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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349475/continuous-splitting-of-aqueous-droplets-at-the-interface-of-co-flowing-immiscible-oil-streams-in-a-microchannel
#1
K S Jayaprakash, A K Sen
We report the continuous splitting of aqueous droplets at the interface between two co-flowing immiscible oil streams in a microchannel. The aqueous droplets initially present in a primary continuous stream (CP1) migrate into a secondary continuous stream (CP2) when the ratio of the non-inertial lift force to the interfacial tension force exceeds a critical value (K. S. Jayaprakash, U. Banerjee and A. K. Sen, Langmuir, 2016, 32, 2136-2143). Here, experiments were performed to understand the droplet splitting phenomenon and demonstrate the splitting of droplets encapsulating microbeads and cells...
January 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347756/improved-understanding-of-the-acoustophoretic-focusing-of-dense-suspensions-in-a-microchannel
#2
S Karthick, A K Sen
We provide improved understanding of acoustophoretic focusing of a dense suspension (volume fraction φ>10%) in a microchannel subjected to an acoustic standing wave using a proposed theoretical model and experiments. The model is based on the theory of interacting continua and utilizes a momentum transport equation for the mixture, continuity equation, and transport equation for the solid phase. The model demonstrates the interplay between acoustic radiation and shear-induced diffusion (SID) forces that is critical in the focusing of dense suspensions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347084/identifying-the-linear-phase-of-the-relativistic-kelvin-helmholtz-instability-and-measuring-its-growth-rate-via-radiation
#3
R Pausch, M Bussmann, A Huebl, U Schramm, K Steiniger, R Widera, A Debus
For the relativistic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), which occurs at shear interfaces between two plasma streams, we report results on the polarized radiation over all observation directions and frequencies emitted by the plasma electrons from ab initio kinetic simulations. We find the polarization of the radiation to provide a clear signature for distinguishing the linear phase of the KHI from its other phases. During the linear phase, we predict the growth rate of the KHI radiation power to match the growth rate of the KHI to a high degree...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340897/invasion-and-translocation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urosepsis-and-patients-with-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection
#4
B Owrangi, N Masters, A Kuballa, C O'Dea, T L Vollmerhausen, M Katouli
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are found in high numbers in the gut of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We hypothesised that in hospitalised patients, UPEC strains might translocate from the gut to the blood stream and that this could be due to the presence of virulence genes (VGs) that are not commonly found in UPEC strains that cause UTI only. To test this, E. coli strains representing 75 dominant clonal groups of UPEC isolated from the blood of hospitalised patients with UTI (urosepsis) (n = 22), hospital-acquired (HA) UTI without blood infection (n = 24) and strains isolated from patients with community-acquired (CA)-UTIs (n = 29) were tested for their adhesion to, invasion and translocation through Caco-2 cells, in addition to the presence of 34 VGs associated with UPEC...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338766/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-pathways-for-intramuscular-fat-metabolism-between-breast-and-thigh-tissues-of-chickens
#5
Huanxian Cui, Maiqing Zheng, Guiping Zhao, Ranran Liu, Jie Wen
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been clear. In this study, a systematic identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and molecular regulatory mechanism related to IMF metabolism between Beijing-you chicken breast and thigh at 42 and 90 days of age was performed. RESULTS: IMF contents, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were analyzed, The results showed that both IMF contents in breast at 42 and 90 d were significantly lower (P < 0...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330021/ccn4-wisp1-controls-cutaneous-wound-healing-by-modulating-proliferation-migration-and-ecm-expression-in-dermal-fibroblasts-via-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-and-tnf%C3%AE
#6
Mitsuaki Ono, Asuka Masaki, Azusa Maeda, Tina M Kilts, Emilio S Hara, Taishi Komori, Hai Pham, Takuo Kuboki, Marian F Young
Understanding the mechanisms that control cutaneous wound healing is crucial to successfully manage repair of damaged skin. The goal of the current study was to uncover novel extracellular matrix (ECM) components that control the wound healing process. Full thickness skin defects were created in mice and used to show CCN4 up-regulation during wound-healing as early as 1 day after surgery, suggesting a role in inflammation and subsequent dermal migration and proliferation. To determine how CCN4 could regulate wound healing we used Ccn4-KO mice and showed they had delayed wound closure accompanied by reduced expression of Col1a1 and Fn mRNA...
