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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918755/mosaic-decisionmaking-and-reemergent-agency-after-severe-brain-injury
#1
Joseph J Fins
In this article, I will discuss the challenge posed by the reemergent agency of individuals with severe brain injury whose ability to communicate has been partially restored by neuroprosthetics, drugs, and rehabilitation. Instead of categorically distinguishing patients as either competent or incompetent, these technologies necessitate a more nuanced approach to intermediate states of decisionmaking capacity. This indeterminacy is addressed through a mosaic approach to decisionmaking, which seeks to achieve a proportionate and prudent balance between unbridled self-determination and conventional surrogate representation...
September 18, 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918381/assessing-decisional-capacity-for-research-participation-in-psychiatric-patients-and-their-relatives
#2
Donae Elizabeth George, Saumil Dholakia, Prathap Tharyan
A cross-sectional study among adult inpatients with non-organic psychiatric disorders, and among their key relatives, assessed their comprehension and recall of key information in consent forms. It also assessed their capacity to consent to participate in two hypothetical randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with different potential risks and burdens, using structured questionnaires and recorded interviews. Of the 24 participants (12 patient-key relative dyads), seven patients (58%) and three key relatives (25%) were clinically judged to lack the capacity to consent...
August 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906536/endomyocardial-fibrosis-in-sudan-clinical-and-echocardiographic-features
#3
Siddiq Ibrahim Khalil, Suha Khalil, Salma El Tigani, Hanan A Saad
OBJECTIVE: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a rare disease and is often an underdiagnosed and forgotten cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to document the current frequency of EMF in Sudan by defining and selecting cases from patients attending the echocardiography laboratory. Additionally we aimed to create an EMF registry for Sudan. METHODS: The study started in January 2007 and is on-going. All the patients attending our echocardiography clinics in four different hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, were included...
July 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905420/the-hiv-1-p66-homodimeric-rt-exhibits-different-conformations-in-the-binding-competent-and-incompetent-nnrti-site
#4
Naima G Sharaf, Zhaoyong Xi, Rieko Ishima, Angela M Gronenborn
Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), NNRTIs, which bind to the p66/p51 heterodimeric RT, also interact with the p66/p66 homodimer, whose structure is unknown. (19) F NMR of a single 4-trifluoromethylphenylalanine (tfmF) residue, incorporated into the NNRTI binding pocket of the p66/p66 homodimer at position 181, was used to investigate NNRTI binding. In the NNRTI-bound homodimer complex, two different (19) F signals are observed, with the resonance frequencies matching those of the NNRTI-bound p66/p51 heterodimer spectra, in which the individual p66- or p51-subunits were labeled with tfmF at positions 181...
September 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903673/affective-and-cognitive-orientations-in-intergroup-perception
#5
Lukas J Wolf, Ulrich von Hecker, Gregory R Maio
Three studies examined the role of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) in intergroup perception. We hypothesized that NFA predicts a preference for stereotypically warm groups over stereotypically cold groups, whereas NFC predicts a preference for stereotypically competent groups over stereotypically incompetent groups. Study 1 supported these hypotheses for attitudes toward stereotypically ambivalent groups, which are stereotyped as high on one of the trait dimensions (e.g., high warmth) and low on the other (e...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895507/functional-impact-of-exercise-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-borderline-resting-pulmonary-arterial-pressure
#6
Rudolf K F Oliveira, Mariana Faria-Urbina, Bradley A Maron, Mario Santos, Aaron B Waxman, David M Systrom
Borderline resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) is associated with adverse outcomes and affects the exercise pulmonary vascular response. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying exertional intolerance in borderline mPAP remain incompletely characterized. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence and functional impact of exercise pulmonary hypertension (ePH) across a spectrum of resting mPAP's in consecutive patients with contemporary resting right heart catheterization (RHC) and invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
July 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892412/expert-review-on-the-venaseal%C3%A2-system-for-endovenous-cyano-acrylate-adhesive-ablation-of-incompetent-saphenous-trunks-in-patients-with-varicose-veins
#7
Yee Lai Lam, Marianne De Maeseneer, James Lawson, Gert Jan de Borst, Doeke Boersma
The treatment of incompetent truncal veins has been innovated by the introduction of minimally invasive non-thermal non-tumescent (NTNT) techniques. One of these consists of the use of cyanoacrylate glue to occlude the vein lumen by means of the VenaSeal device. Areas covered: This expert-review aims to evaluate NTNT ablation of incompetent saphenous trunks using the VenaSeal device. Expert commentary: Cyanoacrylate adhesive embolization of incompetent truncal veins using the VenaSeal device is a safe and efficacious innovative technique...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891906/first-in-human-treatment-with-a-dendritic-cell-targeting-lentiviral-vector-expressing-ny-eso-1-lv305-induces-deep-durable-response-in-refractory-metastatic-synovial-sarcoma-patient
#8
Seth M Pollack, Hailing Lu, Sacha Gnjatic, Neeta Somaiah, Ryan B O'Malley, Robin L Jones, Frank J Hsu, Jan Ter Meulen
Effective induction of antitumor T cells is a pivotal goal of cancer immunotherapy. To this end, lentiviral vectors (LV) are uniquely poised to directly prime CD8 T-cell responses via transduction of dendritic cells in vivo and have shown promise as active cancer therapeutics in preclinical tumor models. However, until now, significant barriers related to production and regulation have prevented their widespread use in the clinic. We developed LV305, a dendritic cell-targeting, integration-deficient, replication incompetent LV from the ZVex platform, encoding the full-length cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1...
