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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454642/moderate-financial-incentive-does-not-appear-to-influence-the-p300-concealed-information-test-cit-effect-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-cit-in-a-forensic-scenario-while-affecting-p300-peak-latencies-and-behavior
#1
J Peter Rosenfeld, Evan Sitar, Joshua Wasserman, Anne Ward
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response (SCR) of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor for P300 tests based on the 3-stimulus protocol or Complex Trial Protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as forensic CITs)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449344/defeating-major-contaminants-in-fe-3-imac-phosphopeptide-enrichment
#2
Clement M Potel, Miao-Hsia Lin, Albert J R Heck, Simone Lemeer
Here we demonstrate that biomolecular contaminants, such as nucleic acid molecules, can seriously interfere with IMAC based phosphopeptide enrichments. We address and largely solve this issue, developing a robust protocol implementing methanol/chloroform protein precipitation and enzymatic digestion using benzonase, which degrades all forms of DNA and RNA, prior to IMAC-column loading. This simple procedure resulted in a drastic increase of enrichment sensitivity, enabling the identification of around 17,000 unique phosphopeptides and 12,500 unambiguously localized phosphosites in human cell-lines from a single LC-MS/MS run, constituting a 50% increase when compared to the standard protocol...
February 15, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441000/self-confidence-overconfidence-and-prenatal-testosterone-exposure-evidence-from-the-lab
#3
Patricio S Dalton, Sayantan Ghosal
This paper examines whether foetal testosterone exposure predicts the extent of confidence and over-confidence in own absolute ability in adulthood. To study this question, we elicited incentive-compatible measures of confidence and over-confidence in the lab and correlate them with measures of right hand 2D:4D, used as as a marker for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure. We provide evidence that men with higher prenatal testosterone exposure (i.e., low 2D:4D ratio) are less likely to set unrealistically high expectations about their own performance...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434427/picosecond-laser-treatment-for-tattoos-and-benign-cutaneous-pigmented-lesions-secondary-publication
#4
REVIEW
Kenichiro Kasai
Background and aims: The selective removal of tattoos and benign cutaneous pigmented lesions with laser energy evolved rapidly with the development of the nanosecond-domain Q-switched laser (ns-laser). Recently, however, a series of picosecond-domain lasers (ps-lasers) with pulsewidths less than 1 ns has become commercially available, enabling more efficient and faster removal of pigmented lesions in the field of dermatologic laser surgery. Rationale behind the ps-laser: The efficacy of the ns-laser depended on the theory of selective photothermolysis, whereby an extremely short pulse width was delivered less than the thermal relaxation time (TRT) of a target...
December 31, 2017: Laser Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431190/-a-joke-a-day-keeps-the-doctor-away-meta-analytical-evidence-of-differential-associations-of-habitual-humor-styles-with-mental-health
#5
Martha Schneider, Martin Voracek, Ulrich S Tran
Humor and mental health are interconnected as is evidenced by a large number of studies. However, associations are only small and inconsistent as the operationalization of humor poses a methodological challenge. The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) differentiates four humor styles that might be beneficial or harmful to mental health. The aim of the present study was to meta-analytically aggregate studies using the HSQ to assess the associations of different humor styles with four areas of mental health (self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, depression)...
