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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766379/relative-salience-of-syllable-structure-and-syllable-order-in-zebra-finch-song
#1
Shelby L Lawson, Adam R Fishbein, Nora H Prior, Gregory F Ball, Robert J Dooling
There is a rich history of behavioral and neurobiological research focused on the 'syntax' of birdsong as a model for human language and complex auditory perception. Zebra finches are one of the most widely studied songbird species in this area of investigation. As they produce song syllables in a fixed sequence, it is reasonable to assume that adult zebra finches are also sensitive to the order of syllables within their song; however, results from electrophysiological and behavioral studies provide somewhat mixed evidence on exactly how sensitive zebra finches are to syllable order as compared, say, to syllable structure...
May 15, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738586/retrospective-comparison-of-visual-outcomes-after-kamra-corneal-inlay-implantation-with-simultaneous-prk-or-lasik
#2
Majid Moshirfar, Andrew E Bean, Julio C Albarracin, Ronald L Rebenitsch, Ryan T Wallace, Orry C Birdsong
PURPOSE: To report a retrospective study of simultaneous LASIK versus photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with accompanying small-aperture cornea inlay implantation (KAMRA; AcuFocus, Inc., Irvine, CA) in treating presbyopia. METHODS: Simultaneous LASIK/inlay and simultaneous PRK/inlay was performed on 79 and 47 patients, respectively. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were safety, efficacy, predictability, and stability with primary emphasis on monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679614/the-regulation-of-birdsong-by-testosterone-multiple-time-scales-and-multiple-sites-of-action
#3
REVIEW
Beau A Alward, Charlotte A Cornil, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
Sex steroid hormones act during early development to shape the circuitry upon which these same hormones act in adulthood to control behavioral responses to various stimuli. The "organizational" vs. "activational" distinction was proposed to explain this temporal difference in hormone action. In both of these cases steroids were thought to act genomically over a time-scale of days to weeks. However, sex steroids can affect behavior over short (e.g., seconds or minutes) time-scales. Here, we discuss how testosterone controls birdsong via actions at different sites and over different time-scales, with an emphasis on this process in canaries (Serinus canaria)...
April 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661990/effect-of-traffic-noise-and-relaxations-sounds-on-pedestrian-walking-speed
#4
Marek Franěk, Lukáš Režný, Denis Šefara, Jiří Cabal
Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise) compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong) on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants ( N = 83) walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656066/the-clinical-course-of-patients-with-psa%C3%A2-100-ng-ml-insight-into-a-potential-population-for-targeted-psa-screening
#5
Andrew K Leung, Lee Hugar, Dattatraya Patil, Lisa Wong, Bradley Carthon, Kenneth Carney, George Birdsong, Kelvin A Moses, Viraj A Master
OBJECTIVE: To characterize men presenting to a tertiary care safety-net hospital with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ≥100 ng/mL and identify a potential population for targeted PSA screening. METHODS: Retrospective review of 100 randomly selected patients out of 204 total who presented to Grady Memorial Hospital from 2004-2011 with initial PSA≥100 ng/mL was performed. Demographics, disease characteristics, and survival status were obtained via the Tumor Registry and a combination of electronic medical records and older paper charts, with missing data from paper charts excluded on analyses...
April 12, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644238/mechanisms-of-optical-regression-following-corneal-laser-refractive-surgery-epithelial-and-stromal-responses
#6
REVIEW
Majid Moshirfar, Jordan D Desautels, Brian D Walker, Michael S Murri, Orry C Birdsong, Phillip C Hoopes
Laser vision correction is a safe and effective method of reducing spectacle dependence. Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK), Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK), and Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) can accurately correct myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Although these procedures are nearing optimization in terms of their ability to produce a desired refractive target, the long term cellular responses of the cornea to these procedures can cause patients to regress from the their ideal postoperative refraction...
