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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331544/vapor-fed-bio-hybrid-fuel-cell
#1
Marcus S Benyamin, Justin P Jahnke, David M Mackie
BACKGROUND: Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323260/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-jak-stat-signaling-in-the-immune-system
#2
REVIEW
Alejandro V Villarino, Yuka Kanno, John J O'Shea
Kinases of the Jak ('Janus kinase') family and transcription factors (TFs) of the STAT ('signal transducer and activator of transcription') family constitute a rapid membrane-to-nucleus signaling module that affects every aspect of the mammalian immune system. Research on this paradigmatic pathway has experienced breakneck growth in the quarter century since its discovery and has yielded a stream of basic and clinical insights that have profoundly influenced modern understanding of human health and disease, exemplified by the bench-to-bedside success of Jak inhibitors ('jakinibs') and pathway-targeting drugs...
March 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322158/effect-and-mechanism-of-curcumin-on-ezh2-mir-101-regulatory-feedback-loop-in-multiple-myeloma
#3
Chuanqing Wu, Tuo Ruan, Weizhen Liu, Xiaojie Zhu, Juan Pan, Wen Lu, Chen Yan, Kaixiong Tao, Weikang Zhang, Chun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is the second most prevalent hematologic malignancy and thought to be incurable. Therefore, it's urgent to find new drugs for treatment. Some experiments have shown that curcumin might have great potential in treating multiple myeloma, while the mechanism is still unknown. EZH2 and SUZ12 are the core proteins in PRC2 and their expression are increased in various human cancers, including the poor prognostic multiple myeloma. Meanwhile, the regulation of miRNAs and EZH2 has been demonstrated in other cancer researches, like lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, leukemia and so on...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316123/the-msc-adhesion-cascade-insights-into-homing-and-transendothelial-migration
#4
Franziska Nitzsche, Claudia Müller, Barbara Lukomska, Jukka Jolkkonen, Alexander Deten, Johannes Boltze
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for adult cell therapies in regenerative medicine. To fully exert their potential, efficient homing and migration towards lesion sites plays an important role. Local transplantation deposits MSC in spatial proximity to the lesion, but often requires invasive procedures. Systemic administration routes are favored, but require the targeted extravasation of the circulating MSC at the site of injury. Transplanted MSC can indeed leave the blood flow and transmigrate through the endothelial barrier, and reach the lesion site...
March 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300007/the-consistency-of-the-subjective-concept-of-randomness
#5
Ru Qi Yu, Jordan Gunn, Daniel Osherson, Jiaying Zhao
A pervasive bias in the subjective concept of randomness is that people often expect random sequences to exhibit more alternations than produced by genuine random processes. What is less known is the stability of this bias. Here we examine two important aspects of the over-alternation bias: first, whether this bias is present in stimuli that vary across feature dimensions, sensory modalities, presentation modes, and probing methods; and second, how consistent the bias is across these stimulus variations. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted sequences until they looked maximally random...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299927/supramolecular-hydrogels-based-on-dna-self-assembly
#6
Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Dongsheng Liu
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity...
March 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288129/endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated-microtubule-alignment-governs-cytoplasmic-streaming
#7
Kenji Kimura, Alexandre Mamane, Tohru Sasaki, Kohta Sato, Jun Takagi, Ritsuya Niwayama, Lars Hufnagel, Yuta Shimamoto, Jean-François Joanny, Seiichi Uchida, Akatsuki Kimura
Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow...
