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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686803/mental-health-stigma-another-enemy-for-defeat-chronic-pain
#1
EDITORIAL
Joon Ho Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684550/super-glenn-able-to-defeat-recalcitrant-pulmonary-vascular-adversaries
#2
EDITORIAL
Ralph S Mosca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684183/neutral-theory-microbial-practice-challenges-in-bacterial-population-genetics
#3
Eduardo P C Rocha
Kimura's outstanding contributions to population genetics included many elegant theoretical results on the vagaries of alleles in populations. Once polymorphism data showed extensive variation in natural populations, these results led naturally to the Neutral Theory. In this article, I'll depart from some of these results to focus on four major open problems in microbial population genetics with direct implications to the study of molecular evolution: the lack of neutral polymorphism, the modeling of genetic exchanges, the population genetics of ill-defined populations, and the difficulty of untangling selection and demography in the light of the previous issues...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683989/can-the-farnsworth-d15-color-vision-test-be-defeated-through-practice
#4
Jason S Ng, Sophia C Liem
SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that it is possible for some patients with severe red-green color vision deficiency to do perfectly on the Farnsworth D15 test after practicing it. PURPOSE: The Farnsworth D15 is a commonly used test to qualify people for certain occupations. For patients with color vision deficiency, there may be high motivation to try to pass the test through practice to gain entry into a particular occupation. There is no evidence in the literature on whether it is possible for patients to learn to pass the D15 test through practice...
April 20, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681795/delta-opioid-receptor-signaling-promotes-resilience-to-stress-under-the-repeated-social-defeat-paradigm-in-mice
#5
Mathilde S Henry, Kanchan Bisht, Nathalie Vernoux, Louis Gendron, Angélica Torres-Berrio, Guy Drolet, Marie-Ève Tremblay
The adaptation to chronic stress is highly variable across individuals. Resilience to stress is a complex process recruiting various brain regions and neurotransmitter systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of endogenous opioid enkephalin (ENK) signaling in the development of stress resilience in mice. The translational model of repeated social defeat (RSD) stress was selected to mimic the unpredictable disruptions of daily life and induce resilience or vulnerability to stress. As in humans, adult C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a great variability in their response to stress under this paradigm...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679052/differential-contribution-of-cis-and-trans-gene-transcription-regulatory-mechanisms-in-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex-and-modulation-by-social-stress
#6
Eli Reuveni, Dmitry Getselter, Oded Oron, Evan Elliott
While both individual transcription factors and cis-acting sites have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders, there is little knowledge of the relative contribution of trans-acting and cis-acting factors to gene transcription in the brain. Using an RNA-seq approach in mice bred from two evolutionary-distinct mice strains, we determined the contribution of cis and trans factors to gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, two regions of the brain relevant to the stress response, and the contribution of cis and trans factors in the prefrontal cortex after Chronic Social Defeat (CSD) in mice...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674218/single-aggressive-and-non-aggressive-social-interactions-elicit-distinct-behavioral-patterns-to-the-context-in-mice
#7
Ariela M Crestani, Ana C Cipriano, Ricardo L Nunes-de-Souza
Aggressive interactions between conspecific animals have been used as a social stressor with ethological characteristics to study how social interactions can modulate animal's behavior. Here, a new protocol based on aggressive and non-aggressive interactions was developed to study how different social interactions can alter the behavioral profile of animals re-exposed to the context in which the interaction occurred. We used factor analysis to trace the behavioral profile of socially defeated and non-defeated mice when they were re-exposed to the apparatus [three interconnected chambers: home chamber, tunnel and surface area]; we also compared the behavior presented before (habituation) and 24 hours after (re-exposure) the non-aggressive or aggressive interactions...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673593/augmented-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-formation-promotes-atherosclerosis-development-in-socially-defeated-apoe-mice
#8
Keita Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Masakazu Kikai, Kensuke Terada, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Kami, Takehiro Ogata, Masakazu Ibi, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Satoaki Matoba
Depression is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the causal association remains undefined. We exposed mice to repeated social defeat (RSD) to precipitate depressive-like behaviors, and investigated the effects on atherosclerosis. Eight-week-old male apoE-/- mice were exposed to RSD by housing with a larger CD-1 mouse in a shared home cage. They were subjected to vigorous physical contact daily for 10 consecutive days and fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 6 weeks. The social interaction ratio and immobility time showed dramatic social avoidance before and after HCD feeding...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662948/reduced-orexin-system-function-contributes-to-resilience-to-repeated-social-stress
#9
Laura A Grafe, Darrell Eacret, Jane Dobkin, Seema Bhatnagar
Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662065/dripplons-as-localized-and-superfast-ripples-of-water-confined-between-graphene-sheets
#10
Hiroaki Yoshida, Vojtěch Kaiser, Benjamin Rotenberg, Lydéric Bocquet
Carbon materials have unveiled outstanding properties as membranes for water transport, both in 1D carbon nanotube and between 2D graphene layers. In the ultimate confinement, water properties however strongly deviate from the continuum, showing exotic properties with numerous counterparts in fields ranging from nanotribology to biology. Here, by means of molecular dynamics, we show a self-organized inhomogeneous structure of water confined between graphene sheets, whereby the very strong localization of water defeats the energy cost for bending the graphene sheets...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660975/synergistic-effects-of-psychosocial-stress-and-mild-peripheral-infection-on-inducing-microglial-activation-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-and-long-lasting-deficits-in-hippocampus-related-memory
#11
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chien-Chou Su, Li-Han Sun, Chianfang G. Cherng, Lung Yu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice...
