keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Defeat

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224183/modelling-depression-in-animals-at-the-interface-of-reward-and-stress-pathways
#1
REVIEW
D A Slattery, J F Cryan
RATIONALE: Despite substantial research efforts the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains poorly understood, which is due in part to the heterogeneity of the disorder and the complexity of designing appropriate animal models. However, in the last few decades, a focus on the development of novel stress-based paradigms and a focus on using hedonic/anhedonic behaviour have led to renewed optimism in the use of animal models to assess aspects of MDD. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, in this review article, dedicated to Athina Markou, we summarise the use of stress-based animal models for studying MDD in rodents and how reward-related readouts can be used to validate/assess the model and/or treatment...
February 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219813/an-adverse-early-life-environment-can-enhance-stress-resilience-in-adulthood
#2
Sara Santarelli, Christoph Zimmermann, Georgia Kalideris, Sylvie L Lesuis, Janine Arloth, Andrés Uribe, Carine Dournes, Georgia Balsevich, Jakob Hartmann, Mercè Masana, Elisabeth B Binder, Dietmar Spengler, Mathias V Schmidt
Chronic stress is a major risk factor for depression. Interestingly, not all individuals develop psychopathology after chronic stress exposure. In contrast to the prevailing view that stress effects are cumulative and increase stress vulnerability throughout life, the match/mismatch hypothesis of psychiatric disorders. The match/mismatch hypothesis proposes that individuals who experience moderate levels of early life psychosocial stress can acquire resilience to renewed stress exposure later in life. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing the developmental effects of 2 opposite early life conditions, when followed by 2 opposite adult environments...
February 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219022/rationale-for-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-targeted-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Thaiz Rivera Vargas, Isis Benoit-Lizon, Lionel Apetoh
The efficacy of checkpoint inhibitor therapy illustrates that cancer immunotherapy, which aims to foster the host immune response against cancer to achieve durable anticancer responses, can be successfully implemented in a routine clinical practice. However, a substantial proportion of patients does not benefit from this treatment, underscoring the need to identify alternative strategies to defeat cancer. Despite the demonstration in the 1990's that the detection of danger signals, including the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, by dendritic cells (DCs) in a cancer setting is essential for eliciting host defence, the molecular sensors responsible for recognising these danger signals and eliciting anticancer immune responses remain incompletely characterised, possibly explaining the disappointing results obtained so far upon the clinical implementation of DC-based cancer vaccines...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218267/dislocation-mechanisms-and-3d-twin-architectures-generate-exceptional-strength-ductility-toughness-combination-in-crconi-medium-entropy-alloy
#4
Zijiao Zhang, Hongwei Sheng, Zhangjie Wang, Bernd Gludovatz, Ze Zhang, Easo P George, Qian Yu, Scott X Mao, Robert O Ritchie
Combinations of high strength and ductility are hard to attain in metals. Exceptions include materials exhibiting twinning-induced plasticity. To understand how the strength-ductility trade-off can be defeated, we apply in situ, and aberration-corrected scanning, transmission electron microscopy to examine deformation mechanisms in the medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi that exhibits one of the highest combinations of strength, ductility and toughness on record. Ab initio modelling suggests that it has negative stacking-fault energy at 0K and high propensity for twinning...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217649/effects-of-the-schema-therapy-and-mindfulness-on-the-maladaptive-schemas-hold-by-the-psoriasis-patients-with-the-psychopathology-symptoms
#5
Parvin Jamali Gojani, Mohsen Masjedi, Shahnaz Khaleghipour, Ehsan Behzadi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = 8)...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215390/osteopathic-management-of-chronic-constipation-in-women-patients-results-of-a-pilot-study
#6
Aurélie Belvaux, Michel Bouchoucha, Robert Benamouzig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Constipation is a common problem in western countries. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for the treatment of constipated women with functional constipation (FC) or defeation disorders (DD). METHODS: Twenty-one constipated females referred to a tertiary center were recruited. A course of OMT, weekly for four weeks, was given. Clinical questionnaire, Bristol stool form scale and patients' subjective perception of constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, were recorded...
February 15, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206674/effects-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-on-cardiac-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#7
Jan Naar, Deborah Jaye, Cecilia Linde, Petr Neužil, Petr Doškář, Filip Málek, Frieder Braunschweig, Lars H Lund, Lars Mortensen, Bengt Linderoth, Göran Lind, Dianna Bone, Arthur J Scholte, Fred Kueffer, Jodi Koehler, Kambiz Shahgaldi, Otto Lang, Marcus Ståhlberg
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) reduces sympathetic activity in animal models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF) but limited data exist of SCS in patients with HF. The aim of the present study was to test the primary hypothesis that SCS reduces cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in HF patients. Secondary hypotheses were that SCS improves left ventricular function and dimension, exercise capacity and clinical variables relevant to HF. METHODS: HF patients with a SCS device previously participating in the DEFEAT-HF trial were included in this crossover study with 6-week intervention periods (SCS-ON and SCS-OFF)...
