keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Crispr cas

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158838/crispr-genome-engineering-for-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-research
#1
REVIEW
Somali Chaterji, Eun Hyun Ahn, Deok-Ho Kim
The emergence of targeted and efficient genome editing technologies, such as repurposed bacterial programmable nucleases (e.g., CRISPR-Cas systems), has abetted the development of cell engineering approaches. Lessons learned from the development of RNA-interference (RNA-i) therapies can spur the translation of genome editing, such as those enabling the translation of human pluripotent stem cell engineering. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and the challenges of repurposing bacterial nucleases for genome editing, while appreciating their roles, primarily at the epigenomic granularity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155789/efficient-generation-and-editing-of-feeder-free-ipscs-from-human-pancreatic-cells-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Anjali Nandal, Barbara Mallon, Bhanu P Telugu
Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types of the body. The pluripotent cells are thus coveted for research in regenerative medicine and are currently in clinical trials for eye diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, and other disorders. The potential to differentiate into specialized cell types coupled with the recent advances in genome editing technologies including the CRISPR/Cas system have provided additional opportunities for tailoring the genome of iPSC for varied applications including disease modeling, gene therapy, and biasing pathways of differentiation, to name a few...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153320/novel-microbial-diversity-and-functional-potential-in-the-marine-mammal-oral-microbiome
#3
Natasha K Dudek, Christine L Sun, David Burstein, Rose S Kantor, Daniela S Aliaga Goltsman, Elisabeth M Bik, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield, David A Relman
The vast majority of bacterial diversity lies within phylum-level lineages called "candidate phyla," which lack isolated representatives and are poorly understood. These bacteria are surprisingly abundant in the oral cavity of marine mammals. We employed a genome-resolved metagenomic approach to recover and characterize genomes and functional potential from microbes in the oral gingival sulcus of two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We detected organisms from 24 known bacterial phyla and one archaeal phylum...
November 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152580/chromosomal-targeting-by-the-type-iii-a-crispr-cas-system-can-reshape-genomes-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Jing Guan, Wanying Wang, Baolin Sun
CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat [CRISPR]-CRISPR-associated protein [Cas]) systems can provide protection against invading genetic elements by using CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) as a guide to locate and degrade the target DNA. CRISPR-Cas systems have been classified into two classes and five types according to the content of cas genes. Previous studies have indicated that CRISPR-Cas systems can avoid viral infection and block plasmid transfer. Here we show that chromosomal targeting by the Staphylococcus aureus type III-A CRISPR-Cas system can drive large-scale genome deletion and alteration within integrated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150006/genome-engineering-using-haploid-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Takuro Horii, Izuho Hatada
Haploidy is a useful feature for the study of gene function because disruption of one allele in haploid cells, which contain only a single set of chromosomes, can cause loss-of-function phenotypes. Recent success in generating haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells from several mammalian species, including human, provides a new platform for simple genetic manipulation of the mammalian genome. The genome-editing potential of the CRISPR/Cas system is enhanced by the use of haploid ES cells. For example, CRISPR/Cas has been used for high-efficiency generation of multiple knockouts and knockins in haploid ES cells, with potential application in genome-wide screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150001/crispr-history-discovery-characterization-and-prosperity
#6
Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
CRISPR research is a very young research field since it was only 10years ago when the system was found to confer antiviral defense. Nevertheless, there has been an explosion of publications in CRISPR research in the past 5years. The research was started with the comparative genomics of microbial genomes early this century, which revealed the prevalence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) in bacteria and archaea. Series of hypotheses were made based on bioinformatics analyses and tested experimentally within a few years after the CRISPR acronym was coined...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145843/development-of-a-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-toolbox-for-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#7
Jiao Liu, Yu Wang, Yujiao Lu, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C...
November 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133883/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-defends-against-phages-through-type-iv-pilus-glycosylation
#8
Hanjeong Harvey, Joseph Bondy-Denomy, Hélène Marquis, Kristina M Sztanko, Alan R Davidson, Lori L Burrows
Since phages present a major challenge to survival in most environments, bacteria express a battery of anti-phage defences including CRISPR-Cas, restriction-modification and abortive infection systems (1-4) . Such strategies are effective, but the phage genome-which encodes potentially inhibitory gene products-is still allowed to enter the cell. The safest way to preclude phage infection is to block initial phage adsorption to the cell. Here, we describe a cell-surface modification that blocks infection by certain phages...
November 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130154/a-transgenic-core-facility-s-experience-in-genome-editing-revolution
#9
Celvie L Yuan, Yueh-Chiang Hu
The use of animal models, particularly rodents, has been immensely important to nearly all aspects of biomedical research, from basic science exploration to translational discoveries into clinical applications. The transgenic core facility that provides animal model production, preservation, and recovery services has been fundamental to the success of research efforts using animals. Recent advances in genome editing technologies, especially the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) enzyme system, have transformed the tedious animal model production into a simple and effective procedure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130151/viral-vectors-engineered-cells-and-the-crispr-revolution
#10
James E DiCarlo, Anurag Deeconda, Stephen H Tsang
Over the past few decades the ability to edit human cells has revolutionized modern biology and medicine. With advances in genome editing methodologies, gene delivery and cell-based therapeutics targeted at treatment of genetic disease have become a reality that will become more and more essential in clinical practice. Modifying specific mutations in eukaryotic cells using CRISPR-Cas systems derived from prokaryotic immune systems has allowed for precision in correcting various disease mutations. Furthermore, delivery of genetic payloads by employing viral tropism has become a crucial and effective mechanism for delivering genes and gene editing systems into cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128367/nemo-links-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-to-human-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is a key regulator in NF-κB-mediated signaling. By transmitting extracellular or intracellular signals, NEMO can control NF-κB-regulated genes. NEMO dysfunction is associated with inherited diseases such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP), ectodermal dysplasia, anhidrotic, with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID), and some cancers. We focus on molecular studies, human case reports, and mouse models emphasizing the significance of NEMO molecular interactions and modifications in health and diseases...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123227/the-enigmatic-archaeal-virosphere
#12
REVIEW
David Prangishvili, Dennis H Bamford, Patrick Forterre, Jaime Iranzo, Eugene V Koonin, Mart Krupovic
One of the most prominent features of archaea is the extraordinary diversity of their DNA viruses. Many archaeal viruses differ substantially in morphology from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses and represent unique virus families. The distinct nature of archaeal viruses also extends to the gene composition and architectures of their genomes and the properties of the proteins that they encode. Environmental research has revealed prominent roles of archaeal viruses in influencing microbial communities in ocean ecosystems, and recent metagenomic studies have uncovered new groups of archaeal viruses that infect extremophiles and mesophiles in diverse habitats...