2018: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602334/the-song-remains-the-same
#7
Richard Mooney
Deafness causes speech to deteriorate, but whether this deterioration reflects an active or passive process is unclear. Birdsong - a learned vocal behavior that resembles speech in its dependence on auditory feedback - also deteriorates following deafening. In their 2000 paper, Brainard and Doupe showed that, following deafening, birdsong deteriorates through an active process mediated by a cortex-basal ganglia (BG) circuit.
April 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593590/plasticity-variability-and-age-in-second-language-acquisition-and-bilingualism
#8
REVIEW
David Birdsong
Much of what is known about the outcome of second language acquisition and bilingualism can be summarized in terms of inter-individual variability, plasticity and age. The present review looks at variability and plasticity with respect to their underlying sources, and at age as a modulating factor in variability and plasticity. In this context we consider critical period effects vs. bilingualism effects, early and late bilingualism, nativelike and non-nativelike L2 attainment, cognitive aging, individual differences in learning, and linguistic dominance in bilingualism...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570792/genomics-studies-on-musical-aptitude-music-perception-and-practice
#9
REVIEW
Irma Järvelä
When searching for genetic markers inherited together with musical aptitude, genes affecting inner ear development and brain function were identified. The alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA), located in the most significant linkage region of musical aptitude, was overexpressed when listening and performing music. The GATA-binding protein 2 gene (GATA2) was located in the best associated region of musical aptitude and regulates SNCA in dopaminergic neurons, thus linking DNA- and RNA-based studies of music-related traits together...
March 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551492/a-basal-ganglia-circuit-sufficient-to-guide-birdsong-learning
#10
Lei Xiao, Gaurav Chattree, Francisco Garcia Oscos, Mou Cao, Matthew J Wanat, Todd F Roberts
Learning vocal behaviors, like speech and birdsong, is thought to rely on continued performance evaluation. Whether candidate performance evaluation circuits in the brain are sufficient to guide vocal learning is not known. Here, we test the sufficiency of VTA projections to the vocal basal ganglia in singing zebra finches, a songbird species that learns to produce a complex and stereotyped multi-syllabic courtship song during development. We optogenetically manipulate VTA axon terminals in singing birds contingent on how the pitch of an individual song syllable is naturally performed...
March 14, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545558/multifractal-analysis-reveals-music-like-dynamic-structure-in-songbird-rhythms
#11
Tina C Roeske, Damian Kelty-Stephen, Sebastian Wallot
Music is thought to engage its listeners by driving feelings of surprise, tension, and relief through a dynamic mixture of predictable and unpredictable patterns, a property summarized here as "expressiveness". Birdsong shares with music the goal to attract its listeners' attention and might use similar strategies to achieve this. We here tested a thrush nightingale's (Luscinia luscinia) rhythm, as represented by song amplitude envelope (containing information on note timing, duration, and intensity), for evidence of expressiveness...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540565/ability-to-modulate-birdsong-across-social-contexts-develops-without-imitative-social-learning
#12
Logan S James, Jennifer B Dai, Jon T Sakata
Many important behaviours are socially learned. For example, the acoustic structure of courtship songs in songbirds is learned by listening to and interacting with conspecifics during a sensitive period in development. Signallers modify the spectral and temporal structures of their vocalizations depending on the social context, but the degree to which this modulation requires imitative social learning remains unknown. We found that male zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) that were not exposed to context-dependent song modulations throughout development significantly modulated their song in ways that were typical of socially reared birds...
March 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536349/ultramarathon-induced-bilateral-corneal-edema-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
Majid Moshirfar, Yanning Ding, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Orry C Birdsong, Michael S Murri
Ultramarathon-associated corneal edema is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a patient who presented with bilateral corneal edema following an ultramarathon. The corneal edema resolved without sequelae 48 h later. The authors hypothesize that the additive effect of enhanced glycolysis, an increased lactate level in the aqueous humor, and oxidative stress alters the normal endothelial regulation of the cornea and leads to corneal edema.
