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Stream cells

Morten Møller, Johannes R Busch, Christina Jacobsen, Sissel B Lundemose, Niels Lynnerup, Martin F Rath, Jytte Banner
The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen for cryostat sectioning. Paraffin sections were either stained with Luxol Fast blue or immunoreacted for neurophysin I or neurophysin II, the precursor molecule for oxytocin and vasopressin. Further, 50-μm-thick serial cryostat sections were immunoreacted with the same antibodies...
March 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Oscar H L Bing
Ammonia plays a central role in the life and death of all living organisms and has been studied for over one hundred years. Ammonia is necessary for growth and development but it is toxic in excess and, as a result, differing methods of ammonia neutralization have evolved. Following physiological and pathological stress to the heart, tissue ammonia levels rise. Local ammonia neutralization may be inadequate and excess ammonia may exert its toxic effects. Phenylbutyrate (PBA), which is FDA approved for the treatment of elevated blood ammonia in urea cycle disorders, provides an accessory pathway for ammonia clearance...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sarva Mangala Praveena, Seoh Wei Teh, Ranjith Kumar Rajendran, Narayanan Kannan, Chu-Ching Lin, Rozaini Abdullah, Suresh Kumar
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A A Gordeev, A B Chetverin
Cell screening or, in other words, identification of cells with certain properties is now increasingly used in scientific and medical research, e.g., in diagnostics, drug testing, and production of cell clones with desired characteristics. In this review, we discuss existing methods of cell screening and their classification according to the cell presentation format. We describe the principles of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional formats and compare the main advantages and drawbacks of these formats. The first part describes the methods based on the 2D-format of cell presentation, when cells are immobilized in the same plane by various techniques...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Namita Shrestha, Aditi David, Neha Basotra, Glenn R Johnson, Bhupinder S Chadha, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Rajesh K Sani
Residual solid and liquid streams from the one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process were treated with two separate biochemical routes for renewable energy transformation. The solid residual stream was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), which produced 95 ± 7 L methane kg-1 volatile solid with an overall energy efficiency of 12.9 ± 1.7%. A methanotroph, Methyloferula sp., was deployed for oxidation of mixed TAD biogas into methanol. The residual liquid stream from CRUDE process was used in a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to produce electricity...
March 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Petr Chytil, Milada Sirova, Júlia Kudláčová, Blanka Rihova, Karel Ulbrich, Tomáš Etrych
Herein, the biodegradable micelle-forming amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer conjugates with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) designed for enhanced tumor accumulation were investigated, and the influence of their stability in the blood stream on biodistribution, namely, tumor uptake, and in vivo antitumor efficacy were evaluated in detail. Dox was attached to the polymer carrier by a hydrazone bond enabling pH-controlled drug release. While the polymer-drug conjugates were stable in a buffer at pH 7...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
H Rahmati-Holasoo, M Soltani, M Masoudifard, S Shokrpoor, A Taheri Mirghaed, M Ahmadpoor
Abdominal distention occurred at an incidence of 1% (15 from 1500 fish) in the population of 1-year-old bester (Huso huso × Acipenser ruthenus). Computed tomography (CT) images and radiographs showed a soft tissue mass compressed the posterior part of the swim bladder. Ultrasonography showed that the masses had different patterns. Internal examination revealed the abdominal cavities to be filled with large masses which appeared to encompass most of the visceral organs, including the swim bladder. The masses originated from the posterior kidney...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Jairo Perez-Sanz, Kyle K Payne, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J Allegrezza, Ricardo A Chaurio, Carmen Anadon, Joseph Calmette, Subir Biswas, Jessica A Mine, Tara Lee Costich, Logan Nickels, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Melanie R Rutkowski, Jose R Conejo-Garcia
Due to their cytotoxic activities, many anticancer drugs cause extensive damage to the intestinal mucosa and have antibiotic activities. Here, we show that cisplatin induces significant changes in the repertoire of intestinal commensal bacteria that exacerbate mucosal damage. Restoration of the microbiota through fecal-pellet gavage drives healing of cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. Bacterial translocation to the blood stream is correspondingly abrogated, resulting in a significant reduction in systemic inflammation, as evidenced by decreased serum IL-6 and reduced mobilization of granulocytes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Aynur Abdulla, Wenjia Liu, Azarmidokht Gholamipour-Shirazi, Jiahui Sun, Xianting Ding
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells that detach from primary or metastasis tumor and flow into the blood stream. Intact and viable tumor cells are needed for genetic characterization of CTCs, new drug development, and other research. Although separation of CTCs using spiral channel with two outlets has been reported, few literatures demonstrated simultaneous isolation of different types of CTCs from human blood using cascaded inertial focusing microfluidic channel. Herein, we introduce a cascaded microfluidic device consisting of two spiral channels and one zigzag channel designed with different fluid fields, including lift force, Dean drag force, and centrifugal force...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Srijana Mukhia, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824 bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027 bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings...
