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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245000/does-traumatic-brain-injury-hold-the-key-to-the-alzheimer-s-puzzle
#1
Robert E Becker, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Nigel H Greig
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders have been a graveyard for hundreds of well-intentioned efforts at drug discovery and development. Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share many overlapping pathologies and possible clinical links. METHODS: We searched the literature since 1995 using MEDLINE and Google Scholar for the terms concussion, AD, and shared neuropathologies. We also studied a TBI animal model as a supplement to transgenic (Tg) mouse AD models for evaluating AD drug efficacy by preventing neuronal losses...
December 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234278/effects-of-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-in-mice
#2
Fiona Henderson, Vincent Vialou, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Fabre
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233978/an-oomycete-plant-pathogen-reprograms-host-pre-mrna-splicing-to-subvert-immunity
#3
Jie Huang, Lianfeng Gu, Ying Zhang, Tingxiu Yan, Guanghui Kong, Liang Kong, Baodian Guo, Min Qiu, Yang Wang, Maofeng Jing, Weiman Xing, Wenwu Ye, Zhe Wu, Zhengguang Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Mark Gijzen, Yuanchao Wang, Suomeng Dong
The process of RNA splicing influences many physiological processes, including plant immunity. However, how plant parasites manipulate host RNA splicing process remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that PsAvr3c, an avirulence effector from oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae, physically binds to and stabilizes soybean serine/lysine/arginine-rich proteins GmSKRPs. The SKRPs are novel proteins that associate with a complex that contains plant spliceosome components, and are negative regulators of plant immunity...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228014/a-model-for-warfare-in-stratified-small-scale-societies-the-effect-of-within-group-inequality
#4
Sagar Pandit, Gauri Pradhan, Carel van Schaik
In order to predict the features of non-raiding human warfare in small-scale, socially stratified societies, we study a coalitionary model of war that assumes that individuals participate voluntarily because their decisions serve to maximize fitness. Individual males join the coalition if war results in a net economic and thus fitness benefit. Within the model, viable offensive war ensues if the attacking coalition of males can overpower the defending coalition. We assume that the two groups will eventually fuse after a victory, with ranks arranged according to the fighting abilities of all males and that the new group will adopt the winning group's skew in fitness payoffs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226792/posttraumatic-world-assumptions-among-treatment-seeking-refugees
#5
F Jackie June Ter Heide, Marieke Sleijpen, Niels van der Aa
The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221793/pannexin-1-channel-dysfunction-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-social-defeat-stress-and-administration-of-mefloquine-in-mice
#6
Ming Ni, Jin-Gang He, Hai-Yun Zhou, Xiao-Jia Lu, Yuan-Lang Hu, Li Mao, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen, Zhuang-Li Hu
Mefloquine (MFQ) is widely used for the treatment of malaria clinically. Apart from antimalarial effect, psychiatric side effects such as depression and anxiety of MFQ have been reported. Interestingly, MFQ is also known as a broad-spectrum pannexin-1 (Panx1) inhibitor. Panx1 is a new gap junction channel expressed in the brain which mediates efflux of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Although exogenous ATP has been known to produce a potential antidepressant-like effect, little is known about the role of Panx1 in pathophysiology of depression, especially the depression induced by administration of MFQ...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212526/structural-and-functional-annotation-of-hypothetical-proteins-of-human-adenovirus-prioritizing-the-novel-drug-targets
#7
Muhammad Naveed, Sana Tehreem, Muhammad Usman, Zoma Chaudhry, Ghulam Abbas