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121460/diverse-class-2-crispr-cas-effector-proteins-for-genome-engineering-applications
#13
Neena K Pyzocha, Sidi Chen
CRISPR-Cas genome editing technologies have revolutionized modern molecular biology by making targeted DNA edits simple and scalable. These technologies are developed by domesticating naturally occurring microbial adaptive immune systems that display wide diversity of functionality for targeted nucleic acid cleavage. Several CRISPR-Cas single effector enzymes have been characterized and engineered for use in mammalian cells. The unique properties of the single effector enzymes can make a critical difference in experimental use or targeting specificity...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119038/visualization-of-phage-dna-degradation-by-a-type-i-crispr-cas-system-at-the-single-cell-level
#14
Jingwen Guan, Xu Shi, Roberto Burgos, Lanying Zeng
Background: The CRISPR-Cas system is a widespread prokaryotic defense system which targets and cleaves invasive nucleic acids, such as plasmids or viruses. So far, a great number of studies have focused on the components and mechanisms of this system, however, a direct visualization of CRISPR-Cas degrading invading DNA in real-time has not yet been studied at the single-cell level. Methods: In this study, we fluorescently label phage lambda DNA in vivo, and track the labeled DNA over time to characterize DNA degradation at the single-cell level...
March 2017: Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113998/rhoc-regulates-actin-remodeling-to-form-phagosomes-during-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis
#15
Youhei Egami, Katsuhisa Kawai, Nobukazu Araki
Phagosome formation is a complicated process that requires spatiotemporally regulated actin reorganization. We found that RhoC GTPase is a critical regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Our live-cell imaging revealed that RhoC, but not RhoA, is recruited to phagocytic cups engulfing IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es). RhoC silencing by RNAi, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas-mediated RhoC knockout and the expression of dominant-negative or dominant-active RhoC mutants suppressed the phagocytosis of IgG-Es...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107822/molecular-architectures-and-mechanisms-of-class-2-crispr-associated-nucleases
#16
REVIEW
Carmela Garcia-Doval, Martin Jinek
Prokaryotic Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems mediate adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements by means of standalone effector proteins that function as RNA-guided nucleases. The effectors Cas9 and Cas12 generate double-strand breaks in DNA substrates, which has been exploited for genome editing applications. In turn, Cas13 enzymes function as RNA-guided ribonucleases whose non-specific activity is triggered by target RNA binding. In this review, we highlight recent structural investigations of Cas9, Cas12 and Cas13 nucleases that have illuminated many aspects of their molecular mechanisms...
November 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106617/fncpf1-a-novel-and-efficient-genome-editing-tool-for-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Michal A Swiat, Sofia Dashko, Maxime den Ridder, Melanie Wijsman, John van der Oost, Jean-Marc Daran, Pascale Daran-Lapujade
Cpf1 is a new class II family of CRISPR-Cas RNA-programmable endonucleases with unique features that make it a very attractive alternative or complement to Cas9 for genome engineering. Using constitutively expressed Cpf1 from Francisella novicida, the present study demonstrates that FnCpf1 can mediate RNA-guided DNA cleavage at targeted genomic loci in the popular model and industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FnCpf1 very efficiently and precisely promoted repair DNA recombination with efficiencies up to 100%...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103811/crispr-cas9-based-plant-genome-editing-significance-opportunities-and-recent-advances
#18
Neelam Soda, Lokesh Verma, Jitender Giri
Precise genome editing is a quantum leap in the field of plant sciences. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated Cas9 protein have emerged as a powerful tool for precise genome editing. CRISPR-Cas9 system introduces small heritable mutations (indels) in the genome of an organism. This system also enables precise gene characterization in plants with complex genomes. Besides, it offers new opportunities of trait stacking, where addition of desirable traits or removal of undesirable traits can be achieved simultaneously in a single event...
October 27, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097994/benefits-of-genomic-insights-and-crispr-cas-signatures-to-monitor-potential-pathogens-across-drinking-water-production-and-distribution-systems
#19
Ya Zhang, Masaaki Kitajima, Andrew J Whittle, Wen-Tso Liu
The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) is a major health concern, and our current understanding is mostly related to pathogenic species such as Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium but not to bacterial species closely related to them. In this study, genomic-based approaches were used to characterize pathogen-related species in relation to their abundance, diversity, potential pathogenicity, genetic exchange, and distribution across an urban drinking water system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096913/guest-editorial-crisprcas9-crispr-cas-systems-at-the-cutting-edge-of-microbiology
#20
EDITORIAL
Rodolphe Barrangou, David Bikard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
keyword
keyword
78826
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"