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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122641/regularities-in-zebra-finch-song-beyond-the-repeated-motif
#1
Julia Hyland Bruno, Ofer Tchernichovski
The proliferation of birdsong research into the neural mechanisms of vocal learning is indebted to the remarkable stereotypy of the zebra finch's song motif. Motifs are composed of several copied syllables, which birds learn to produce in a fixed order. But at a higher level of organization-the bout-zebra finch song is no longer stereotyped. Song bouts include several repetitions of the motif, which are often linked by a variable number of short "connector" vocalizations. In this conceptual methods paper, we show that combinatorial analysis alone yields an incomplete description of this bout-level structure...
November 6, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118240/birdsong-signals-individual-diversity-at-the-major-histocompatibility-complex
#2
J W G Slade, M J Watson, E A MacDougall-Shackleton
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate immunity, and pathogen-mediated selection often favours certain allelic combinations. Assessing potential mates' MHC profiles may provide receivers with genetic benefits (identifying MHC-compatible mates and producing optimally diverse offspring) and/or material benefits (identifying optimally diverse mates capable of high parental investment). Oscine songbirds learn songs during early life, such that song repertoire content can reflect population of origin while song complexity can reflect early life condition...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055099/regulation-of-glycosaminoglycan-biogenesis-is-critical-for-sensitive-period-dependent-vocal-ontogeny
#3
Caitlin P Mencio, Vy My Tran, Maritza V Quintero, Mamoru Koketsu, Franz Goller, Balagurunathan Kuberan
In the brain, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a central role during neural development and thus modulates critical-period regulated behavioral ontogeny. The major components of the ECM are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, the specific roles of GAGs in behavioral development are largely unknown. It has been shown that xylosides affect the biological functions of GAGs through modulating GAG biosynthesis. Particularly, xylosides affect GAG biosynthesis through priming of GAG chains (priming activity), competing with endogenous core proteins that carry GAG initiation sites (decoy activity), or both...
December 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031813/song-practice-as-a-rewarding-form-of-play-in-songbirds
#4
REVIEW
Lauren V Riters, Jeremy A Spool, Devin P Merullo, Allison H Hahn
In adult songbirds, the primary functions of song are mate attraction and territory defense; yet, many songbirds sing at high rates as juveniles and outside these primary contexts as adults. Singing outside primary contexts is critical for song learning and maintenance, and ultimately necessary for breeding success. However, this type of singing (i.e., song "practice") occurs even in the absence of immediate or obvious extrinsic reinforcement; that is, it does not attract mates or repel competitors. Here we review studies that support the hypothesis that song practice is stimulated and maintained by intrinsic reward mechanisms (i...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979096/ectasia-following-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Majid Moshirfar, Julio C Albarracin, Jordan D Desautels, Orry C Birdsong, Steven H Linn, Phillip C Hoopes
PURPOSE: Four cases of corneal ectasia after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) have been reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the published literature on corneal ectasia after SMILE and risk factors associated with this complication. METHODS: Case reports were identified by a search of seven electronic databases for pertinent heading terms between 2011 and July 2017. We identified patient characteristics and surgical details including preoperative topography, central corneal thickness, and anterior keratometry (Km)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964148/nonlinear-dynamics-in-the-study-of-birdsong
#6
Gabriel B Mindlin
Birdsong, a rich and complex behavior, is a stellar model to understand a variety of biological problems, from motor control to learning. It also enables us to study how behavior emerges when a nervous system, a biomechanical device and the environment interact. In this review, I will show that many questions in the field can benefit from the approach of nonlinear dynamics, and how birdsong can inspire new directions for research in dynamics.
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961565/cataract-surgery-in-eyes-with-keratoconus-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#7
Majid Moshirfar, Brian D Walker, Orry C Birdsong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are an increasing number of keratoconic eyes, requiring cataract surgery. We review the preoperative planning, intraoperative options, and postoperative management that aid in successful outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Management of keratoconic eyes requiring cataract surgery requires a multifaceted approach. Preoperatively, corneal crosslinking and intrastromal corneal ring segments can be considered in order to provide stable keratometry values for intraocular lens (IOL) calculations...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917387/affective-reactivity-to-cry-sounds-predicts-young-women-s-reactivity-and-behavior-in-a-simulated-caregiving-task
#8
Gwen E Gustafson, Jennifer B Bisson, Jillian M MacDonald, James A Green
Different populations of adults (experienced vs. inexperienced caregivers, men vs. women, abusive vs. nonabusive parents, etc.) have been reported to differ in their affective reactions to the sounds of infant crying. These differences are thought to impact caregiving behavior and, in some instances, to affect long-term outcomes for infants. There can be great intra-group variation, however, even when group differences are significant; modeling developmental process will require a finer grained approach. We have undertaken a pair of studies intended to validate the Negative Affect Scale (NA) from the PANAS as a measure of individuals' affective reactivity to cry sounds...