March 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287533/isolation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-from-healthy-volunteers-and-their-migratory-potential-influenced-by-serum-samples-after-cardiac-surgery
#8
Christoph Emontzpohl, David Simons, Sandra Kraemer, Andreas Goetzenich, Gernot Marx, Jürgen Bernhagen, Christian Stoppe
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are recruited from the bone marrow under pathological conditions like hypoxia and are crucially involved in the neovascularization of ischemic tissues. The origin, classification and characterization of EPCs are complex; notwithstanding, two prominent sub-types of EPCs have been established: so-called "early" EPCs (subsequently referred to as early-EPCs) and late-outgrowth EPCs (late-EPCs). They can be classified by biological properties as well as by their appearance during in vitro culture...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287247/trunk-neural-crest-cells-formation-migration-and-beyond
#9
Guillermo A Vega-Lopez, Santiago Cerrizuela, Manuel J Aybar
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285646/angiopoietin-like-protein-2-is-a-positive-regulator-of-osteoblast-differentiation
#10
Aiko Takano, Takao Fukuda, Takanori Shinjo, Misaki Iwashita, Etsuko Matsuzaki, Kensuke Yamamichi, Masaaki Takeshita, Terukazu Sanui, Fusanori Nishimura
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Several studies have reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) is expressed abundantly in adipocytes and is associated with adipose tissue inflammation. In the present study, we found that osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells also expressed Angptl2 at high levels. The aim of this study was to understand the role of Angptl2 in osteoblastic cell differentiation. METHODS: Angptl2 expression was examined during osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282786/galangin-potentiates-human-breast-cancer-to-apoptosis-induced-by-trail-through-activating-ampk
#11
Wei Song, Chong-Yang Yan, Qian-Qian Zhou, Lin-Lin Zhen
Breast cancer is reported as the most frequent tumor with limited treatments among the female worldwide. Galangin, a natural active compound 3, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, is a type of bioflavonoid isolated from the Alpinia galangal root and suggested to induce apoptosis in various cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an effective anti-tumor agent for human breast cancer. Promoted expression of CHOP, a down-streaming transcription factor for endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), enhanced death factor 4 (DR4) activity and accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as cell death...
March 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279965/lower-levels-of-vitamin-a-are-associated-with-increased-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-children
#12
Dana T Lounder, Pooja Khandelwal, Christopher Dandoy, Sonata Jodele, Michael Grimley, Gregory Wallace, Adam Lane, Cynthia Taggart, Ashley Teusink-Cross, Kelly Lake, Stella M Davies
Vitamin A promotes development of mucosal tolerance and enhances differentiation of regulatory T cells. Vitamin A deficiency impairs epithelial integrity, increasing intestinal permeability. We hypothesized that higher vitamin A levels would reduce risk of graft versus host disease through reduced intestinal permeability, reduced mucosal injury, and reduced lymphocyte homing to the gut. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort study of 114 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant. Free vitamin A levels were measured in plasma at day 30 post-transplant...
March 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279192/stroke-alters-behavior-of-human-skin-derived-neural-progenitors-after-transplantation-adjacent-to-neurogenic-area-in-rat-brain
#13
Carlos de la Rosa-Prieto, Cecilia Laterza, Ana Gonzalez-Ramos, Somsak Wattananit, Ruimin Ge, Olle Lindvall, Daniel Tornero, Zaal Kokaia
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can ameliorate behavioral deficits in animal models of stroke. How the ischemic lesion affects the survival of the transplanted cells, their proliferation, migration, differentiation, and function is only partly understood. METHODS: Here we have assessed the influence of the stroke-induced injury on grafts of human skin iPSCs-derived long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells using transplantation into the rostral migratory stream (RMS), adjacent to the neurogenic subventricular zone, in adult rats as a model system...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275050/novel-thiosemicarbazones-inhibit-lysine-rich-ceacam1-co-isolated-lyric-and-the-lyric-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-up-regulation-of-n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-ndrg1
#14
Ruxing Xi, Ivan Ho Yuen Pun, Sharleen V Menezes, Leyla Fouani, Danuta S Kalinowski, Michael L H Huang, Xiaozhi Zhang, Des R Richardson, Zaklina Kovacevic
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) plays a vital role in cancer progression, being associated with inflammation and promotion of cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The effects of TNFα are mediated by its down-stream target, the oncogene, lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated protein (LYRIC; also known as metadherin or astrocyte elevated gene-1). LYRIC plays an important role in activating the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which controls multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, etc...
March 8, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271103/a-liquid-thermal-gradient-refractive-index-lens-and-using-it-to-trap-single-living-cell-in-flowing-environments
#15
H L Liu, Y Shi, L Liang, L Li, S S Guo, L Yin, Y Yang
A gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens has a great potential for on-chip imaging and detection systems because of its flat surface with reduced defects. This paper reports a liquid thermal GRIN lens prepared using heat conduction between only one liquid, and uses it as a tunable optical tweezer for single living cell trapping in a flowing environment. This liquid GRIN lens consists of a trapezoidal region in the upper layer which is used to establish a GRIN profile by the heat conduction between three streams of benzyl alcohol with different temperatures, and subsequently a rhombus region in the lower layer with compensation liquids to form a steady square-law parabolic refractive index profile only in transverse direction...
