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Stream cells

Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jim Junhui Huang, Gagarin Bunjamin, Edwin Sianguan Teo, Deric Boonhuat Ng, Yuan Kun Lee
BACKGROUND: The design of photobioreactor (PBR) for outdoor mass cultivation of microalgae determines the distribution of solar irradiance among cells in the culture, mode of agitation, mass transfer efficacy, and energy consumption, thus determines the productivity of the system and the cost of production. In this study, the concept of a floating photobioreactor with rotation function is proposed. Dunaliella tertiolecta, a model microalga, cultured in the attached vessels was evaluated...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hui Huang, Wei Wang, Jiaqi Zou, Osamu Nakajima, Lei Zhang, Qi He, Yan Diao, Huan Liang, Lingyun Zhou, Yahui Peng
Protoporphyrin Ⅸ has been used as an efficient sensitizer in photodynamic diagnose, photodynamic therapy, and sonodynamic therapy. The level of protoporphyrin Ⅸ is very important for diagnose or therapy effects. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) is the key enzyme upstream of protoporphyrin Ⅸ synthesis. To increase protoporphyrin Ⅸ accumulation, ALAS2 over-expression transgenic mice were generated. Plasmid containing alas2 gene was transfected in colonic carcinoma cell lines. Both in tissues of transgenic mice and in colonic carcinoma cells, the amount of protoporphyrin Ⅸ accumulation did increase...
October 21, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Melanie E M Stamp, Anna M Jötten, Patrick W Kudella, Dominik Breyer, Florian G Strobl, Thomas M Geislinger, Achim Wixforth, Christoph Westerhausen
Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this study, we systematically investigate cell adhesion under static, dynamic and physiologically relevant conditions employing a lab-on-a-chip system. We screen adhesion of the bone osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 on a titanium implant material for pH and temperature values in the physiological range and beyond, to explore the limits of cell adhesion, e...
October 21, 2016: Diagnostics
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Ki Mo Kim, Deok Rim Heo, Young-A Kim, Jun Lee, No Soo Kim, Ok-Sun Bang
Coniferaldehyde (CA) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To define the regulation mechanism by which CA induces a cytoprotective function and HO-1 expression, the up-stream regulations involved in the activation of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2/HO-1 pathway were investigated. CA dramatically increased the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and cell death were down-regulated by CA, which were reversed by inhibition of HO-1 activity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M Li, H E Muñoz, A Schmidt, B Guo, C Lei, K Goda, D Di Carlo
Euglena gracilis (E. gracilis) has recently been attracting attention as a potential renewable source for the production of biofuels, livestock feed, cosmetics, and dietary supplements. Research has focused on strain isolation, productivity improvement, nutrient and resource allocation, and co-product production, key steps that ultimately determine the economic viability and compatibility of the biomass produced. To achieve these characteristics, approaches to select E. gracilis mutants with desirable properties, such as high wax ester content, high growth rate, and high environmental tolerance for biodiesel and biomass production, are needed...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
David Jarrard, Badrinath Konety, Wei Huang, Tracy Downs, Jill Kolesar, Kyung Mann Kim, Tom Havighurst, Joel Slaton, Margaret G House, Howard L Parnes, Howard H Bailey
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism...
2016: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Kwong-Fai Wong, Angela M Liu, Wanjin Hong, Zhi Xu, John M Luk
The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Sebastian Rahn, Anna Schuck, Mustafa Kondakci, Rainer Haas, Nicole Neuhausen, Klaus Pfeffer, Birgit Henrich
Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Simona Ceccarelli, Heather P McDowell, Olga Mannarino, Francesco Marampon, Barry Pizer, Rajeev Shukla, Antonio Pizzuti, Cinzia Marchese, Anna Clerico, Carlo Dominici
Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
K Bilmin, T Kujawska, W Secomski, A Nowicki, P Grieb
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a promising technique based on the ability of certain substances, called sonosensitizers, to sensitize cancer cells to non-thermal effects of low-energy ultrasound waves, allowing their destruction. Sonosensitization is thought to induce cell death by direct physical effects such as cavitation and acoustical streaming as well as by complementary chemical reactions generating oxygen free radicals. One of the promising sonosensitizers is 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which upon selective uptake by cancer cells is metabolized and accumulated as protoporphyrin IX...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mohammad Ayoub Rigi Ladiz, Maryam Najafi, Dor Mohammad Kordi-Tamandani
The aberrant DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA Damage Response (DDR) signaling and cell cycle regulation may lead to the tumorigenesis. Our purpose here is to analyze the promoter methylation and mRNA expression levels of LATS1 and LATS2 (LATS1/2) genes in OSCC. Promoter methylation status of LATS1/2 genes was evaluated in 70 OSCC paraffin-embedded tissues and 70 normal oral samples, using Methylation Specific PCR (MSP). LATS1/2 mRNA expression profiles were also investigated in 14 OSCC patients and 14 normal samples, using real-time PCR...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Katrin Ochsenreither, Claudia Glück, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Christoph Syldatk
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 class (e.g., α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid) are essential for maintaining biofunctions in mammalians like humans. Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize these essential fatty acids, they must be taken up from different food sources. Classical sources for these fatty acids are porcine liver and fish oil. However, microbial lipids or single cell oils, produced by oleaginous microorganisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, are a promising source as well...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
David Hibbett, Kessy Abarenkov, Urmas Koljalg, Maarja Opik, Benli Chai, James R Cole, Qiong Wang, Pedro W Crous, Vincent A R G Robert, Thorunn Helgason, Josh Herr, Paul Kirk, Shiloh Lueschow, Kerry O'Donnell, Henrik Nilsson, Ryoko Oono, Conrad L Schoch, Christopher Smyth, Donny Walker, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, John W Taylor, David M Geiser
Fungal taxonomy and ecology have been revolutionized by the application of molecular methods and both have increasing connections to genomics and functional biology. However, data streams from traditional specimen- and culture-based systematics are not yet fully integrated with those from metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies, which limits understanding of the taxonomic diversity and metabolic properties of fungal communities. This article reviews current resources, needs, and opportunities for sequence-based classification and identification (SBCI) in fungi as well as related efforts in prokaryotes...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Kirti M Yenkie, WenZhao Wu, Ryan L Clark, Brian F Pfleger, Thatcher W Root, Christos T Maravelias
Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs...
October 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Bugra Ayan, Adem Ozcelik, Hunter Bachman, Shi-Yang Tang, Yuliang Xie, Mengxi Wu, Peng Li, Tony Jun Huang
On-chip microparticle and cell coating technologies enable a myriad of applications in chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Current microfluidic coating technologies often rely on magnetic labeling and concurrent deflection of particles across laminar streams of chemicals. Herein, we introduce an acoustofluidic approach for microparticle and cell coating by implementing tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves (taSSAWs) into microchannels with multiple inlets. The primary acoustic radiation force generated by the taSSAW field was exploited in order to migrate the particles across the microchannel through multiple laminar streams, which contained the buffer and coating chemicals...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
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