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Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Solomon Umukoro, Hassanat Adeola Kalejaye, Benneth Ben-Azu, Abayomi M Ajayi
The effects of naringenin; a dietary flavonoid, with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on social defeat stress (SDS)-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical changes were evaluated in mice using resident-intruder paradigm. The intruder male mice were distributed into 6 groups (n = 6). Mice in group 1 (control) received vehicle (3% DMSO, i.p), group 2 (SDS-control) were also given vehicle, groups 3-5 received naringenin (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) while group 6 had ginseng (50 mg/kg, i...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Matthew A Weber, Eric T Graack, Jamie L Scholl, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster, Michael J Watt
Adult psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits reliant on prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine are promoted by teenage bullying. Similarly, male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to social defeat in mid-adolescence (P35-39) show impaired working memory in adulthood (P56-70), along with decreased medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine activity that results in part from increased dopamine transporter-mediated clearance. Here, we determined if dopamine synthesis and D2 autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine release in the adult mPFC are also enhanced by adolescent defeat to contribute to later dopamine hypofunction...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Keng-Yen Huang, Nancy Grote, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies present a great public health burden in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNFPA, Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy, 2013). The disenfranchisement from public institutions and services is further compounded by cultural stigma and gender inequality creating emotional, psychosocial, health, and educational problems in the lives of vulnerable pregnant adolescents (Int J Adolesc Med Health 15(4):321-9, 2003; BMC Public Health 8:83, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Darrell Eacret, Laura A Grafe, Jane Dobkin, Anthony L Gotter, John J Rengerb, Christopher J Winrow, Seema Bhatnagar
Orexins are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that influence arousal, feeding, reward pathways, and the response to stress. However, the role of orexins in repeated stress is not fully characterized. Here, we examined how orexins and their receptors contribute to the coping response during repeated social defeat and subsequent anxiety-like and memory-related behaviors. Specifically, we used Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to stimulate orexins prior to each of five consecutive days of social defeat stress in adult male rats...
June 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Christian de Pee
The Song Empire (960-1279 CE) had a larger population, a higher agricultural output, a more efficient infrastructure, and a more extensive monetary system than any previous empire in Chinese history. As local jurisdictions during the eleventh century became entangled in empire-wide economic relations and trans-regional commercial litigation, imperial officials sought to reduce the bewildering movement of people, goods, and money to an immanent cosmic pattern. They reasoned that because money and commerce brought to imperial subjects the goods they required to survive, money and commerce must be beneficent, and because they were beneficent, they must conform to the immanent pattern of the moral cosmos, as did everything else that was enduringly sustaining of life and wellbeing...
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Jörg Bormann, Cornelia Heinze, Christine Blum, Michael Mentges, Anke Brockmann, Arne Alder, Svenja Kim Landt, Brian Josephson, Daniela Indenbirken, Michael Spohn, Birte Plitzko, Sandra Loesgen, Michael Freitag, Wilhelm Schäfer
Infections of fungi by mycoviruses are often symptomless but sometimes also fatal as they perturb sporulation, growth, and, if applicable, virulence of the fungal host. Hypovirulence-inducing mycoviruses, therefore, represent a powerful mean to defeat fungal epidemics on crop plants. Infection with Fusarium graminearum virus China 9 (FgV-ch9), a dsRNA chrysovirus-like mycovirus, debilitates Fusarium graminearum , the causal agent of Fusarium Head Blight. In search for potential symptom alleviation or aggravation factors in F...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bo Gao, Wenjie Gao, Zizhao Wu, Taifeng Zhou, Xianjian Qiu, Xudong Wang, Chengjie Lian, Yan Peng, Anjing Liang, Jincheng Qiu, Yuanxin Zhu, Caixia Xu, Yibing Li, Peiqiang Su, Dongsheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a widespread arthritic disease and a primary cause of disability. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation has a pivotal part in its pathogenesis. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a primary mediator of local inflammatory processes in OA. Current therapies for OA mainly focus on the symptoms of the advanced stage of the disease. The possible utilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to regenerate cartilage is an appealing method, but in the case of OA requires chondrogenesis to take place within an inflamed environment...
June 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Gustavo Koíti Kondo, Carla Caroline Schramm, Max Rainer Rosado Novaes, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Jules Joseph Dejerine (1849-1917) became renowned for his many contributions to neurology, including his anatomical and anatomo-functional studies, particularly those in the field of language and the peripheral nervous system. A disciple of Vulpian and a rival of Charcot, Dejerine progressed rapidly in the academic world, reaching the peak of his career in 1911, when he was appointed to the chair of Nervous System Diseases at the Salpêtrière Hospital after defeating Pierre Marie (1853-1940), one of the most distinguished pupils of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)...
May 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Anthony L Berger, Angela M Henricks, Janelle M Lugo, Hayden R Wright, Collin R Warrick, Martin A Sticht, Maria Morena, Itziar Bonilla, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca M Craft, Loren H Parsons, Pedro R Grandes, Cecilia J Hillard, Matthew N Hill, Ryan J McLaughlin
BACKGROUND: The ability to effectively cope with stress is a critical determinant of disease susceptibility. The lateral habenula (LHb) and the endocannabinoid (ECB) system have independently been shown to be involved in the selection of stress coping strategies, yet the role of ECB signaling in the LHb remains unknown. METHODS: Using a battery of complementary techniques in rats, we examined the localization of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 Rs) and assessed the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of intra-LHb CB1 R manipulations...