February 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421591/voluntary-exercise-increases-resilience-to-social-defeat-stress-in-syrian-hamsters
#6
Rody C Kingston, Michael Smith, Tiara Lacey, Malcolm Edwards, Janae N Best, Chris M Markham
Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419726/the-effect-of-door-opening-on-positive-pressure-and-airflow-in-operating-rooms
#7
Mitchell C Weiser, Shai Shemesh, Darwin D Chen, Michael J Bronson, Calin S Moucha
INTRODUCTION: Door openings and increased foot traffic in operating rooms (ORs) during total joint arthroplasty are thought to increase the risk of surgical site infection. METHODS: Digital manometers were used to collect pressure data during off-hours at the thresholds of both the outer door (ie, the door to the common OR hallway) and the inner substerile door, which opens to the substerile hallway, of six empty ORs used for total joint arthroplasty. Airflow patterns were visualized with smoke studies to determine whether outside air entered the ORs during single or multiple door openings...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419371/an-nmra-like-protein-regulates-gene-expression-in-phytophthora-capsici-to-drive-the-infection-cycle-on-tomato
#8
Jasmine Pham, Remco Stam, Victor Martinez Heredia, Michael Csukai, Edgar Huitema
Phytophthora spp. cause devastating disease epidemics on important crop plants and pose a grave threat to global crop production. Critically, Phytophthora pathogens represent a distinct evolutionary lineage in which pathogenicity has been acquired independently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand and disrupt the processes that drive infection, if we aspire to defeat oomycete parasites in the field. One area that has received little attention thus far in this respect is the regulation of Phytophthora gene expression during infection...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403000/the-selective-reversible-faah-inhibitor-ssr411298-restores-the-development-of-maladaptive-behaviors-to-acute-and-chronic-stress-in-rodents
#9
Guy Griebel, Jeanne Stemmelin, Mati Lopez-Grancha, Valérie Fauchey, Franck Slowinski, Philippe Pichat, Gihad Dargazanli, Ahmed Abouabdellah, Caroline Cohen, Olivier E Bergis
Enhancing endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been considered as a potential strategy for the treatment of stress-related conditions. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the primary degradation enzyme of the eCB anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). This study describes a potent reversible FAAH inhibitor, SSR411298. The drug acts as a selective inhibitor of FAAH, which potently increases hippocampal levels of AEA, OEA and PEA in mice. Despite elevating eCB levels, SSR411298 did not mimic the interoceptive state or produce the behavioral side-effects (memory deficit and motor impairment) evoked by direct-acting cannabinoids...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397571/the-suicidal-narrative-and-its-relationship-to-the-suicide-crisis-syndrome-and-recent-suicidal-behavior
#10
Lisa Janet Cohen, Bernard Gorman, Jessica Briggs, Min Eun Jeon, Tal Ginsburg, Igor Galynker
In this study, we introduce the construct of the suicidal narrative, a hypothetical personal narrative linked to imminent suicide, and explore its relationship to near-term suicidal risk and the suicide crisis syndrome (SCS). Psychiatric outpatients (N = 289) were administered the Columbia Suicide-Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI), and Suicide Narrative Inventory (SNI), a novel instrument combining the documented risk factors of Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, Humiliation, Social Defeat, Goal Disengagement, and Goal Reengagement...
February 4, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391155/antagonism-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-blocks-the-enhanced-response-to-cocaine-after-social-stress
#11
Carmen Ferrer-Pérez, Marina D Reguilón, Carmen Manzanedo, M Asunción Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Numerous studies have shown that social defeat stress induces an increase in the rewarding effects of cocaine. In this study we have investigated the role played by the main hypothalamic stress hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in the effects that repeated social defeat (RSD) induces in the conditioned rewarding effects and locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine. A total of 220 OF1 mice were divided into experimental groups according to the treatment received before each social defeat: saline, 5 or 10mg/kg of the nonpeptidic corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1 receptor antagonist CP-154,526, or 15 or 30µg/kg of the peptidic corticotropin-releasing factor CRF2 receptor antagonist Astressin2-B...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386353/the-candida-albicans-eno1-gene-encodes-a-transglutaminase-involved-in-growth-cell-division-morphogenesis-and-osmotic-protection
#12
Elizabeth Reyna-Beltrán, María Iranzo, Karla Grisel Calderón-González, Ricardo Móndragon-Flores, María Luisa Labra-Barrios, Salvador Mormeneo, Juan Pedro Luna-Arias
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus that is part of the normal microflora commonly found in the human digestive tract and the normal mucosa or skin of healthy individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals, it becomes a serious health concern and a threat to their lives, and is ranked as the leading fungal infection in humans worldwide. As existing treatments for this infection are non-specific or under threat of developing resistance, there is a dire necessity to find new targets for designing specific drugs to defeat this fungus...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382712/corticosterone-production-during-repeated-social-defeat-causes-monocyte-mobilization-from-the-bone-marrow-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-neurovascular-adhesion-molecule-expression
#13
Anzela Niraula, Yufen Wang, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57/BL6 mice...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370770/defeat-and-entrapment-more-than-meets-the-eye-applying-network-analysis-to-estimate-dimensions-of-highly-correlated-constructs
#14
Thomas Forkmann, Tobias Teismann, Jana-Sophie Stenzel, Heide Glaesmer, Derek de Beurs
BACKGROUND: Defeat and entrapment have been shown to be of central relevance to the development of different disorders. However, it remains unclear whether they represent two distinct constructs or one overall latent variable. One reason for the unclarity is that traditional factor analytic techniques have trouble estimating the right number of clusters in highly correlated data. In this study, we applied a novel approach based on network analysis that can deal with correlated data to establish whether defeat and entrapment are best thought of as one or multiple constructs...
