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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917387/affective-reactivity-to-cry-sounds-predicts-young-women-s-reactivity-and-behavior-in-a-simulated-caregiving-task
#1
Gwen E Gustafson, Jennifer B Bisson, Jillian M MacDonald, James A Green
Different populations of adults (experienced vs. inexperienced caregivers, men vs. women, abusive vs. nonabusive parents, etc.) have been reported to differ in their affective reactions to the sounds of infant crying. These differences are thought to impact caregiving behavior and, in some instances, to affect long-term outcomes for infants. There can be great intra-group variation, however, even when group differences are significant; modeling developmental process will require a finer grained approach. We have undertaken a pair of studies intended to validate the Negative Affect Scale (NA) from the PANAS as a measure of individuals' affective reactivity to cry sounds...
September 13, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#2
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#3
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#4
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768878/controllable-biomimetic-birdsong
#5
Aryesh Mukherjee, Shreyas Mandre, L Mahadevan
Birdsong is the product of the controlled generation of sound embodied in a neuromotor system. From a biophysical perspective, a natural question is that of the difficulty of producing birdsong. To address this, we built a biomimetic syrinx consisting of a stretched simple rubber tube through which air is blown, subject to localized mechanical squeezing with a linear actuator. A large static tension on the tube and small dynamic variations in the localized squeezing allow us to control transitions between three states: a quiescent state, a periodic state and a solitary wave state...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739940/song-hybridization-events-during-revolutionary-song-change-provide-insights-into-cultural-transmission-in-humpback-whales
#6
Ellen C Garland, Luke Rendell, Luca Lamoni, M Michael Poole, Michael J Noad
Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722748/evolution-and-plasticity-divergence-of-song-discrimination-is-faster-in-birds-with-innate-song-than-in-song-learners-in-neotropical-passerine-birds
#7
Benjamin G Freeman, Graham A Montgomery, Dolph Schluter
Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27)...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712792/seasonal-plasticity-of-song-behavior-relies-on-motor-and-syntactic-variability-induced-by-a-basal-ganglia-forebrain-circuit
#8
Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois
The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#9
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695216/from-perception-to-action-in-songbird-production-dynamics-of-a-whole-loop
#10
Ana Amador, Santiago Boari, Gabriel B Mindlin
Birdsong emerges when a set of highly interconnected brain areas manage to generate a complex output. This consists of precise respiratory rhythms as well as motor instructions to control the vocal organ configuration. In this way, during birdsong production, dedicated cortical areas interact with life-supporting ones in the brainstem, such as the respiratory nuclei. We discuss an integrative view of this interaction together with a widely accepted "top-down" representation of the song system. We also show that a description of this neural network in terms of dynamical systems allows to explore songbird production and processing by generating testable predictions...
June 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#11
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594373/an-fpga-based-wasn-for-remote-real-time-monitoring-of-endangered-species-a-case-study-on-the-birdsong-recognition-of-botaurus-stellaris
#12
Marcos Hervás, Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Francesc Alías, Martí Salvador
Fast environmental variations due to climate change can cause mass decline or even extinctions of species, having a dramatic impact on the future of biodiversity. During the last decade, different approaches have been proposed to track and monitor endangered species, generally based on costly semi-automatic systems that require human supervision adding limitations in coverage and time. However, the recent emergence of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed non-intrusive remote monitoring of endangered species in real time through the automatic identification of the sound they emit...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374674/rules-and-mechanisms-for-efficient-two-stage-learning-in-neural-circuits
#13
Tiberiu Teşileanu, Bence Ölveczky, Vijay Balasubramanian
Trial-and-error learning requires evaluating variable actions and reinforcing successful variants. In songbirds, vocal exploration is induced by LMAN, the output of a basal ganglia-related circuit that also contributes a corrective bias to the vocal output. This bias is gradually consolidated in RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using stochastic gradient descent, we derive how the activity in 'tutor' circuits (e.g., LMAN) should match plasticity mechanisms in 'student' circuits (e...
April 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353387/recent-developments-in-surgical-pathology-of-the-uterine-corpus
#14
REVIEW
Krisztina Z Hanley, George G Birdsong, Marina B Mosunjac
There have been several updates recently on the classification of uterine tumors. Endometrial carcinomas have traditionally been divided into 2 types, but some are difficult to classify and do not fit readily into either of the currently recognized categories. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network has recently defined 4 new categories of endometrial cancer on the basis of mutational spectra, copy number alteration, and microsatellite instability, which might provide independent prognostic information beyond established risk factors...
April 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331007/advantages-of-comparative-studies-in-songbirds-to-understand-the-neural-basis-of-sensorimotor-integration
#15
REVIEW
Karagh Murphy, Logan S James, Jon T Sakata, Jonathan F Prather
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors such as speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188699/maturation-dependent-control-of-vocal-temporal-plasticity-in-a-songbird
#16
Ryosuke O Tachibana, Miki Takahasi, Neal A Hessler, Kazuo Okanoya
Birdsong is a unique model to address learning mechanisms of the timing control of sequential behaviors, with characteristic temporal structures consisting of serial sequences of brief vocal elements (syllables) and silent intervals (gaps). Understanding the neural mechanisms for plasticity of such sequential behavior should be aided by characterization of its developmental changes. Here, we assessed the level of acute vocal plasticity between young and adult Bengalese finches, and also quantified developmental change in variability of temporal structure...
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159910/temperature-manipulation-in-songbird-brain-implicates-the-premotor-nucleus-hvc-in-birdsong-syntax
#17
Yisi S Zhang, Jason D Wittenbach, Dezhe Z Jin, Alexay A Kozhevnikov
Variable motor sequences of animals are often structured and can be described by probabilistic transition rules between action elements. Examples include the songs of many songbird species such as the Bengalese finch, which consist of stereotypical syllables sequenced according to probabilistic rules (song syntax). The neural mechanisms behind such rules are poorly understood. Here, we investigate where the song syntax is encoded in the brain of the Bengalese finch by rapidly and reversibly manipulating the temperature in the song production pathway...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144622/the-effects-of-pitch-shifts-on-delay-induced-changes-in-vocal-sequencing-in-a-songbird
#18
MacKenzie Wyatt, Emily A Berthiaume, Conor W Kelly, Samuel J Sober
Like human speech, vocal behavior in songbirds depends critically on auditory feedback. In both humans and songbirds, vocal skills are acquired by a process of imitation whereby current vocal production is compared to an acoustic target. Similarly, performance in adulthood relies strongly on auditory feedback, and online manipulations of auditory signals can dramatically alter acoustic production even after vocalizations have been well learned. Artificially delaying auditory feedback can disrupt both speech and birdsong, and internal delays in auditory feedback have been hypothesized as a cause of vocal dysfluency in persons who stutter...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141523/the-plausibility-of-a-string-quartet-performance-in-virtual-reality
#19
Ilias Bergstrom, Sergio Azevedo, Panos Papiotis, Nuno Saldanha, Mel Slater
We describe an experiment that explores the contribution of auditory and other features to the illusion of plausibility in a virtual environment that depicts the performance of a string quartet. 'Plausibility' refers to the component of presence that is the illusion that the perceived events in the virtual environment are really happening. The features studied were: Gaze (the musicians ignored the participant, the musicians sometimes looked towards and followed the participant's movements), Sound Spatialization (Mono, Stereo, Spatial), Auralization (no sound reflections, reflections corresponding to a room larger than the one perceived, reflections that exactly matched the virtual room), and Environment (no sound from outside of the room, birdsong and wind corresponding to the outside scene)...
January 27, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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