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Stream cells

Susan Liu-Chen, Brendan Connolly, Lei Cheng, Romesh R Subramanian, Zhaozhong Han
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is primarily caused by deficiency of ADAMTS13 within the blood stream due to either genetic defects or presence of inhibitory autoantibodies. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human ADAMTS13 protein (rhADAMTS13) is effective and safe in treatment of TTP. However, frequent dosing would be required due to the relatively short half-life of rhADAMTS13 in circulation as well as the presence of inhibitory autoantibodies that collectively result in the poor pharmacological profile of rhADAMTS13...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhao-Shan Liu, Zi-Yu Zhang, Hong Cai, Ming Zhao, Jie Mao, Jiang Dai, Tian Xia, Xue-Min Zhang, Tao Li
Background: As an important danger signal, the presence of DNA in cytoplasm triggers potent immune responses. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a recently characterized key sensor for cytoplasmic DNA. The engagement of cGAS with DNA leads to the synthesis of a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates the downstream adaptor protein STING to promote type I interferon production. Although cGAS has been shown to play a pivotal role in innate immunity, the exact regulation of cGAS activation is not fully understood...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Binh C Nguyen, Sung-A Kim, Seong-Min Won, Sang-Kyu Park, Yoshihiro Uto, Hiroshi Maruta
PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1) is the major oncogenic/ageing kinase, and its dysfunction extends the healthy lifespan of C. elegans by activating HSP16 gene. 15K is a highly cell-permeable 1,2,3-triazolyl ester of ketorolac that down-regulates both PAK1 and its down-stream COX-2 in R- and S-forms, respectively. 15K is 500-5,000 times more potent than ketorolac, an old pain-killer, inhibiting the growth of cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging 5-24 nM. Scores of natural and synthetic PAK1-blockers have been shown to extend the lifespan of small animals such as C...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Kazufumi Nakashima, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Tadaichi Kitamura, Hiroshi Yaegashi, Masayoshi Shimamura, Shohei Kawaguchi, Kouji Izumi, Yoshifumi Kadono, Atsushi Mizokami
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and identify risk factors for HPV detection in urine samples among heterosexual men attending urological clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spot urine samples including initial stream were collected from 845 participants, and the cell pellets were preserved into liquid-based cytological solution. After DNA extraction from each sample, HPV-DNA amplification and genotyping were performed using Luminex multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Simona Sušnik Bajec, Ida Djurdjevič, Béla Urbányi, Ákos Horváth
Interspecific transplantation of germ cells from the brown trout Salmo trutta m. fario and the European grayling Thymallus thymallus into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss recipients was carried out in order to improve current practices in conservation of genetic resources of endangered salmonid species in the Balkan Peninsula. Current conservation methods mainly include in situ efforts such as the maintenance of purebred individuals in isolated streams and restocking with purebred fingerlings; however, additional ex situ strategies such as surrogate production are needed...
May 13, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ravi Shanker Verma, Sunita Ahlawat, Abha Uppal
We report the use of an optical guiding arrangement generated in a microfluidic channel to produce a stream of single cells in a line for single-cell Raman spectroscopic analysis. The optical guiding arrangement consisted of dual-line optical tweezers, generated using a 1064 nm laser, aligned in the shape of a '' symbol. By controlling the laser power in the tweezers and the flow rate in the microfluidic channel, a single line flow of cells could be produced in the tail of the guiding arrangement, where the 514...
May 14, 2018: Analyst
Hai Gao, Nana Gong, Zebin Ma, Xiaobo Miao, Jinchun Chen, Yan Cao, Gong Zhang
Recently, lncRNA ZEB2-AS1 was identified as a lncRNA that promoted cancer progression. However, the biological function and the underlying mechanism of ZEB2-AS1 in pancreatic cancer had not been reported. In the current study, we revealed that the expression level of ZEB2-AS1 was elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tissues. ZEB2-AS1 inhibition decreased cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Mechanismly, ZEB2-AS1 exerted as a ceRNA and negatively regulated miR-204 expression. In addition, HMGB1 was identified as a down-stream target of miR-204...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
K Memon, Y Cheng, F Panhwar, Z R Chen, Z Haider, S Afridi, P Hu, G Zhao
  BACKGROUND: Osmotic shock upon the addition and removal of cryoprotectant agent (CPA) is a major source of cell damage during cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: Microfluidic device offers a new platform for CPA loading and unloading. The micro scale dimension makes possible to perform a detailed analysis and controllable removal of CPA with many advantages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A microfluidic device was developed for extracting dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) from the sample streamline...
January 2018: Cryo Letters
Shun Zhang, Lin-Hu Li, Hong-Mei Qiao, Xue Yang, Liang Chen, Xiao-Hui Luo
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the potential role of the basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription regulator MyoD in the regulation of of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Expression levels of MyoD was assessed in PCa tissues using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and in experimentally induced castration-resistant LNCaP/R cells using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Effect of MyoD knockdown on LNCaP/R cells progression was determined by assessing cell proliferation, apoptosis and colony formation rate...
May 3, 2018: Urology
Tao Luo, Lei Fan, Yixiao Zeng, Ya Liu, Shuxun Chen, Qiulin Tan, Raymond H W Lam, Dong Sun
Prefocusing of the cell mixture is necessary for achieving a high-efficiency and continuous dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation. However, prefocusing through sheath flow requires a complex and tedious peripheral system for multi-channel fluid control, hindering the integration of DEP separation systems with other microfluidic functionalities for comprehensive clinical and biological tasks. This paper presented a simplified sheathless cell separation approach that combines gravitational-sedimentation-based sheathless prefocusing and DEP separation methods...
