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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648389/stress-primes-microglial-polarization-after-global-ischemia-therapeutic-potential-of-progesterone
#1
Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Iqbal Sayeed, Seema Yousuf, Fahim Atif, Elena G Sergeeva, Gretchen N Neigh, Donald G Stein
Despite the fact stress is associated with increased risk of stroke and worsened outcome, most preclinical studies have ignored this comorbid factor, especially in the context of testing neuroprotective treatments. Preclinical research suggests that stress primes microglia, resulting in an enhanced reactivity to a subsequent insult and potentially increasing vulnerability to stroke. Ischemia-induced activated microglia can be polarized into a harmful phenotype, M1, which produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, or a protective phenotype, M2, which releases anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
June 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647323/mechanism-of-plant-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-a-review-on-biomolecules-involved-characterisation-and-antibacterial-activity
#2
REVIEW
S Rajeshkumar, L V Bharath
Engineering a reliable and eco-accommodating methodology for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a crucial step in the field of nanotechnology. Plant-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been developed as a substitute to defeat the limitations of conventional synthesis approaches such as physical and chemical methods. Biomolecules, such as proteins, amino acids, enzymes, flavonoids, and terpenoids from several plant extracts have been used as a stabilising and reducing agents for the synthesis of AgNPs...
June 21, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641105/it-s-not-all-fun-and-games-sports-concussions-and-neuroscience
#3
Christopher C Giza, Mayumi L Prins, David A Hovda
Few items grab the public's attention like sports, from extremes of great victory to injury and defeat. No injury currently arouses stronger interest than concussion. Giza et al., discuss how neuroscience can provide balance between physical activity and TBI, and guide thoughtful discourse and policy.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639240/approach-to-thyroid-carcinoma-in-pregnancy
#4
Cristina Modesti, Paola Aceto, Lucia Masini, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Rocco Bellantone, Liliana Sollazzi
Thyroid carcinoma is the first cancer found in general population and the second diagnosed during pregnancy following the breast one. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to thyroid malignancy in pregnant women pose several and serious issues to the physicians. Even if there is no consensus about the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinomas during pregnancy, a large number of women undergo surgery over the world. The best surgical and anesthesiological treatment should be chosen after reaching a consensus between surgeons, anesthesiologists, obstetrics, and the patients...
June 22, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637441/impact-of-tobacco-industry-and-other-corporations-in-the-defeat-of-the-1994-clinton-health-care-plan
#5
Michael Givel
BACKGROUND: The primary reason cited by many scholars for the defeat of the Clinton Administration's 1994 health care reform bill has long been identified as Health Insurance Association of America and National Federation of Independent Businesses opposition to the bill. Given this predominant consensus combined with sizeable proposed funding for the bill by a large tobacco product tax, this manuscript examined what the tobacco industry's role was in whole or part in defeating the Clinton health care bill...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637110/guidelines-for-cauda-equina-syndrome-red-flags-and-white-flags-systematic-review-and-implications-for-triage
#6
Nicholas V Todd
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) are frequently referred late when neurological damage cannot be reversed. National Guidelines for emergency referral, imaging and treatment of CES contain symptoms and/or signs that are those of late often, irreversible CES. Referral at this stage may be too late for that patient. METHODS: Seven sources were reviewed. Advice re emergency referral/imaging/treatment were reviewed. Symptoms/signs were compared with a standard classification of CES...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630076/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-is-affinity-maturation-a-self-defeating-process-for-eliciting-broad-protection
#7
Christopher T Stamper, Patrick C Wilson
Vaccinations are one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine, saving millions of lives since their widespread adoption. However, several diseases continue to elude highly effective vaccination strategies. Chief among these are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza (flu), both of which will require vaccines that can guide the creation of highly mutated, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). The generation of bnAbs is hindered by our inability to effectively drive the high levels of affinity maturation required to achieve them in a large number of cells...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629982/polymeric-nanoparticles-promising-platform-for-drug-delivery
#8
REVIEW
Khalid M El-Say, Hossam S El-Sawy
Nano medicine had viewed countless breakthroughs in drug delivery implementations. The main objective of nanotechnology application in delivering and carrying many promising therapeutics is to assure drugs carriage to their action sites, to maximize the pharmacological desired influence of remedies and to overcome their limitations and drawbacks that would hinder the required effectiveness. One of these applications was the particulates type of nano-range in size and tremendous impact in achievement. About this specific diversity of particulates, the different elaboration methodologies, mandatory and elementary components for design, and examples of splendid success stories for these particulates were emphasized in this humble review...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629758/implications-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-vulnerability-to-the-social-avoidance-effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-in-male-mice
#9
Joanna Kasia Szyszkowicz, Alex Wong, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Marie-Claude Audet
Appreciable evidence suggests that perturbations within the gut microbiome and the immune system may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression stemming from earlier stressful experiences. In the present investigation we examined whether microbial changes in cecum contents were associated with social avoidance behaviors, a feature of depression, and pro-inflammatory variations among socially stressed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice experienced social defeat or a control condition once a day for 10 consecutive days...
June 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629739/twisting-cracks-in-bouligand-structures
#10
Nobphadon Suksangpanya, Nicholas A Yaraghi, David Kisailus, Pablo Zavattieri
The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys...
