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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247695/neural-activity-associated-with-rhythmicity-of-song-in-juvenile-male-and-female-zebra-finches
#1
Jennifer Lampen, J Devin McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
Rhythm is an important aspect of both human speech and birdsong. Adult zebra finches show increased neural activity following exposure to arrhythmic compared to rhythmic song in regions similar to the mammalian auditory association cortex and amygdala. This pattern may indicate that birds are detecting errors in the arrhythmic song relative to their learned song template or to more general expectations of song structure. Here we exposed juvenile zebra finches to natural conspecific song (rhythmic) or song with altered inter-syllable intervals (arrhythmic) prior to or during template formation, or afterward as males are matching vocal production to a memorized song template (sensorimotor integration)...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229942/a-neuronal-signature-of-accurate-imitative-learning-in-wild-caught-songbirds-swamp-sparrows-melospiza-georgiana
#2
Dana L Moseley, Narendra R Joshi, Jonathan F Prather, Jeffrey Podos, Luke Remage-Healey
In humans and other animals, behavioural variation in learning has been associated with variation in neural features like morphology and myelination. By contrast, it is essentially unknown whether cognitive performance scales with electrophysiological properties of individual neurons. Birdsong learning offers a rich system to investigate this topic as song acquisition is similar to human language learning. Here, we address the interface between behavioural learning and neurophysiology in a cohort of wild-caught, hand-reared songbirds (swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana)...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216457/a-sing-song-way-of-vocalizing-generalization-and-specificity-in-language-and-birdsong
#3
Madza Farias-Virgens, Stephanie A White
Spoken languages such as German are extremely discrete, whereas others such as Portuguese are melodic or "sing-song" wherein identifying a word relies on what comes before and after. Perhaps surprisingly, birdsong also exhibits specificity and generalization as articulated by Tian and Brainard (2017).
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207266/animal-communication-origins-of-sequential-structure-in-birdsong
#4
Ofer Tchernichovski, Dina Lipkind
Culturally transmitted behaviors have an innate foundation, but the detailed sequential structure of such complex, acquired behaviors is often an outcome of historical accidents. New research has identified innate predispositions for structuring vocal sequences in culturally acquired birdsong.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174890/learning-biases-underlie-universals-in-avian-vocal-sequencing
#5
Logan S James, Jon T Sakata
Biological predispositions in vocal learning have been proposed to underlie commonalities in vocal sequences, including for speech and birdsong, but cultural propagation could also account for such commonalities [1-4]. Songbirds such as the zebra finch learn the sequencing of their acoustic elements ("syllables") during development [5-8]. Zebra finches are not constrained to learn a specific sequence of syllables, but significant consistencies in the positioning and sequencing of syllables have been observed between individuals within populations and between populations [8-10]...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170980/from-electromyographic-activity-to-frequency-modulation-in-zebra-finch-song
#6
Juan F Döppler, Alan Bush, Franz Goller, Gabriel B Mindlin
Behavior emerges from the interaction between the nervous system and peripheral devices. In the case of birdsong production, a delicate and fast control of several muscles is required to control the configuration of the syrinx (the avian vocal organ) and the respiratory system. In particular, the syringealis ventralis muscle is involved in the control of the tension of the vibrating labia and thus affects the frequency modulation of the sound. Nevertheless, the translation of the instructions (which are electrical in nature) into acoustical features is complex and involves nonlinear, dynamical processes...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162376/developmental-song-learning-as-a-model-to-understand-neural-mechanisms-that-limit-and-promote-the-ability-to-learn
#7
REVIEW
Sarah E London
Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning...
November 20, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122641/regularities-in-zebra-finch-song-beyond-the-repeated-motif
#8
Julia Hyland Bruno, Ofer Tchernichovski
The proliferation of birdsong research into the neural mechanisms of vocal learning is indebted to the remarkable stereotypy of the zebra finch's song motif. Motifs are composed of several copied syllables, which birds learn to produce in a fixed order. But at a higher level of organization-the bout-zebra finch song is no longer stereotyped. Song bouts include several repetitions of the motif, which are often linked by a variable number of short "connector" vocalizations. In this conceptual methods paper, we show that combinatorial analysis alone yields an incomplete description of this bout-level structure...