May 4, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Tianyu Zhang, Jielin Xu, Siyuan Deng, Fengqi Zhou, Jin Li, Liwei Zhang, Lang Li, Qi-En Wang, Fuhai Li
Tumor recurrence occurs in more than 70% of ovarian cancer patients, and the majority eventually becomes refractory to treatments. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells (OCSCs) are believed to be responsible for the tumor relapse and drug resistance. Therefore, eliminating ovarian CSCs is important to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. However, there is a lack of effective drugs to eliminate OCSCs because the core signaling pathways regulating OCSCs remain unclear. Also it is often hard for biologists to identify a few testable targets and infer driver signaling pathways regulating CSCs from a large number of differentially expression genes in an unbiased manner...
2018: PloS One
Minakshi Saikia, Archana P Retnakumari, Shabna Anwar, Nikhil P Anto, Rashmi Mittal, Shabna Shah, Kavya S Pillai, Vinod S Balachandran, Vidya Peter, Reeba Thomas, Ruby John Anto
Cytarabine is a conventionally used chemotherapeutic agent for treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, chemoresistance, toxic side-effects and poor patient survival rates retard the efficacy of its performance. The current study deals with the chemosensitization of AML cells using heteronemin, a marine natural product towards cytarabine chemotherapy. Heteronemin could effectively sensitize HL-60 cells towards sub-toxic concentration of cytarabine resulting in synergistic toxicity as demonstrated by MTT assay and [3 H] thymidine incorporation studies, while being safe towards healthy blood cells...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Esther N Arwert, Allison S Harney, David Entenberg, Yarong Wang, Erik Sahai, Jeffrey W Pollard, John S Condeelis
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical for tumor metastasis. Two TAM subsets support cancer cell intravasation: migratory macrophages guide cancer cells toward blood vessels, where sessile perivascular macrophages assist their entry into the blood. However, little is known about the inter-relationship between these functionally distinct TAMs or their possible inter-conversion. We show that motile, streaming TAMs are newly arrived monocytes, recruited via CCR2 signaling, that then differentiate into the sessile perivascular macrophages...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
Sabrina Zechel, Diana Fernandez-Suarez, Carlos F Ibáñez
GFRα1, a receptor for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), is critical for the development of the main olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB) of Gfra1 knock-out mice shows significant reductions in the number of olfactory sensory neurons, mitral and tufted cells, as well as all major classes of OB GABAergic interneurons. However, the latter do not express significant levels of GFRα1, leaving the mechanism of action of GFRα1 in OB interneuron development unexplained. Here we report that GFRα1 is highly expressed in the precursor cells that give rise to all major classes of OB interneurons, but is downregulated as these neurons mature...
May 1, 2018: Biology Open
Hongshen Yi, Ming Liu, Peiyun Shi, Zhida Yang, Guanghui Zhu, Quanming Lu, Xuan Sun
A new medium-sized washer gun is developed for a plasma start-up in a fully axisymmetric mirror. The gun is positioned at the east end of the Keda Mirror with AXisymmetricity facility and operated in the pulsed mode with an arc discharging time of 1.2 ms and a typical arc current of 8.5 kA with 1.5 kV discharge voltage. To optimize the operation, a systematic scan of the neutral pressure, the arc voltage, the bias voltage on a mesh grid 6 cm in front of the gun and an end electrode located on the west end of mirror, and the mirror ratio was performed...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Matthias Beuting, Judith Richter, Bernhard Weigand, Thomas Dreier, Christof Schulz
Toluene laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been applied to image the mixing deficit on the molecular level in the transonic wake of two different blunt-body injectors in a compressible accelerated nozzle flow. A single-color excitation and two-color detection scheme is employed to measure the signal red-shift caused by the quenching effect of molecular oxygen on the fluorescence of toluene, which reduces and red-shifts the LIF signal if both substances interact on a molecular level. To this end, toluene is injected alternatingly with O2 -contaning and O2 -free carrier gas into the air main flow...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Sara Gonçalves, Maria Kahlert, Salomé F P Almeida, Etelvina Figueira
Freshwater ecosystems are under threatening anthropogenic pressures worldwide, namely by metals. Diatoms are used as water quality indicators, but the influence of micronutrients such as Zn and its impacts are poorly understood. Thus, our study aimed to elucidate the tolerance level, the cellular targets and the responses to counteract Zn toxicity of freshwater diatoms by exposing Tabellaria flocculosa, isolated from a Zn contaminated stream. Biochemical, physiological and metabolomic approaches were used. It was demonstrated that Zn is toxic to T...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Drew R Ekman, Kristen Keteles, Jon Beihoffer, Jenna E Cavallin, Kenneth Dahlin, John M Davis, Aaron Jastrow, James M Lazorchak, Marc A Mills, Mark Murphy, David Nguyen, Alan M Vajda, Daniel L Villeneuve, Dana L Winkelman, Timothy W Collette
Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This study was initiated to assess the ability of both targeted and untargeted biologically-based monitoring tools to discriminate impacts of two adjacent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on Colorado's South Platte River...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Krishna P Katuri, Shafeer Kalathil, Ala'a Ragab, Bin Bian, Manal F Alqahtani, Deepak Pant, Pascal E Saikaly
Dual-function electrocatalytic and macroporous hollow-fiber cathodes are recently proposed as promising advanced material for maximizing the conversion of waste streams such as wastewater and waste CO2 to valuable resources (e.g., clean freshwater, energy, value-added chemicals) in microbial electrochemical systems. The first part of this progress report reviews recent developments in this type of cathode architecture for the simultaneous recovery of clean freshwater and energy from wastewater. Critical insights are provided on suitable materials for fabricating these cathodes, as well as addressing some challenges in the fabrication process with proposed strategies to overcome them...
April 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
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