January 25, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354171/the-challenge-of-nonunion-after-osteosynthesis-of-the-clavicle-is-it-a-biomechanical-or-infection-problem
#15
Giuseppe Rollo, Paolo Pichierri, Antonio Marsilio, Marco Filipponi, Michele Bisaccia, Luigi Meccariello
Introduction: The nonunion rate has been reported between 0.1% and 15%. There are also several predisposing factors for the onset of complications: general factors connected with the patient and specific factors related to the fracture site. The purpose of our study is to review the etiology of nonunion of the clavicle in its atrophic form and investigate the outcomes of the revision treatment in a single step. Materials and methods: Retrospective study on 71 patients suffering from nonunions due to the following treatments: conservative in 13 patients; plate fixation in 12; closed reduction and fixation with K-wire in 24; open reduction and fixation with K-wire...
September 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352539/income-inequality-and-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-association-and-a-scoping-review-of-mechanisms
#16
Vikram Patel, Jonathan K Burns, Monisha Dhingra, Leslie Tarver, Brandon A Kohrt, Crick Lund
Most countries have witnessed a dramatic increase of income inequality in the past three decades. This paper addresses the question of whether income inequality is associated with the population prevalence of depression and, if so, the potential mechanisms and pathways which may explain this association. Our systematic review included 26 studies, mostly from high-income countries. Nearly two-thirds of all studies and five out of six longitudinal studies reported a statistically significant positive relationship between income inequality and risk of depression; only one study reported a statistically significant negative relationship...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345545/decisive-moment-a-metric-to-determine-success-in-elite-karate-bouts
#17
Montassar Tabben, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari, Ralph Beneke
PURPOSE: To evaluate the concept of Decisive-Moment (DM) as a novel analysis approach providing insights into factors leading to successful high-performance Kumite karate outcomes using time-motion variables. DM represents the moment from which one of the two opponents dominates uninterrupted the other until the end of the fight. METHODS: 120 elite seniors (60 males and 60 females) World Karate Federation combats were analysed during two World Championships (2012 and 2014)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341883/title-brain-region-specific-molecular-responses-to-maternal-separation-and-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#18
Benjamin D Sachs, Ha L Tran, Emily Folse, Marc G Caron
The association between stress and mental illness has been well documented, but the molecular consequences of repeated exposure to stress have not been completely identified. The present study sought to elucidate the combinatorial effects of early life maternal separation stress and adult social defeat stress on alterations in signal transduction and gene expression that have been previously implicated in susceptibility to psychosocial stress. Molecular analyses were performed in the prelimbic/infralimbic cortex, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, three brain regions that have been suggested to play critical roles in determining stress responses...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#19
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339486/cell-type-specific-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-neuroligin-2-in-depression-and-stress-susceptibility
#20
Mitra Heshmati, Hossein Aleyasin, Caroline Menard, Daniel J Christoffel, Meghan E Flanigan, Madeline L Pfau, Georgia E Hodes, Ashley E Lepack, Lucy K Bicks, Aki Takahashi, Ramesh Chandra, Gustavo Turecki, Mary Kay Lobo, Ian Maze, Sam A Golden, Scott J Russo
Behavioral coping strategies are critical for active resilience to stress and depression; here we describe a role for neuroligin-2 (NLGN-2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Neuroligins (NLGN) are a family of neuronal postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins that are constituents of the excitatory and inhibitory synapse. Importantly, NLGN-3 and NLGN-4 mutations are strongly implicated as candidates underlying the development of neuropsychiatric disorders with social disturbances such as autism, but the role of NLGN-2 in neuropsychiatric disease states is unclear...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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