative MRI with gadolinium administration approximately 6 months after the ablation were considered...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502640/a-cohort-study-reveals-myocarditis-to-be-a-rare-and-life-threatening-presentation-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#9
Katie Bechman, Deepa Gopalan, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Justin C Mason
BACKGROUND: The predominant forms of adult large vessel vasculitis (LVV) are giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). Cardiac involvement in LVV is a cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in TA. Cardiac failure is most commonly secondary to uncontrolled arterial hypertension or myocardial ischaemia. Pulmonary hypertension and aortic valve incompetence following ascending aortic dilatation represent other serious cardiovascular complications. However, cardiac failure as a consequence of myocarditis is rarely reported, principally in single case reports or in autopsy studies...
April 4, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500817/transmission-incompetence-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-and-culex-pipiens-pipiens-from-north-america-for-zika-virus
#10
Joan L Kenney, Hannah Romo, Nisha K Duggal, Wen-Pin Tzeng, Kristen L Burkhalter, Aaron C Brault, Harry M Savage
AbstractIn late 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) emerged as a significant arboviral disease threat in the Western hemisphere. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been considered the principal vectors of ZIKV in the New World due to viral isolation frequency and vector competence assessments. Limited reports of Culex transmission potential have highlighted the need for additional vector competence assessments of North American Culex species. Accordingly, North American Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus were orally exposed and intrathoracically inoculated with the African prototype ZIKV strain and currently circulating Asian lineage ZIKV strains to assess infection, dissemination, and transmission potential...
May 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497031/the-comparative-study-of-resonance-disorders-for-vietnamese-and-korean-cleft-palate-speakers-using-nasometer
#11
Yu-Jeong Shin, Yongsoo Kim, Hyun-Gi Kim
BACKGROUND: Nasalance is used to evaluate the velopharyngeal incompetence in clinical diagnoses using a nasometer. The aim of this study is to find the nasalance differences between Vietnamese cleft palate children and Korean cleft palate children by measuring the nasalance of five oral vowels. METHODS: Ten Vietnamese cleft palate children after surgery, three Vietnamese children for the control group, and ten Korean cleft palate children after surgery with the same age participated in this experimentation...
December 2017: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494269/medical-conditions-associated-with-recurrent-miscarriage-is-bmi-the-tip-of-the-iceberg
#12
Mushi J Matjila, Anne Hoffman, Zephne M van der Spuy
BACKGROUND: In contrast to sporadic miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a rare entity which affects 1% of couples attempting conception. It is distressing for couples and healthcare professionals as the aetiology is unclear with limited treatment options. Apart from anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), the strength of associations between RM and commonly investigated endocrine, autoimmune, thrombophilic and uterine structural abnormalities remains uncertain and variable. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of commonly investigated medical conditions associated with RM...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494195/functionally-inactivated-dominant-viral-antigens-of-human-cytomegalovirus-delivered-in-replication-incompetent-adenovirus-type-6-vectors-as-vaccine-candidates
#13
Aimin Tang, Daniel C Freed, Fengsheng Li, Steve Meschino, Michael Prokop, Andrew Bett, Danilo Casimiro, Dai Wang, Tong-Ming Fu
T cell immunity is critical in controlling human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in transplant recipients, and T cells targeting viral immediate early proteins such as IE1, IE2 and pp65 have been speculated to be more effective against reactivation. Here we report efforts to construct replication incompetent adenovirus 6 vectors expressing these viral antigens as vaccine candidates. To reduce the potential liabilities of these viral proteins as vaccine antigens, we introduced mutations to inactivate their reported functions including their nuclear localization signals...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492564/-heart-rate-as-a-therapeutic-target-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-in-chronic-coronary-heart-disease
#14
Marco Ambrosetti, Giuseppe Scardina, Giuseppe Favretto, Pier Luigi Temporelli, Pompilio Massimo Faggiano, Cesare Greco, Roberto Franco Pedretti
For patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), either after hospitalization for acute cardiac events or in the chronic phase, comprehensive treatment programs should be devoted to: (i) reducing mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, (ii) reducing the ischemic burden and related symptoms, and (iii) increasing exercise capacity and quality of life.Heart rate (HR) has demonstrated to have prognostic value and patients beyond the limit of 70 bpm display increased risk of all the above adverse outcomes, even after adjustment for parameters such as the extension of myocardial infarction and the presence of heart failure...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473216/transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-in-intermediate-surgical-risk-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Kuljit Singh, Kristin Carson, Mohammed K Rashid, Rohan Jayasinghe, Abdulrahman AlQahtani, Alexander Dick, Christopher Glover, Marino Labinaz
BACKGROUND: Recent data from randomised and observational studies have reported non-inferior outcomes for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate-risk patients. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the mortality of TAVI compared to SAVR in intermediate-risk patients. METHODS: A comprehensive search of four major databases (EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar) was performed from their inception to 29 April 2016...