October 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885697/second-look-arthroscopic-findings-after-cora-based-leveling-osteotomy
#9
Barbara Vasquez, Don Hulse, Brian Beale, Sharon Kerwin, Chad Andrews, Brian W Saunders
OBJECTIVE: To describe the arthroscopic appearance of intra-articular structures mid-term (9 months) and long-term (>12 months) after CORA-based leveling osteotomy (CBLO). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 41) with second-look arthroscopy of the stifle after CBLO for treatment of a cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency. Both stifles were re-evaluated (stifles n = 42) in 1 dog. METHODS: Medical records of dogs that had second-look arthroscopy after CBLO were reviewed...
September 8, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881324/assessment-of-undergraduate-nursing-students-from-an-irish-perspective-decisions-and-dilemmas
#10
Sara Kennedy, Patricia Chesser-Smyth
Assessment of clinical competence plays a pivotal role in the education of undergraduate nursing students in preparation for registration. The challenges that face preceptors are represented in the international literature yet few studies have focused on the factors that influence the decision-making process by preceptors when students under-perform or appear to be borderline status in relation to clinical practice. This study explored the lived experiences of the preceptors during the assessment process using a phenomenological approach...
August 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877594/a-medial-malleolar-fleck-sign-may-predict-ankle-instability-in-ligamentous-supination-external-rotation-ankle-fractures
#11
Kenneth Nwosu, Brian Andrew Schneiderman, Stephen Joseph Shymon, Thomas Harris
BACKGROUND: Ankle joint stability dictates treatment in ligamentous supination external rotation ankle injuries (LSERAI). Investigation of the medial structures that support the ankle mortise is critical, and a small avulsion fracture, or "fleck", of the medial malleolus is occasionally encountered. This study aimed to assess the utility of this medial malleolus fleck sign (MMFS) in diagnosing instability requiring surgery in LSERAI. METHODS: This retrospective observational study examined 166 LSERAI at a single level I trauma center...
September 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874135/cytotoxicity-of-replication-competent-adenoviruses-powered-by-an-exogenous-regulatory-region-is-not-linearly-correlated-with-the-viral-infectivity-gene-expression-or-with-the-e1a-activating-ability-but-is-associated-with-the-p53-genotypes
#12
Suguru Yamauchi, Boya Zhong, Kiyoko Kawamura, Shan Yang, Shuji Kubo, Masato Shingyoji, Ikuo Sekine, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, Hideaki Shimada, Kenzo Hiroshima, Masatoshi Tagawa
BACKGROUND: Replication-competent adenoviruses (Ad) produced cytotoxic effects on infected tumors and have been examined for the clinical applicability. A biomarkers to predict the cytotoxicity is valuable in a clinical setting. METHODS: We constructed type 5 Ad (Ad5) of which the expression of E1A gene was activated by a 5' regulatory sequences of survivin, midkine or cyclooxygenase-2, which were highly expressed in human tumors. We also produced the same replication-competent Ad of which the fiber-knob region was replaced by that of Ad35 (AdF35)...
September 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869866/synergistic-antitumor-effect-mediated-by-a-paclitaxel-conjugated-polymeric-micelle-coated-oncolytic-adenovirus
#13
Dayananda Kasala, Soo-Hwan Lee, Jin Woo Hong, Joung-Woo Choi, Kihoon Nam, Yoon Ho Chung, Sung Wan Kim, Chae-Ok Yun
Combination treatment consisting of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) and paclitaxel (PTX) is a promising strategy to achieve synergistic antitumor effect. However, a co-administration approach is subject to inherent limitations due to the poor solubility of PTX and chemoresistance of tumor cells. In order to overcome these limitations, an oncolytic Ad expressing a p53 variant (oAd-vp53) that is resistant to p53 inactivation in the tumor microenvironment was complexed with PEGylated and PTX-conjugated polymeric micelle (APP)...