OBJECTIVE: Human adenoviruses are small double stranded DNA viruses that provoke vast array of human diseases. Next generation sequencing techniques increase genomic data of HAdV rapidly, which increase their serotypes. The complete genome sequence of human adenovirus shows that it contains large amount of proteins with unknown cellular or biochemical function, known as hypothetical proteins. Hence, it is indispensable to functionally and structurally annotate these proteins to get better understanding of the novel drug targets...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210635/potential-drug-targets-in-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-of-trypanosomatids
#8
Ines Loureiro, Joana Faria, Nuno Santarem, Terry K Smith, Joana Tavares, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva
The trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp, are causative agents of important human diseases such African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease and Leishmaniasis, respectively. The high impact of these diseases on human health and economy worldwide, the unsatisfactory available chemotherapeutic options and the absence of human effective vaccines, strongly justifies the search for new drugs. The pentose phosphate pathway has been proposed to be a viable strategy to defeat several infectious diseases, including those from trypanosomatids, as it includes an oxidative branch, important in the maintenance of cell redox homeostasis, and a non-oxidative branch in which ribose 5-phosphate and erythrose 4-phosphate, precursors of nucleic acids and aromatic amino acids, are produced...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207537/a-robust-indoor-outdoor-navigation-filter-fusing-data-from-vision-and-magneto-inertial-measurement-unit
#9
David Caruso, Alexandre Eudes, Martial Sanfourche, David Vissière, Guy Le Besnerais
Visual-inertial Navigation Systems (VINS) are nowadays used for robotic or augmented reality applications. They aim to compute the motion of the robot or the pedestrian in an environment that is unknown and does not have specific localization infrastructure. Because of the low quality of inertial sensors that can be used reasonably for these two applications, state of the art VINS rely heavily on the visual information to correct at high frequency the drift of inertial sensors integration. These methods struggle when environment does not provide usable visual features, such than in low-light of texture-less areas...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206008/mental-hygiene-in-early-francoism-from-racial-hygiene-to-the-prevention-of-mental-illness-1939-1960
#10
Ricardo Campos, Enric Novella
In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism...
2017: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206007/christian-psychopathology-psychiatry-and-knowledge-for-the-sake-of-salvation-in-the-early-years-of-francoism
#11
Ángel González de Pablo
After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged...
2017: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195162/effects-of-adolescent-social-stress-and-antidepressant-treatment-on-cognitive-inflexibility-and-bdnf-epigenetic-modifications-in-the-mpfc-of-adult-mice
#12
Hang Xu, Jiesi Wang, Ke Zhang, Mei Zhao, Bart Ellenbroek, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Adolescent social stress (ASS) can increase susceptibility to depression in adulthood. However, the underlying psychological and neural mechanisms remain unclear. Cortically mediated cognitive dysfunctions are increasingly recognized as an independent and important risk factor of depression. Using social defeat stress, a classical animal model of depression, our previous studies found that mice subjected to this form of stress during early adolescence displayed cognitive inflexibility (CI) in adulthood. This change was accompanied by a down-regulation of Bdnf gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); this gene encodes a key molecule involved in depression and antidepressant action...
November 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186765/to-group-or-not-to-group-good-practice-for-housing-male-laboratory-mice
#13
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
It is widely recommended to group-house male laboratory mice because they are 'social animals', but male mice do not naturally share territories and aggression can be a serious welfare problem. Even without aggression, not all animals within a group will be in a state of positive welfare. Rather, many male mice may be negatively affected by the stress of repeated social defeat and subordination, raising concerns about welfare and also research validity. However, individual housing may not be an appropriate solution, given the welfare implications associated with no social contact...