April 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469424/-don-t-judge-a-book-its-cover-a-qualitative-study-of-methadone-patients-experiences-of-stigma
#16
Julia Woo, Anuja Bhalerao, Monica Bawor, Meha Bhatt, Brittany Dennis, Natalia Mouravska, Laura Zielinski, Zainab Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Despite its efficacy and widespread use, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) continues to be widely stigmatized. Reducing the stigma surrounding MMT will help improve the accessibility, retention, and treatment outcomes in MMT. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 adults undergoing MMT. Thematic content analysis was used to identify overarching themes. RESULTS: In total, 78% of participants reported having experienced stigma surrounding MMT...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468825/small-molecule-mediated-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-amyloid-fibril-formation
#17
Tyler M Marcinko, Jia Dong, Raquel LeBlanc, Kate V Daborowski, Richard W Vachet
In dialysis patients, β-2 microglobulin (β2m) can aggregate and eventually form amyloid fibrils in a condition known as dialysis-related amyloidosis, which deleteriously affects joint and bone function. Recently, several small molecules have been identified as potential inhibitors of β2m amyloid formation in vitro. Here, we investigate if these molecules are more broadly applicable inhibitors of β2m amyloid formation by studying their effect on Cu(II)-induced β2m amyloid formation. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we also examine their inhibitory mechanisms...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466465/what-constitutes-competent-error-disclosure-insights-from-a-national-focus-group-study-in-switzerland
#18
Annegret F Hannawa
The question is no longer whether to disclose an error to a patient. Many studies have established that medical errors are co-owned by providers and patients and thus must be disclosed. However, little evidence is available on the concrete communication skills and contextual features that contribute to patients' perceptions of "competent disclosures" as a key predictor of objective disclosure outcomes. This study operationalises a communication science model to empirically characterise what messages, behaviours and contextual factors Swiss patients commonly consider "competent" during medical error disclosures, and what symptoms and behaviours they experience in response to competent and incompetent disclosures...
May 3, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466194/the-role-of-laser-power-and-pullback-velocity-in-the-endovenous-laser-ablation-efficacy-an-experimental-study
#19
N Yu Ignatieva, O L Zakharkina, C V Masayshvili, S V Maximov, V N Bagratashvili, V V Lunin
Endovenous laser ablation is an effective and minimally invasive alternative to surgical removal of incompetent veins. However, many controversies concerning optimal laser parameters usage in this procedure still remain. The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the adequate parameters required for vein wall destruction and to evaluate the role of fiber pullback velocity on vessel wall degradation. Varicose vein segments were treated with 1470-nm diode laser 3 to 9.5 W in power. The fiber moved through the vein at a velocity of 0...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465800/the-role-of-fear-of-childbirth-in-pregnancy-related-anxiety-in-iranian-women-a-qualitative-research
#20
Katayoun Arfaie, Fatemeh Nahidi, Masoumeh Simbar, Maryam Bakhtiari
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety disorders have severe complications for a mother and her developing baby. A few studies have focused on pregnancy related anxiety and its risk factors including fear of childbirth. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore components and dimensions of this kind of anxiety. METHODS: This qualitative study (conventional content analysis) was conducted with mothers who referred to health care centers from May to December, 2015. In order to collect data, purposive sampling and face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews were used...
February 2017: Electronic Physician
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