August 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866558/skylens-visual-analysis-of-skyline-on-multi-dimensional-data
#14
Xun Zhao, Yanhong Wu, Weiwei Cui, Xinnan Du, Yuan Chen, Yong Wang, Dik Lun Lee, Huamin Qu
Skyline queries have wide-ranging applications in fields that involve multi-criteria decision making, including tourism, retail industry, and human resources. By automatically removing incompetent candidates, skyline queries allow users to focus on a subset of superior data items (i.e., the skyline), thus reducing the decision-making overhead. However, users are still required to interpret and compare these superior items manually before making a successful choice. This task is challenging because of two issues...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864934/gene-therapy-for-chondral-and-osteochondral-regeneration-is-the-future-now
#15
REVIEW
Daniele Bellavia, F Veronesi, V Carina, V Costa, L Raimondi, A De Luca, R Alessandro, M Fini, G Giavaresi
Gene therapy might represent a promising strategy for chondral and osteochondral defects repair by balancing the management of temporary joint mechanical incompetence with altered metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. This review analysed preclinical and clinical studies on gene therapy for the repair of articular cartilage defects performed over the last 10 years, focussing on expression vectors (non-viral and viral), type of genes delivered and gene therapy procedures (direct or indirect). Plasmids (non-viral expression vectors) and adenovirus (viral vectors) were the most employed vectors in preclinical studies...
September 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864120/attitudes-towards-disclosing-a-mental-illness-among-german-soldiers-and-their-comrades
#16
Nicolas Rüsch, Carolyn Rose, Fabian Holzhausen, Nadine Mulfinger, Silvia Krumm, Patrick W Corrigan, Gerd-Dieter Willmund, Peter Zimmermann
Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863918/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-the-airway-spaces-in-patients-with-and-without-cleft-lip-and-palate-a-digital-volume-tomographic-study
#17
Himija Karia, Sunita Shrivastav, Ashok Kumar Karia
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) suffer from several esthetic and functional challenges. Comprehensive treatment of these patients involves orthognathic surgery that may lead to velopharyngeal insufficiency or reduction in lower airway. Several cases of airway insufficiency, velopharyngeal incompetence, snoring, hypopnea, and obstructive sleep apnea have been reported in subjects with CLP. The aim of this study was to compare the anteroposterior dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway at 5 levels, the height of the oropharyngeal column, and the volume of the oropharyngeal airway in subjects with and without CLP...
September 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858098/stepwise-resection-of-the-posterior-ligamentous-complex-for-stability-of-a-thoracolumbar-compression-fracture-an-in-vitro-biomechanical-investigation
#18
Yao Li, Zhonghai Shen, Mingyu Huang, Xiangyang Wang
To quantify the mechanical contribution of posterior ligamentous structures to the stability of thoracolumbar compression fractures.Twelve fresh human T11-L3 spinal specimens were harvested in this study. The 1/3 L1 vertebral body was resected in a wedged shape. After the preinjury had been created, the specimens were subjected to flexion-compression to create a fracture model. Resection of the ligaments was performed in a sequential manner from the bilateral facet capsule ligament (FCL), interspinous ligament, and supraspinous ligament (SSL) to the ligamentum flavum at the T12-L1 level...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857581/bridging-the-gap-between-conventional-and-standardized-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-assessments-an-examination-of-defendant-answers-to-conventional-cst-questions
#19
Anthony M Tarescavage, Lynn Luna Jones, Tayla T C Lee
Despite research suggesting that use of forensic assessment instruments of competency to stand trial (CST) can improve the integrity of forensic conceptualizations (Rogers & Johansson-Love, 2009), the majority of evaluators do not use these measures in CST evaluations (Nicholson & Norwood, 2000). The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between competency evaluations based on a conventional interview and those conducted with the aid of a standardized forensic assessment instrument. To this end, we utilized an archival sample of 704 criminal defendants (543 males, 161 females) ordered to undergo evaluations of CST...
August 31, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853972/programmed-cell-death-4-mechanism-of-action-the-model-to-be-updated
#20
Polina N Vikhreva, Svetlana V Kalinichenko, Igor V Korobko
Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is frequently suppressed in tumors of various origins and its suppression correlates with tumor progression. Pdcd4 inhibits cap-dependent translation from mRNAs with highly structured 5'-regions through interaction with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase and a target transcript. Decrease in Pdcd4 protein is believed to provide a relief of otherwise suppressed eIF4A-dependent translation of proteins facilitating tumor progression. However, it remains unknown if lowered Pdcd4 levels in cells suffices to cause a relief in translation inhibition through appearance of the Pdcd4-free translation-competent eIF4A protein, or more complex and selective mechanisms are involved...
August 30, 2017: Cell Cycle
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