May 8, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Michaela Binder, Leslie Quade
On the 21st -22nd of May1809 Napoleon Bonaparte saw his first major defeat on land at the Battle of Aspern, just north-east of Vienna. Of the 167,000 soldiers who fought for the French and Austrian armies, a total of 55,000 died on the battlefield. Salvage excavations prior to the construction of large urban development project (2008-2016) have revealed several burial sites related to the Battle of Aspern. The skeletal remains of 30 soldiers were excavated and underwent a detailed bioarchaeological study to elucidate both the impact of 19th-century military conditions on soldiers in life, as well as how they died on the battlefield...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Marco Oreste Finocchio Pagliusi Junior, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Elayne Vieira Dias, André Schwambach Vieira, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Carlos Amilcar Parada, Cesar Renato Sartori
Epidemiological studies have shown a close association between pain and depression. There is evidence showing this association since patients with depression show a high chronic pain prevalence and vice-versa. Considering that social stress is critical for the development of depression in humans, we used a social defeat stress (SDS) model which induces depressive-like behavior in mice. In this model, mice are exposed to an aggressor mouse for ten days, suffering brief periods of agonistic contact and long periods of sensory contact...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Monica Sathyanesan, Michael J Watt, Jacob M Haiar, Jamie L Scholl, Shaydel R Davies, Riley T Paulsen, Jayme Wiederin, Pawel Ciborowski, Samuel S Newton
Cognitive deficits are widespread in psychiatric disorders and frequently as debilitating as the affective component. Widely prescribed antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have limited efficacy in normalizing cognitive function. Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to improve cognitive function in schizophrenia and treatment resistant depressed patients. However, the potent elevation of red blood cell counts by Epo can cause hematological complications in non-anemic patients. We investigated a chemically engineered, posttranslational modification of Epo, carbamoylation, which renders it non-erythropoietic...
June 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Alexia V Williams, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Crystal V Armstrong, Stephanie Ramos-Maciel, Vanessa A Minie, Brian C Trainor
Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are considered to be a promising therapeutic target for stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Preclinical data show that KOR antagonists have greater efficacy if administered before stressful experiences as opposed to afterwards. However, almost all of these studies use long-acting antagonists, leaving it unclear whether inhibition of KOR after stress is required for efficacy. Here we show that administration of the short-acting KOR antagonist AZ-MTAB before episodes of social defeat stress block the induction of anhedonia (both males and females) and social avoidance responses (females) that persist two weeks after stress...
June 4, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Joram D Mul, Marion Soto, Michael E Cahill, Rebecca E Ryan, Hirokazu Takahashi, Kawai So, Jia Zheng, Denise E Croote, Michael F Hirshman, Susanne E la Fleur, Eric J Nestler, Laurie J Goodyear
Elucidating mechanisms by which physical exercise promotes resilience, the brain's ability to cope with prolonged stress exposure while maintaining normal psychological functioning, is a major research challenge given the high prevalence of stress-related mental disorders, including major depressive disorder. Chronic voluntary wheel running (VWR), a rodent model that mimics aspects of human physical exercise, induces the transcription factor ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward-related brain area...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jun Wang, Adelaida Esteban Fernández, Simoni Tiano, Jing Huang, Elizabeth Floyd, Alexander Poulev, David Ribnicky, Giulio M Pasinetti
Stress-induced peripheral inflammation contributes to depression-like behaviors in both human and experimental models. PMI 5011, a botanical extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., was previously shown to have multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory activity. In this work, using a repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) model of depression, we demonstrate that oral administration of the botanical extract PMI 5011 promotes resilience to RSDS-mediated depression-like phenotypes. We also show that the behavioral improvements are associated with attenuation of stress-mediated induction of inflammatory cytokines in the periphery and alteration of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shivani Verma, Ragumani Sugadev, Ashish Kumar, Sudhir Chandna, Lilly Ganju, Anju Bansal
Salmonella is one of the key global causes of food and water borne enteric infections, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in developing countries. Currently available vaccines against typhoid are moderately effective with several side effects and not efficacious against all Salmonella serovars. Due to limitations of these vaccines and emerging threats of multidrug resistance, developing an effective vaccine against these infections has increasingly become a priority. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), being evolutionarily conserved, represent dominant antigens in the host immune response...
May 31, 2018: Vaccine
Cortney A Turner, Vikram Sharma, Megan H Hagenauer, Sraboni Chaudhury, Angela M O'Connor, Elaine K Hebda-Bauer, Robert C Thompson, Richard M Myers, William E Bunney, Jack D Barchas, Francis S Lee, Alan F Schatzberg, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil
BACKGROUND: While downregulation of several growth factors in major depressive disorder is well established, less attention has been paid to the upregulation of other growth factors. Yet, upregulated growth factors may offer better therapeutic targets. We show that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) represents a target based on its upregulation in major depressive disorder and studies in animal models implicating it in negative affect. METHODS: CTGF gene expression was first evaluated in the postmortem human amygdala...
May 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
K Brad Wray
J. D. Trout has recently developed a new defense of scientific realism, a new version of the No Miracles Argument. I critically evaluate Trout's novel defense of realism. I argue that Trout's argument for scientific realism and the related explanation for the success of science are self-defeating. In the process of arguing against the traditional realist strategies for explaining the success of science, he inadvertently undermines his own argument.
June 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Qiong Wang, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Cognitive dysfunctions are highly comorbid with depression. Impairments of cognitive flexibility, which are modulated by the monoaminergic system of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are increasingly recognized as an important component of the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Using a classical model of depression, this study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on emotional behaviors, on cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task (AST), and on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1 and ERK2) and their downstream signaling molecules cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in two subregions of the PFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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