March 9, 2018: Genomics
Iglika G Ivanova, Catherine V Park, Adrian I Yemm, Niall S Kenneth
HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1α) is the central regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen and its activity is deregulated in multiple human pathologies. Consequently, given the importance of HIF signaling in disease, there is considerable interest in developing strategies to modulate HIF1α activity and down-stream signaling events. In the present study we find that under hypoxic conditions, activation of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can suppress the levels and activity of HIF1α by preventing efficient HIF1α translation...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
A Raček, K Beňová, P Arnoul, M Závodská, A Angelidis, V Cigánková, V Šimaiová, E Račeková
Processes of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by environmental factors. Here, we investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MWR) on proliferation and cell dying in the rat rostral migratory stream (RMS) - a migration route for the neuroblasts of the subventricular zone. Adult and juvenile (two weeks old) rats were exposed to a pulsed-wave MWR at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 3 h daily during 3 weeks. Adult rats were divided into two groups: without survival and with two weeks survival after irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Christof Litschko, Julia Damiano-Guercio, Stefan Brühmann, Jan Faix
Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be an excellent model to study amoeboid cell migration. During their life cycle, Dictyostelium cells exhibit distinct modes of motility. Individual growth-phase cells explore new territories by random cell migration using the core cell motility machinery, but they can also hunt bacteria by detection and chemotaxis toward the by-product folate. After depletion of nutrients, the cells initiate a developmental program allowing streaming of the cells into aggregation centers by chemotaxis toward cAMP and by cell-to-cell adhesion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Michelle Giltrap, Peng Lu, P J Cullen, Paula Bourke
Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cássio Resende de Morais, Ana Maria Bonetti, Alexandre Aparecido Mota, Carlos Fernando Campos, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Maria Paula Carvalho Naves, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Luiz Alfredo Pavanin, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Mário Antônio Spanó, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Physico-chemical and toxicological analyses are of fundamental importance to determine water quality. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of samples from the Mumbuca Stream and the Perdizes River, through both SMART and the wts test, respectively, in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster and to quantify the amount of heavy metals and other pollutants, which are indicative of environmental quality. Water samples were collected (M1, M2, P1, P2 and MP) and submitted to physico-chemical analysis, calculating the water quality index for each sampling site...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Martin Loynaz Prieto, Kamyar Firouzi, Butrus T Khuri-Yakub, Merritt Maduke
Ultrasound (US) can modulate the electrical activity of the excitable tissues, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not understood at the molecular level or in terms of the physical modality through which US exerts its effects. Here, we report an experimental system that allows for stable patch-clamp recording in the presence of US at 43 MHz, a frequency known to stimulate neural activity. We describe the effects of US on two ion channels proposed to be involved in the response of excitable cells to US: the mechanosensitive Piezo1 channel and the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1...
March 7, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Sharon Buring Stuard, Tuula Heinonen
Structure activity relationship (SAR)-based read-across is an effective approach for addressing data gaps in human health risk assessment for 'data-poor' chemicals. In read-across, available data on chemical structural analogues are used to predict the toxicity potential of the data-poor chemical. This approach has long been recognized by regulatory agencies and used by industry to evaluate the hazards of chemicals for which there are limited direct data. Construction of a scientifically robust SAR-based read-across hazard assessment is a complex and iterative process involving multiple considerations in each step...
March 10, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
C Campos-Silva, M K Kramer, M Valés-Gómez
NKG2D is a key receptor for the activation of immune effector cells, mainly Natural Killer cells and T lymphocytes, in infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Since the detection of ligands for NKG2D in sera of cancer patients is, in many human models, indicative of prognosis, a large number of studies have been undertaken to improve understanding of the biology regulating this receptor and its ligands, with the aim of translating this knowledge into clinical practice. Although it is becoming clear that the NKG2D system can be used as a tool for diagnosis and manipulated for therapy, some questions remain open due to the complexity associated with the existence of a large number of ligands, each one of them displaying distinct biological properties...
March 9, 2018: HLA
Christine C Helms, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
Erythrocytes regulate vascular function through the modulation of oxygen delivery and the scavenging and generation of nitric oxide (NO). First, hemoglobin inside the red blood cell binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues throughout the body in an allosterically regulated process, modulated by oxygen, carbon dioxide and proton concentrations. The vasculature responds to low oxygen tensions through vasodilation, further recruiting blood flow and oxygen carrying erythrocytes. Research has shown multiple mechanisms are at play in this classical hypoxic vasodilatory response, with a potential role of red cell derived vasodilatory molecules, such as nitrite derived nitric oxide and red blood cell ATP, considered in the last 20 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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