September 13, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#9
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829769/temperature-manipulation-of-neuronal-dynamics-in-a-forebrain-motor-control-nucleus
#10
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821656/dissociable-effects-on-birdsong-of-androgen-signaling-in-cortex-like-brain-regions-of-canaries
#11
Beau A Alward, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
The neural basis of how learned vocalizations change during development and in adulthood represents a major challenge facing cognitive neuroscience. This plasticity in the degree to which learned vocalizations can change in both humans and songbirds is linked to the actions of sex steroid hormones during ontogeny but also in adulthood in the context of seasonal changes in birdsong. We investigated the role of steroid hormone signaling in the brain on distinct features of birdsong using adult male canaries (Serinus canaria), which show extensive seasonal vocal plasticity as adults...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768878/controllable-biomimetic-birdsong
#12
Aryesh Mukherjee, Shreyas Mandre, L Mahadevan
Birdsong is the product of the controlled generation of sound embodied in a neuromotor system. From a biophysical perspective, a natural question is that of the difficulty of producing birdsong. To address this, we built a biomimetic syrinx consisting of a stretched simple rubber tube through which air is blown, subject to localized mechanical squeezing with a linear actuator. A large static tension on the tube and small dynamic variations in the localized squeezing allow us to control transitions between three states: a quiescent state, a periodic state and a solitary wave state...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739940/song-hybridization-events-during-revolutionary-song-change-provide-insights-into-cultural-transmission-in-humpback-whales
#13
Ellen C Garland, Luke Rendell, Luca Lamoni, M Michael Poole, Michael J Noad
Cultural processes occur in a wide variety of animal taxa, from insects to cetaceans. The songs of humpback whales are one of the most striking examples of the transmission of a cultural trait and social learning in any nonhuman animal. To understand how songs are learned, we investigate rare cases of song hybridization, where parts of an existing song are spliced with a new one, likely before an individual totally adopts the new song. Song unit sequences were extracted from over 9,300 phrases recorded during two song revolutions across the South Pacific Ocean, allowing fine-scale analysis of composition and sequencing...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722748/evolution-and-plasticity-divergence-of-song-discrimination-is-faster-in-birds-with-innate-song-than-in-song-learners-in-neotropical-passerine-birds
#14
Benjamin G Freeman, Graham A Montgomery, Dolph Schluter
Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27)...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712792/seasonal-plasticity-of-song-behavior-relies-on-motor-and-syntactic-variability-induced-by-a-basal-ganglia-forebrain-circuit
#15
Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois
The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712469/subcortical-contributions-to-motor-speech-phylogenetic-developmental-clinical
#16
REVIEW
W Ziegler, H Ackermann
Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech...
August 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695216/from-perception-to-action-in-songbird-production-dynamics-of-a-whole-loop
#17
Ana Amador, Santiago Boari, Gabriel B Mindlin
Birdsong emerges when a set of highly interconnected brain areas manage to generate a complex output. This consists of precise respiratory rhythms as well as motor instructions to control the vocal organ configuration. In this way, during birdsong production, dedicated cortical areas interact with life-supporting ones in the brainstem, such as the respiratory nuclei. We discuss an integrative view of this interaction together with a widely accepted "top-down" representation of the song system. We also show that a description of this neural network in terms of dynamical systems allows to explore songbird production and processing by generating testable predictions...
June 2017: Current opinion in systems biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#18
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594373/an-fpga-based-wasn-for-remote-real-time-monitoring-of-endangered-species-a-case-study-on-the-birdsong-recognition-of-botaurus-stellaris
#19
Marcos Hervás, Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès, Francesc Alías, Martí Salvador
Fast environmental variations due to climate change can cause mass decline or even extinctions of species, having a dramatic impact on the future of biodiversity. During the last decade, different approaches have been proposed to track and monitor endangered species, generally based on costly semi-automatic systems that require human supervision adding limitations in coverage and time. However, the recent emergence of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed non-intrusive remote monitoring of endangered species in real time through the automatic identification of the sound they emit...
June 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374674/rules-and-mechanisms-for-efficient-two-stage-learning-in-neural-circuits
#20
Tiberiu Teşileanu, Bence Ölveczky, Vijay Balasubramanian
Trial-and-error learning requires evaluating variable actions and reinforcing successful variants. In songbirds, vocal exploration is induced by LMAN, the output of a basal ganglia-related circuit that also contributes a corrective bias to the vocal output. This bias is gradually consolidated in RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using stochastic gradient descent, we derive how the activity in 'tutor' circuits (e.g., LMAN) should match plasticity mechanisms in 'student' circuits (e...
April 4, 2017: ELife
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