April 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627582/life-on-a-napoleonic-battlefield-a-bioarchaeological-analysis-of-soldiers-from-the-battle-of-aspern-austria
#12
Leslie Quade, Michaela Binder
On the 21st-22nd of May 1809, French and Austrian soldiers engaged in battle near the village of Aspern on the outskirts of Vienna. This battle, the first defeat of Napoleon's army on land, was one of the largest and deadliest encounters during the Napoleonic Wars (1798-1815). Salvage excavations between 2009 and 2016 have revealed several battlefield burial sites in Aspern. The remains of 30 individuals were evaluated for a series of pathological conditions which develop during childhood and adulthood to elucidate the impact of Napoleonic military conditions on health...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626924/unsolvable-problems-of-biology-it-is-impossible-to-create-two-identical-organisms-to-defeat-cancer-or-to-map-organisms-onto-their-genomes
#13
REVIEW
E D Sverdlov
The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618006/dysfunction-of-serotoninergic-and-dopaminergic-neuronal-systems-in-the-antidepressant-resistant-impairment-of-social-behaviors-induced-by-social-defeat-stress-exposure-as-juveniles
#15
Sho Hasegawa, Yuriko Miyake, Akira Yoshimi, Akihiro Mouri, Hirotake Hida, Kiyofumi Yamada, Norio Ozaki, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Yukihiro Noda
Background: Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Methods: Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615190/ventral-ca3-activation-mediates-prophylactic-ketamine-efficacy-against-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior
#16
Alessia Mastrodonato, Randy Martinez, Ina P Pavlova, Christina T LaGamma, Rebecca A Brachman, Alfred J Robison, Christine A Denny
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a single injection of ketamine prior to stress protects against the onset of depressive-like behavior and attenuates learned fear. However, the molecular pathways and brain circuits underlying ketamine-induced stress resilience are still largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we tested whether prophylactic ketamine administration altered neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and/or hippocampus. Mice were injected with saline or ketamine (30 mg/kg) 1 week before social defeat...
February 23, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599974/tuberculosis-in-south-asia-a-tide-in-the-affairs-of-men
#17
REVIEW
Buddha Basnyat, Maxine Caws, Zarir Udwadia
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most common cause of infectious disease deaths worldwide. What is perhaps less appreciated is that the caseload of tuberculosis patients in South Asia is staggering.South Asia has almost 40% of the global TB burden with 4,028,165 cases in 2015. This region also has a disproportionate share of TB deaths (681,975 deaths, 38% of the global burden). Worldwide just 12.5% of TB cases are in HIV positive individuals, but much research and investment has focused on HIV-associated TB...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595517/parental-perception-of-terminology-of-disorders-of-sex-development-in-western-turkey-running-head-parental-perception-of-dsd-terminology
#18
Sibel Tiryaki, Ali Tekin, Ismail Yagmur, Samim Özen, Burcu Özbaran, Damla Gökşen, Şükran Darcan, İbrahim Ulman, Ali Avanoğlu
OBJECTIVE: "Disorders of sex development (DSD)" is a nomenclature proposed to defeat the discomfort of families and patients and has found worldwide usage. The aim of this study is addressing the perception and usage of terminology among the parents of DSD patients in a tertiary center in western Turkey. METHODS: The records of the DSD council between years 2008-2015 were reviewed retrospectively and data including details of the management process, patient characteristics and follow-up details were noted...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593501/chronic-stress-reduces-nectin-1-mrna-levels-and-disrupts-dendritic-spine-plasticity-in-the-adult-mouse-perirhinal-cortex
#19
Qian Gong, Yun-Ai Su, Chen Wu, Tian-Mei Si, Jan M Deussing, Mathias V Schmidt, Xiao-Dong Wang
In adulthood, chronic exposure to stressful experiences disrupts synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous studies have shown that perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory is impaired by chronic stress. However, the stress effects on molecular expression and structural plasticity in the perirhinal cortex remain unclear. In this study, we applied the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm and measured the mRNA levels of nectin-1, nectin-3 and neurexin-1, three synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) implicated in the adverse stress effects, in the perirhinal cortex of wild-type (WT) and conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 conditional knockout (CRHR1-CKO) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588944/defeating-epilepsy-a-global-public-health-commitment
#20
Shekhar Saxena, Shichuo Li
This article points out that defeating epilepsy is a global public health commitment and a new challenge. This is because: epilepsy causes a heavy burden and very high treatment gap; in the field of life sciences and medicine, the 21st century would be the "Century of Brain Science"; a number of national brain research initiatives provide a great opportunity to reveal the secret of epilepsy; the Global Campaign against Epilepsy and the Mental Health Gap Action Programme made great contributions in the epilepsy control work worldwide; the historical WHA68...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
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