March 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270209/innovative-regenerative-medicines-in-the-eu-a-better-future-in-evidence
#16
EDITORIAL
Mark S Corbett, Andrew Webster, Robert Hawkins, Nerys Woolacott
BACKGROUND: Despite a steady stream of headlines suggesting they will transform the future of healthcare, high-tech regenerative medicines have, to date, been quite inaccessible to patients, with only eight having been granted an EU marketing licence in the last 7 years. Here, we outline some of the historical reasons for this paucity of licensed innovative regenerative medicines. We discuss the challenges to be overcome to expedite the development of this complex and rapidly changing area of medicine, together with possible reasons to be more optimistic for the future...
March 8, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267981/healthcare-associated-infections-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-with-prolonged-intensive-care-unit-stay
#17
Michael Mazzeffi, James Gammie, Bradley Taylor, Sarah Cardillo, Nicholina Haldane-Lutterodt, Anthony Amoroso, Anthony Harris, Kerri Thom
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are responsible for many deaths of hospitalized patients each year. Patients with prolonged hospitalization are at high risk for HAIs. Increased efforts have been made to decrease these infections, but a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control suggests that some HAIs may be increasing. We hypothesized that HAIs would remain frequent among cardiac surgery patients with prolonged intensive care unit stay and would be associated with increased mortality...
March 4, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266497/formation-and-evolution-of-a-pair-of-collisionless-shocks-in-counter-streaming-flows
#18
Dawei Yuan, Yutong Li, Meng Liu, Jiayong Zhong, Baojun Zhu, Yanfei Li, Huigang Wei, Bo Han, Xiaoxing Pei, Jiarui Zhao, Fang Li, Zhe Zhang, Guiyun Liang, Feilu Wang, Suming Weng, Yingjun Li, Shaoen Jiang, Kai Du, Yongkun Ding, Baoqiang Zhu, Jianqiang Zhu, Gang Zhao, Jie Zhang
A pair of collisionless shocks that propagate in the opposite directions are firstly observed in the interactions of laser-produced counter-streaming flows. The flows are generated by irradiating a pair of opposing copper foils with eight laser beams at the Shenguang-II (SG-II) laser facility. The experimental results indicate that the excited shocks are collisionless and electrostatic, in good agreement with the theoretical model of electrostatic shock. The particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations verify that a strong electrostatic field growing from the interaction region contributes to the shocks formation...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265076/spatial-confinement-of-active-microtubule-networks-induces-large-scale-rotational-cytoplasmic-flow
#19
Kazuya Suzuki, Makito Miyazaki, Jun Takagi, Takeshi Itabashi, Shin'ichi Ishiwata
Collective behaviors of motile units through hydrodynamic interactions induce directed fluid flow on a larger length scale than individual units. In cells, active cytoskeletal systems composed of polar filaments and molecular motors drive fluid flow, a process known as cytoplasmic streaming. The motor-driven elongation of microtubule bundles generates turbulent-like flow in purified systems; however, it remains unclear whether and how microtubule bundles induce large-scale directed flow like the cytoplasmic streaming observed in cells...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260622/group-b-adenovirus-enadenotucirev-infects-polarised-colorectal-cancer-cells-efficiently-from-the-basolateral-surface-expected-to-be-encountered-during-intravenous-delivery-to-treat-disseminated-cancer
#20
Suet-Lin Chia, Janet Lei, David J P Ferguson, Arthur Dyer, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour
Enadenotucirev (EnAd) is a group B oncolytic adenovirus developed for systemic delivery and currently undergoing clinical evaluation for advanced cancer therapy. For differentiated carcinomas, systemic delivery would likely expose virus particles to the basolateral surface of cancer cells rather than the apical surface encountered during natural infection. Here, we compare the ability of EnAd and adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) to infect polarised colorectal carcinoma cells from the apical or basolateral surfaces. Whereas Ad5 infection was more efficient via the apical than basolateral surface, EnAd readily infected cells from either surface...
March 2, 2017: Virology
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