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Richard F Spaide
PURPOSE: To investigate the structural optical coherence tomography and related microvascular flow characteristics in eyes with retinal vasculitis. METHODS: Regions involved with perivascular infiltration in eyes with retinal vasculitis, but no evidence of large vessel occlusion were evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography, and fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: Ten eyes of 5 patients with a variety of etiologies of retinal vasculitis were evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Retina
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lianguang Shang, Yumei Wang, Shihu Cai, Lingling Ma, Fang Liu, Zhiwen Chen, Ying Su, Kunbo Wang, Jinping Hua
Yield is an important breeding target. As important yield components, boll number per plant (BNP) shows dynamic character and strong heterosis in Upland cotton. However, the genetic basis underlying the dynamic heterosis is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for BNP and heterosis at multiple developmental stages and environments using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two corresponding backcross populations. By the single-locus analysis, 23 QTLs were identified at final maturity, while 99 QTLs were identified across other three developmental stages...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Julia Bally, Glen J McIntyre, Rachel L Doran, Karen Lee, Alicia Perez, Hyungtaek Jung, Fatima Naim, Ignacio M Larrinua, Kenneth E Narva, Peter M Waterhouse
Expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in transgenic plants to silence essential genes within herbivorous pests is referred to as trans-kingdom RNA interference (TK-RNAi) and has emerged as a promising strategy for crop protection. However, the dicing of dsRNA into siRNAs by the plant's intrinsic RNAi machinery may reduce this pesticidal activity. Therefore, genetic constructs, encoding ∼200 nt duplex-stemmed-hairpin (hp) RNAs, targeting the acetylcholinesterase gene of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were integrated into either the nuclear or the chloroplast genome of Nicotiana benthamiana...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maoulida Toueni, Cécile Ben, Aurélie Le Ru, Laurent Gentzbittel, Martina Rickauer
Resistance mechanisms to Verticillium wilt are well-studied in tomato, cotton, and Arabidopsis, but much less in legume plants. Because legume plants establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses in their roots, resistance to root-attacking pathogens merits particular attention. The interaction between the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium alfalfae and the model legume Medicago truncatula was investigated using a resistant (A17) and a susceptible (F83005.5) line. As shown by histological analyses, colonization by the pathogen was initiated similarly in both lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vijita Vijay Nair, G N Karibasappa, Arun Dodamani, V K Prashanth
BACKGROUND: Loss of teeth affects the individual's health. Many factors determine the need to wear a removable dental prosthesis. Due to nature of design, age and lack of awareness, prosthesis often are neglected to maintain in an aseptic condition leading to microbial contamination. This provided an impetus for the present study with the aim of determining the microbial contamination of removable dental prosthesis. METHODOLOGY: Total, 45 patients wearing removable dental prosthesis were randomly selected...
October 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Ana V Ferreira, Ilana Perelshtein, Nina Perkas, Aharon Gedanken, Joana Cunha, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
Chronic wound fluids have elevated concentration of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) which can be used as inflammation/infection marker. Our goal is to develop functional materials for fast diagnosis of wound inflammation/infection by using HNE as a specific marker. For that, fluorogenic peptides with a HNE-specific cleavage sequence were incorporated into traditional textile dressings, to allow real-time detection of the wound status. Two different fluorogenic approaches were studied in terms of intensity of the signal generated upon HNE addition: a fluorophore 7-amino-4-trifluormethylcoumarin (AFC) conjugated to a HNE-specific peptide and two fluorophore/quencher pairs (FAM/Dabcyl and EDANS/Dabcyl) coupled to a similar peptide as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Suvitesh Luthra, Miguel M Leiva Juárez, Eshan Senanayake, Heyman Luckraz, John S Billing, James Cotton, Michael S Norell
BACKGROUND: This retrospective propensity-matched study investigated the impact of prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on short-term and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). METHODS: A total of 4,634 patients underwent isolated first-time CABG between April 2004 and March 2014. Among these, 424 (9.2%) had PCI. Propensity score analysis yielded 1:1 risk-adjusted matched groups: PCI (330 patients) and non-PCI (330 patients)...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
C Vijayakumar, M Ramesh, A Murugesan, N Panneerselvam, D Subramaniam, M Bharathiraja
The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Saif Ullah, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xiaojie Yang, Yuanming Zhao, Deyi Xie, Yao Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Nardana Esmaeili, Zuoren Yang, Ye Wang, Guo Yin, Shuping Lv, Lihong Nie, Zhongjie Tang, Fu'an Zhao, Wu Li, Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Wei Zhu, Weiping Fang
Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Donghong Li, Lihong Chen, Huifang Wang, Hongli Yang, Yuping Dai, Cuige Yu, Yun Dong
AIM: A newly developed cervical cancer screening method - folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining utilizes methylene blue internalized by folate receptor-mediated endocytosis to stain cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. We test the clinical feasibility of this method in this study. METHODS: A total of 14 344 women who were at least 21 years old and had been sexually active, participated in the study. In gynecological clinics, participants underwent cervical cancer screening with folate receptor-mediated epithelium staining followed by cytology sampling...