June 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625549/the-long-term-effects-of-stress-and-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-on-conditioned-place-aversion-in-male-and-female-california-mice
#11
Abigail R Laman-Maharg, Tiffany Copeland, Evelyn Ordoñes Sanchez, Katharine L Campi, Brian C Trainor
Psychosocial stress leads to the activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs), which induce dysphoria and facilitate depression-like behaviors. However, less is known about the long-term effects of stress and KORs in females. We examined the long-term effects of social defeat stress on the aversive properties of KOR activation in male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) using a conditioned place aversion paradigm. Female California mice naïve to social defeat, formed a place aversion following treatment with 2...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620199/predicting-the-outcomes-of-organic-reactions-via-machine-learning-are-current-descriptors-sufficient
#12
G Skoraczyński, P Dittwald, B Miasojedow, S Szymkuć, E P Gajewska, B A Grzybowski, A Gambin
As machine learning/artificial intelligence algorithms are defeating chess masters and, most recently, GO champions, there is interest - and hope - that they will prove equally useful in assisting chemists in predicting outcomes of organic reactions. This paper demonstrates, however, that the applicability of machine learning to the problems of chemical reactivity over diverse types of chemistries remains limited - in particular, with the currently available chemical descriptors, fundamental mathematical theorems impose upper bounds on the accuracy with which raction yields and times can be predicted...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619944/early-life-stress-confers-lifelong-stress-susceptibility-in-mice-via-ventral-tegmental-area-otx2
#13
Catherine J Peña, Hope G Kronman, Deena M Walker, Hannah M Cates, Rosemary C Bagot, Immanuel Purushothaman, Orna Issler, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Tin Leong, Drew D Kiraly, Emma Goodman, Rachael L Neve, Li Shen, Eric J Nestler
Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a brain reward region-to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile-but not adult-knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress...
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618489/extortion-provides-alternative-routes-to-the-evolution-of-cooperation-in-structured-populations
#14
Xiongrui Xu, Zhihai Rong, Zhi-Xi Wu, Tao Zhou, Chi Kong Tse
In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in structured populations (individuals are located on either a regular lattice or a scale-free network) in the context of repeated games by involving three types of strategies, namely, unconditional cooperation, unconditional defection, and extortion. The strategy updating of the players is ruled by the replicator-like dynamics. We find that extortion strategies can act as catalysts to promote the emergence of cooperation in structured populations via different mechanisms...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614496/the-republic-in-crisis-and-future-possibilities
#15
José Maurício Domingues
This text gives a brief reconstruction of the process of impeachment of Brazil's President Dilma Rousseff, which was a 'coup' effected through parliament, and situates it at the end of three periods of politics in the Brazilian republic: the first, broader, and democratizing; the second, the age of the PT (Workers' Party) as the force with the hegemony on the left; and the third, shorter, the cycle of its governments. Together, these phases constitute a crisis of the republic, although not a rupture of the country's institutional structure, nor a 'State of Exception'...
June 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606772/dominance-status-alters-restraint-induced-neural-activity-in-brain-regions-controlling-stress-vulnerability
#16
Matthew A Cooper, Sahba Seddighi, Abigail K Barnes, J Alex Grizzell, Brooke N Dulka, Catherine T Clinard
Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. In Syrian hamsters, dominant and subordinate animals exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to social defeat stress, with dominants showing stress resistance and subordinates showing stress vulnerability. We previously found that dominant and subordinate hamsters show different levels of defeat-induced neural activity in brain regions that modulate coping with stress, although the extent to which status-dependent differences in stress vulnerability generalize to non-social stressors is unknown...
June 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602364/diagnosis-and-management-of-heart-failure-in-older-adults
#17
REVIEW
Gurusher Panjrath, Ali Ahmed
Aging is characterized by heterogeneity, both in health and illness. Older adults with heart failure often have preserved ejection fraction and atypical and delayed clinical manifestations. After diagnosis of heart failure is established, a cause should be sought. The patient's comorbidities may provide clues. An elevated jugular venous pressure is the most reliable clinical sign of fluid volume overload and should be carefully evaluated. Left ventricular ejection fraction must be determined to assess prognosis and guide therapy...
July 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594370/security-enhanced-push-button-configuration-for-home-smart-control
#18
Junghee Han, Taejoon Park
With the emergence of smart and converged home services, the need for the secure and easy interplay of various devices has been increased. Push Button Configuration (PBC) is one of the technologies proposed for easy set-up of a secure session between IT and consumer devices. Although the Wi-Fi Direct specification explicitly states that all devices must support the PBC method, its applicability is very limited. This is because the security vulnerability of PBC can be maliciously exploited so that attackers can make illegitimate sessions with consumer devices...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591950/-functional-analysis-of-dna-damage-repair-factor-wdr70-and-its-mutation-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Lian-di Guo, Dan Wang, Fan Yang, Yu-Jia Liang, Xue-Qin Yang, Yi-Yang Qin, Lai-Feng Ren, Ming Zeng, Zi-Zhi Tang, Xiao-Jun Wang, Si Wang, Cong Liu, Jiang-Yan Lou, Jie Chen
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cellular function of the newly discovered DNA damage repair factor WDR70, and investigate the mutation in ovarian cancer to verify if function loss of the WDR70gene was associated with ovarian cancer. METHODS: The WDR70 gene was silenced by using siRNA technique or overexpressed its wild and mutation type by with lentivirus and plasmid in hunman cells. The subcellular localization and biochemical function of WDR70 was analyzes by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589967/in-vivo-fiber-photometry-reveals-signature-of-future-stress-susceptibility-in-nucleus-accumbens
#20
Jessie Muir, Zachary S Lorsch, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Erin S Calipari, Rosemary C Bagot
Recognizing why chronic stress causes only a subset of individuals to become depressed is critical to understanding depression on a basic level and, also to developing treatments that increase resilience. Stress-induced alterations in the activity of reward-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are linked to the pathophysiology of depression. However, it has been difficult to determine if differences in stress susceptibility are pre-existing or merely an effect of chronic stress. The NAc consists largely of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), distinguished by their predominant expression of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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