February 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197343/chronic-social-defeat-stress-modulates-dendritic-spines-structural-plasticity-in-adult-mouse-frontal-association-cortex
#8
Yu Shu, Tonghui Xu
Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169427/financial-incentive-does-not-affect-p300-in-response-to-certain-episodic-and-semantic-probe-stimuli-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-concealed-information-test-cit-in-detection-of-malingering
#9
J Peter Rosenfeld, Elena Labkovsky, Elena Davydova, Anne Ward, Lauren Rosenfeld
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response of the autonomic nervous system in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor P300 tests based on the three-stimulus protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as CITs). The present report is the first attempt to study the effect of financial motivation on the P300-based Complex Trial Protocol using both episodic and semantic memory probe and irrelevant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167628/exposure-to-a-social-stressor-induces-translocation-of-commensal-lactobacilli-to-the-spleen-and-priming-of-the-innate-immune-system
#10
William P Lafuse, Rachel Gearinger, Sydney Fisher, Connor Nealer, Amy R Mackos, Michael T Bailey
Studies have shown that exposure to psychological stressors leads to inflammation throughout the body. This has been widely studied using social disruption (SDR), a social stressor that involves repeated social defeat in subordinate mice. Exposure to SDR increases serum cytokine levels, results in accumulation of spleen CD11b(+) myeloid cells, and primes macrophages for increased cytokine and microbicidal activity. Our previous studies showed that intestinal microbes are necessary for SDR-enhancement of innate immunity...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167256/turning-the-tide-against-tuberculosis
#11
Nesri Padayatchi, Naressa Naidu, Gerald Friedland, Kasavan Naidoo, Francesca Conradie, Kogieleum Naidoo, Max Roe O'Donnell
Despite affecting men, women, and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organization's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167137/deletion-of-rictor-in-catecholaminergic-neurons-alters-locomotor-activity-and-ingestive-behavior
#12
Sophia Kaska, Rebecca Brunk, Vedrana Bali, Megan Kechner, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
While the etiology of depression is not fully understood, increasing evidence from animal models suggests a role for the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in pathogenesis. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of VTA mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (TORC2) signaling in mediating susceptibility to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a well-established mouse model of depression. Utilizing genetic and viral knockout of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of target of rapamycin), a requisite component of TORC2, we demonstrate that decreasing Rictor-dependent TORC2 signaling in catecholaminergic neurons, or within the VTA specifically, does not alter susceptibility to CSDS...
February 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154566/histological-architecture-underlying-brain-immune-cell-cell-interactions-and-the-cerebral-response-to-systemic-inflammation
#13
Atsuyoshi Shimada, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152468/humor-styles-moderate-borderline-personality-traits-and-suicide-ideation
#14
Neil A Meyer, Ashley C Helle, Raymond P Tucker, Gregory J Lengel, Hilary L DeShong, LaRicka R Wingate, Stephanie N Mullins-Sweatt
The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles...
January 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150369/bidirectional-relationship-between-alcohol-intake-and-sensitivity-to-social-defeat-association-with-tacr1-and-avp-expression
#15
Britta S Nelson, Michelle K Sequeira, Jesse R Schank
While epidemiological studies show that alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with affective disorders, the causal direction of this association is unclear. We examined this relationship using mouse models including social defeat stress (SDS), social interaction (SI) and voluntary alcohol consumption. C57BL6/J mice exposed to SDS segregate into two subpopulations, those that express depressive-like phenotypes ('susceptible') and those that do not ('resilient'). First, we stratified SDS-exposed mice and measured their voluntary alcohol consumption...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149851/virus-vs-virus-adenovirus-vectored-vaccine-to-defeat-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#16
EDITORIAL
Alessandra Vitelli, Alfredo Nicosia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135596/will-demography-defeat-river-rehabilitation-efforts-the-case-of-the-river-jordan
#17
REVIEW
Alon Tal
In the age-old debate between technological optimists and pessimists, desalination has been hailed as a "game changer" that can fundamentally alter the dynamics of water management under conditions of scarcity. While water from desalination facilities can reduce uncertainties in municipal supply, they are unlikely to replace the missing flow required to rehabilitate rivers and streams. The Jordan River is an iconic, but highly degraded water body whose restoration has been the subject of extensive research as well as numerous proposals and strategies...
December 30, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132915/dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-the-increase-in-reinstatement-of-the-conditioned-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-induced-by-acute-social-defeat
#18
Reguilón Marina Daiana, Montagud-Romero Sandra, Ferrer-Pérez Carmen, Roger-Sánchez Concepción, Aguilar María Asunción, Miñarro José, Rodríguez-Arias Marta
Social stress modifies the activity of brain areas involved in the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, inducing neuroadaptations in the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and modifying the sensitivity of dopamine receptors. In the present study we evaluated the effect of the dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonists (SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively) on the short-time effects of acute social defeat (ASD). Male OF1 mice were socially defeated before each conditioning session of the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 1mg/kg or 25mg/kg of cocaine plus the corresponding dopamine antagonist...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131855/helicobacter-pylori-treatment-new-perspectives-using-current-experience
#19
REVIEW
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
Infection with Helicobacter pylori plays an essential role in the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers as well as in the pathobiology of gastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, successful elimination of the bacterium can reduce the risk of development of these diseases. Currently, most guidelines recommend standard triple therapy (amoxicillin+clarithromycin+proton pump inhibitor), although its efficacy is rapidly falling. Notably, traditional first-line therapy fails in almost 32% of H. pylori-carrying cases, suggesting the importance of choosing the best formulation for first-line therapy...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124046/using-titanium-complexes-to-defeat-cancer-the-view-from-the-shoulders-of-titans
#20
Melchior Cini, Tracey D Bradshaw, Simon Woodward
When the first titanium complex with anticancer activity was identified in the 1970s, it was attractive, based on the presence of the dichloride unit in TiCl2Cp2 (Cp = η-C5H5)2, to assume its mode of biological action was closely aligned with cisplatin [cis-PtCl2(NH3)2]. Over the intervening 40 years however a far more complicated picture has arisen indicating multiple cellular mechanisms of cellular action can be triggered by titanium anti-cancer agents. This tutorial review aims to unpick the historical data and provide new researchers, without an explicit cancer biology background, a contemporary interpretation of both older and newer literature and to review the best techniques for attaining the identities of the biologically active titanium species and how these interact with the cancer cellular machinery...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
keyword
keyword
78823
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"