March 13, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515888/early-development-of-vocal-interaction-rules-in-a-duetting-songbird
#14
Karla D Rivera-Cáceres, Esmeralda Quirós-Guerrero, Marcelo Araya-Salas, Christopher N Templeton, William A Searcy
Exchange of vocal signals is an important aspect of animal communication. Although birdsong is the premier model for understanding vocal development, the development of vocal interaction rules in birds and possible parallels to humans have been little studied. Many tropical songbirds engage in complex vocal interactions in the form of duets between mated pairs. In some species, duets show precise temporal coordination and follow rules (duet codes) governing which song type one bird uses to reply to each of the song types of its mate...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511187/flexibility-in-motor-timing-constrains-the-topology-and-dynamics-of-pattern-generator-circuits
#15
Cengiz Pehlevan, Farhan Ali, Bence P Ölveczky
Temporally precise movement patterns underlie many motor skills and innate actions, yet the flexibility with which the timing of such stereotyped behaviors can be modified is poorly understood. To probe this, we induce adaptive changes to the temporal structure of birdsong. We find that the duration of specific song segments can be modified without affecting the timing in other parts of the song. We derive formal prescriptions for how neural networks can implement such flexible motor timing. We find that randomly connected recurrent networks, a common approximation for how neocortex is wired, do not generally conform to these, though certain implementations can approximate them...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502615/small-aperture-corneal-inlay-repositioning
#16
Phillip C Hoopes, Brian D Walker, Orry C Birdsong, Majid Moshirfar
We describe a technique used to recenter a small-aperture corneal inlay (Kamra). Repositioning the inlay is performed to achieve the best presbyopic correction while maintaining distance visual acuity.
January 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441716/behavioural-mating-displays-depend-on-mitochondrial-function-a-potential-mechanism-for-linking-behaviour-to-individual-condition
#17
Rebecca E Koch, Geoffrey E Hill
Males of many animal species court females using complex behavioural displays that are challenging to produce, and some of these displays have been shown to be associated with aspects of male quality. However, the mechanisms by which behavioural displays are linked to individual condition remain uncertain. Herein, we illustrate fundamental mechanistic connections between mitochondrial function and neurogenesis, energy production, and a variety of pathways that underlie the ability of an individual to perform complex behaviours...
February 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441527/global-macroevolution-and-macroecology-of-passerine-song
#18
William D Pearse, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Logan S James, Maxwell Farrell, Frédéric Boivin, T Jonathan Davies
Studying the macroevolution of the songs of Passeriformes (perching birds) has proved challenging. The complexity of the task stems not just from the macroevolutionary and macroecological challenge of modeling so many species, but also from the difficulty in collecting and quantifying birdsong itself. Using machine learning techniques, we extracted songs from a large citizen science dataset, and then analyzed the evolution, and biotic and abiotic predictors of variation in birdsong across 578 passerine species...
April 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247695/neural-activity-associated-with-rhythmicity-of-song-in-juvenile-male-and-female-zebra-finches
#19
Jennifer Lampen, J Devin McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
Rhythm is an important aspect of both human speech and birdsong. Adult zebra finches show increased neural activity following exposure to arrhythmic compared to rhythmic song in regions similar to the mammalian auditory association cortex and amygdala. This pattern may indicate that birds are detecting errors in the arrhythmic song relative to their learned song template or to more general expectations of song structure. Here we exposed juvenile zebra finches to natural conspecific song (rhythmic) or song with altered inter-syllable intervals (arrhythmic) prior to or during template formation, or afterward as males are matching vocal production to a memorized song template (sensorimotor integration)...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229942/a-neuronal-signature-of-accurate-imitative-learning-in-wild-caught-songbirds-swamp-sparrows-melospiza-georgiana
#20
Dana L Moseley, Narendra R Joshi, Jonathan F Prather, Jeffrey Podos, Luke Remage-Healey
In humans and other animals, behavioural variation in learning has been associated with variation in neural features like morphology and myelination. By contrast, it is essentially unknown whether cognitive performance scales with electrophysiological properties of individual neurons. Birdsong learning offers a rich system to investigate this topic as song acquisition is similar to human language learning. Here, we address the interface between behavioural learning and neurophysiology in a cohort of wild-caught, hand-reared songbirds (swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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