November 24, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186377/oxytocin-oxytocin-receptor-systems-facilitate-social-defeat-posture-in-male-mice
#14
Naranbat Nasanbuyan, Masahide Yoshida, Yuki Takayanagi, Ayumu Inutsuka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tatsushi Onaka
Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics, i.e., social defeat stress, evokes species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have pro-social and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor-expressing neurons was investigated in mice...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184215/social-stress-induces-neurovascular-pathology-promoting-depression
#15
Caroline Menard, Madeline L Pfau, Georgia E Hodes, Veronika Kana, Victoria X Wang, Sylvain Bouchard, Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Hossein Aleyasin, Katherine B LeClair, William G Janssen, Benoit Labonté, Eric M Parise, Zachary S Lorsch, Sam A Golden, Mitra Heshmati, Carol Tamminga, Gustavo Turecki, Matthew Campbell, Zahi A Fayad, Cheuk Ying Tang, Miriam Merad, Scott J Russo
Studies suggest that heightened peripheral inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We investigated the effect of chronic social defeat stress, a mouse model of depression, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and infiltration of peripheral immune signals. We found reduced expression of the endothelial cell tight junction protein claudin-5 (Cldn5) and abnormal blood vessel morphology in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of stress-susceptible but not resilient mice. CLDN5 expression was also decreased in NAc of depressed patients...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183583/the-rescue-of-botanical-insecticides-a-bioinspiration-for-new-niches-and-needs
#16
REVIEW
Jannaina Velasques, Marlon Henrique Cardoso, Guilherme Abrantes, Breno Emanuel Frihling, Octávio Luiz Franco, Ludovico Migliolo
Crop protection is the basis of plant production and food security. Additionally, there are many efforts focused on increasing defensive mechanisms in order to avoid the damaging effects of insects, which still represent significant losses worldwide. Plants have naturally evolved different mechanisms to discourage herbivory, including chemical barriers such as the induction of defensive proteins and secondary metabolites, some of which have a historical link with bio-farming practices and others that are yet to be used...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181815/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-on-stress-induced-reward-deficits-brain-crf-monoamines-and-glutamate-in-adult-rats
#17
Nathalie Boutros, Andre Der-Avakian, James P Kesby, Soon Lee, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol exposure may increase depression vulnerability in adulthood by increasing the anhedonic response to stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (postnatal days 28-53) were exposed to binge-like adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) or water. In adulthood, rats were exposed to social defeat, consisting of daily confrontations with an aggressive conspecific, followed by testing of brain reward function in a discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure for 10 consecutive days...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178064/deblurring-sequential-ocular-images-from-multi-spectral-imaging-msi-via-mutual-information
#18
Jian Lian, Yuanjie Zheng, Wanzhen Jiao, Fang Yan, Bojun Zhao
Multi-spectral imaging (MSI) produces a sequence of spectral images to capture the inner structure of different species, which was recently introduced into ocular disease diagnosis. However, the quality of MSI images can be significantly degraded by motion blur caused by the inevitable saccades and exposure time required for maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. This degradation may confuse an ophthalmologist, reduce the examination quality, or defeat various image analysis algorithms. We propose an early work specially on deblurring sequential MSI images, which is distinguished from many of the current image deblurring techniques by resolving the blur kernel simultaneously for all the images in an MSI sequence...
November 25, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174974/m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl-diselenide-promotes-resilience-to-social-avoidance-induced-by-social-defeat-stress-in-mice-contribution-of-opioid-receptors-and-mapks
#19
Suzan Gonçalves Rosa, Ana Paula Pesarico, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Depressive symptoms precipitated by stress are prevalent in population. In experimental models of social stress, endogenous opioids mediate different aspects of defensive and submissive behaviors. The present study investigated the opioid receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (Akt) contribution to m-trifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide [(m-CF3-PhSe)2] effects on social avoidance induced by social defeat stress (SDS). Adult Swiss mice were subjected to SDS and treated with (m-CF3-PhSe)2 (5 to 25mg/kg) for 7days...
November 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174946/fluoxetine-not-donepezil-reverses-anhedonia-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-hippocampal-proteome-changes-during-repeated-social-defeat-exposure
#20
M G Gottschalk, P Mortas, M Haman, S Ozcan, B Biemans, S Bahn
While anhedonia is considered a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), less attention has been paid to cognitive dysfunctions. We evaluated the behavioural and molecular effects of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, fluoxetine) and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI, donepezil) on emotional-cognitive endophenotypes of depression and the hippocampal proteome. A chronic social defeat (SD) procedure was followed up by "reminder" sessions of direct and indirect SD. Anhedonia-related behaviour was assessed longitudinally by intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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