October 14, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Cornelius Gropp, Nils Trapp, François Diederich
Four enantiopure 1,3-diethynylallenes (DEAs) with OH termini were attached to the rim of a resorcin[4]arene cavitand. The system undergoes conformational switching between a cage form, closed by a circular H-bonding array, and an open form, with the tertiary alcohol groups reaching outwards. The cage form is predominant in apolar solvents, and the open conformation in small, polar solvents. Both states were confirmed in solution and in X-ray co-crystal structures. ECD spectra of the alleno-acetylenic cages (AACs) are highly conformation sensitive, the longest wavelength Cotton effect at 304 nm switches from Δϵ=+191 m(-1)  cm(-1) for open (P)4 -AAC⊂acetonitrile to Δϵ=-691 m(-1)  cm(-1) (ΔΔϵ=882 m(-1)  cm(-1) ) for closed (P)4 -AAC⊂cyclohexane...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Carrie A Deans, Spencer T Behmer, Justin Fiene, Gregory A Sword
Plant soluble protein and digestible carbohydrate content significantly affect insect herbivore fitness, but studies reporting plant protein and carbohydrate content are rare. Instead, the elements nitrogen and carbon often are used as surrogates for plant protein and digestible carbohydrate content, respectively. However, this is problematic for two reasons. First, carbon is found in all organic molecules, which precludes strong correlations with ecologically important dietary macronutrients (e.g., digestible carbohydrates, the primary energy source for most insect herbivores)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Christine Graven, Kim Brock, Keith D Hill, Sue Cotton, Lynette Joubert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Depression is a common issue after stroke. A focus on assisting people to achieve their personal participation goals may reduce levels of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a person-centered, integrated approach on facilitating goal achievement in the first year poststroke on depressive symptoms. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial that addressed ways to enhance participation in patient-valued activities and intermittently screen for adverse sequelae postdischarge from rehabilitation...
October 13, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jason D Marshall, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Sean K Maynard, David Hornigold, Christopher McCrae, Neil Fraser, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Li Yu, Nicola Williams, Sarah King, Martin E Cooper, Adeline M Hajjar, Jennifer C Woo
The best-characterized Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its chemically modified and detoxified variant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Although both molecules are active for human TLR4, they demonstrate a potency preference for mouse TLR4 based on data from transfected cell lines and primary cells of both species. After a high throughput screening process of small molecule libraries, we have discovered a new class of TLR4 agonist with a species preference profile differing from MPL...
2016: PloS One
Zeynep Ustaoglu Iyigundogdu, Okan Demir, Ayla Burcin Asutay, Fikrettin Sahin
In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Candela R González, Mariano Ar Amer, Alfredo D Vitullo, Silvia I González-Calvar, María I Vacas
Saliva is the first barrier to entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. The submandibular glands (SMG) contribute to the maintenance of oral health and regulation of immune/ inflam matory responses. Previous studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis but the expression of the TGFB1 system in the SMG has not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in rat SMG the immunolocalization of TGFB1 and its specific receptors ALK5 (profibrotic) and ALK1 (proproliferative) and the coreceptor endoglin (EDG) in a bilateral experimental periodontitis (EP) model (cotton thread ligature around the neck of the first lower molars) for 1 and 6 weeks...
September 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
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