November 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118240/birdsong-signals-individual-diversity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex
#9
J W G Slade, M J Watson, E A MacDougall-Shackleton
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate immunity, and pathogen-mediated selection often favours certain allelic combinations. Assessing potential mates' MHC profiles may provide receivers with genetic benefits (identifying MHC-compatible mates and producing optimally diverse offspring) and/or material benefits (identifying optimally diverse mates capable of high parental investment). Oscine songbirds learn songs during early life, such that song repertoire content can reflect population of origin while song complexity can reflect early life condition...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055099/regulation-of-glycosaminoglycan-biogenesis-is-critical-for-sensitive-period-dependent-vocal-ontogeny
#10
Caitlin P Mencio, Vy My Tran, Maritza V Quintero, Mamoru Koketsu, Franz Goller, Balagurunathan Kuberan
In the brain, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a central role during neural development and thus modulates critical-period regulated behavioral ontogeny. The major components of the ECM are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, the specific roles of GAGs in behavioral development are largely unknown. It has been shown that xylosides affect the biological functions of GAGs through modulating GAG biosynthesis. Particularly, xylosides affect GAG biosynthesis through priming of GAG chains (priming activity), competing with endogenous core proteins that carry GAG initiation sites (decoy activity), or both...
December 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031813/song-practice-as-a-rewarding-form-of-play-in-songbirds
#11
REVIEW
Lauren V Riters, Jeremy A Spool, Devin P Merullo, Allison H Hahn
In adult songbirds, the primary functions of song are mate attraction and territory defense; yet, many songbirds sing at high rates as juveniles and outside these primary contexts as adults. Singing outside primary contexts is critical for song learning and maintenance, and ultimately necessary for breeding success. However, this type of singing (i.e., song "practice") occurs even in the absence of immediate or obvious extrinsic reinforcement; that is, it does not attract mates or repel competitors. Here we review studies that support the hypothesis that song practice is stimulated and maintained by intrinsic reward mechanisms (i...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979096/ectasia-following-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Majid Moshirfar, Julio C Albarracin, Jordan D Desautels, Orry C Birdsong, Steven H Linn, Phillip C Hoopes
PURPOSE: Four cases of corneal ectasia after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) have been reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the published literature on corneal ectasia after SMILE and risk factors associated with this complication. METHODS: Case reports were identified by a search of seven electronic databases for pertinent heading terms between 2011 and July 2017. We identified patient characteristics and surgical details including preoperative topography, central corneal thickness, and anterior keratometry (Km)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964148/nonlinear-dynamics-in-the-study-of-birdsong
#13
Gabriel B Mindlin
Birdsong, a rich and complex behavior, is a stellar model to understand a variety of biological problems, from motor control to learning. It also enables us to study how behavior emerges when a nervous system, a biomechanical device and the environment interact. In this review, I will show that many questions in the field can benefit from the approach of nonlinear dynamics, and how birdsong can inspire new directions for research in dynamics.
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961565/cataract-surgery-in-eyes-with-keratoconus-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#14
Majid Moshirfar, Brian D Walker, Orry C Birdsong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are an increasing number of keratoconic eyes, requiring cataract surgery. We review the preoperative planning, intraoperative options, and postoperative management that aid in successful outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of keratoconic eyes requiring cataract surgery requires a multifaceted approach. Preoperatively, corneal crosslinking and intrastromal corneal ring segments can be considered in order to provide stable keratometry values for intraocular lens (IOL) calculations...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917387/affective-reactivity-to-cry-sounds-predicts-young-women-s-reactivity-and-behavior-in-a-simulated-caregiving-task
#15
Gwen E Gustafson, Jennifer B Bisson, Jillian M MacDonald, James A Green
Different populations of adults (experienced vs. inexperienced caregivers, men vs. women, abusive vs. nonabusive parents, etc.) have been reported to differ in their affective reactions to the sounds of infant crying. These differences are thought to impact caregiving behavior and, in some instances, to affect long-term outcomes for infants. There can be great intra-group variation, however, even when group differences are significant; modeling developmental process will require a finer grained approach. We have undertaken a pair of studies intended to validate the Negative Affect Scale (NA) from the PANAS as a measure of individuals' affective reactivity to cry sounds...
September 13, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#16
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#17
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#18
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768878/controllable-biomimetic-birdsong
#19
Aryesh Mukherjee, Shreyas Mandre, L Mahadevan
Birdsong is the product of the controlled generation of sound embodied in a neuromotor system. From a biophysical perspective, a natural question is that of the difficulty of producing birdsong. To address this, we built a biomimetic syrinx consisting of a stretched simple rubber tube through which air is blown, subject to localized mechanical squeezing with a linear actuator. A large static tension on the tube and small dynamic variations in the localized squeezing allow us to control transitions between three states: a quiescent state, a periodic state and a solitary wave state...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739940/song-hybridization-events-during-revolutionary-song-change-provide-insights-into-cultural-transmission-in-humpback-whales
#20
Ellen C Garland, Luke Rendell, Luca Lamoni, M Michael Poole, Michael J Noad
Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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