January 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329995/multifunctional-hybrid-graphene-oxide-for-circulating-tumor-cell-isolation-and-analysis
#7
Avijit PramaniK, Stacy Jones, Ye Gao, Carrie Sweet, Aruna Vangara, Salma Begum, Paresh Chandra Ray
Even in 21st century, >90% cancer-associated deaths are caused by metastatic disease. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which circulate in the blood stream after release from primary tumors, extravasate and form fatal metastases in different organs. Several clinical trials indicate that CTCs can be used as a liquid biopsy of tumors for early diagnosis of cancers. Since CTCs are extremely rare and exhibit heterogeneous biology due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), oncologists continue to face enormous challenges in using CTCs as a true "liquid biopsy" for cancer patients...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327429/in-vivo-migration-of-endogenous-brain-progenitor-cells-guided-by-an-injectable-peptide-amphiphile-biomaterial
#8
Reza Motalleb, Eric J Berns, Piyush Patel, Julie Gold, Samuel I Stupp, H Georg Kuhn
Biomaterials hold great promise in helping the adult brain regenerate and rebuild after trauma. Peptide amphiphiles (PA) are highly versatile biomaterials, gelling and forming macromolecular structures when exposed to physiological levels of electrolytes. We are here reporting on the first ever in vivo use of self-assembling peptide amphiphile carrying a Tenascin-C signal (E2 Ten-C PA) for the re-direction of endogenous neuroblasts in the rodent brain. The PA forms highly aligned nanofibers, displaying the migratory sequence of Tenascin-C glycoprotein as epitope...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#9
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324413/skeleton-based-human-action-recognition-with-global-context-aware-attention-lstm-networks
#10
Jun Liu, Gang Wang, Ling-Yu Duan, Kamila Abdiyeva, Alex C Kot
Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320411/inihibition-of-glycolysis-by-using-a-micro-nano-lipid-bromopyruvic-chitosan-carrier-as-a-promising-tool-to-improve-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Nemany A Hanafy, Luciana Dini, Cinzia Citti, Giuseppe Cannazza, Stefano Leporatti
Glucose consumption in many types of cancer cells, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was followed completely by over-expression of type II hexokinase (HKII). This evidence has been used in modern pharmacotherapy to discover therapeutic target against glycolysis in cancer cells. Bromopyruvate (BrPA) exhibits antagonist property against HKII and can be used to inhibit glycolysis. However, the clinical application of BrPA is mostly combined with inhibition effect for healthy cells particularly erythrocytes...
January 10, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317141/serum-levels-of-osteopontin-predict-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-severe-carotid-artery-stenosis
#12
Federico Carbone, Fabio Rigamonti, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Maria Bertolotto, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Aldo Pende, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Franco Dallegri, François Mach, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators in the blood stream and within plaques are key determinants in atherogenesis. Here, we investigated serum osteopontin (OPN) as a potential predictor of poor outcome in patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Carotid plaques and serum were collected from patients asymptomatic (n=185) or symptomatic (n=40) for ischemic stroke. Plaques were stained for lipids, smooth muscle cells, neutrophils, M1 and M2 macrophage subsets and matrix metallopropteinase-9 (MMP-9)...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314212/lumbar-to-sacral-root-rerouting-to-restore-bladder-function-in-a-feline-spinal-cord-injury-model-urodynamic-and-retrograde-nerve-tracing-results-from-a-pilot-study
#13
Ornella Lam Van Ba, Mary F Barbe, Romain Caremel, Shachar Aharony, Oleg Loutochin, Line Jacques, Matthew W Wood, Ekta Tiwari, Gerald F Tuite, Lysanne Campeau, Jacques Corcos, Michael R Ruggieri
AIMS: Lumbar to sacral rerouting surgery can potentially allow voiding via a skin-central nervous system-bladder reflex pathway. Here, we assessed if this surgery was effective in treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction/sphincter in felines. METHODS: Eight cats underwent spinal cord transection (SCT) at thoracic level 10/11. Unilateral L7 to S1 ventral root anastomosis was performed 1 month later in six cats. Two cats served as transection-only controls. Electrical and manual stimulation of L6-S1 dermatomes, and urodynamics were performed at 3, 5, 7, and 9/10 months post transection...
January 4, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311126/preclinical-models-of-prostate-cancer-patient-derived-xenografts-organoids-and-other-explant-models
#14
Gail P Risbridger, Roxanne Toivanen, Renea A Taylor
Prostate cancer remains a lethal disease. Preclinical cancer models that accurately represent the tumors of the patients they are intended to help are necessary to test potential therapeutic approaches and to better translate research discoveries. However, research in the prostate cancer field is hampered by the limited number of human cell lines and xenograft models, most of which do not recapitulate the human disease seen in the clinic today. This work reviews the recent advances in human patient-derived xenograft, organoid, and other explant models to address this need...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307817/actin-myosin-xi-an-intracellular-control-network-in-plants
#15
Zhongrui Duan, Motoki Tominaga
Actin is one of the three major cytoskeletal components in eukaryotic cells. Myosin XI is an actin-based motor protein in plant cells. Organelles are attached to myosin XI and translocated along the actin filaments. This dynamic actin-myosin XI system plays a major role in subcellular organelle transport and cytoplasmic streaming. Previous studies have revealed that myosin-driven transport and the actin cytoskeleton play essential roles in plant cell growth. Recent data have indicated that the actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton is essential for not only cell growth but also reproductive processes and responses to the environment...
January 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304075/%C3%AE-cell-specific-overexpression-of-adiponectin-receptor-1-does-not-improve-diabetes-mellitus-in-akita-mice
#16
Jungmi Choi, Hatasu Kobayashi, Hiroko Okuda, Kouji H Harada, Midori Takeda, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Shunsuke Yamane, Daisuke Tanaka, Shohab Youssefian, Nobuya Inagaki, Akio Koizumi
Adiponectin, a metabolically-active cytokine secreted from adipose tissue, is reported to have anti-apoptotic effects on β-cells as well as anti-hyperglycemic effects through adiponectin receptor signaling. However, the anti-apoptotic effects of adiponectin on β-cells have not been confirmed in established diabetic models, and the anti-hyperglycemic effects and their associated signal cascades remain controversial. To investigate the effects of adiponectin on β-cell protection and its down-stream signaling events, we have generated β-cell-specific rat insulin promoter (RIP)-AdipoR1 transgenic mice (AdipoR1 mice), in which the adiponectin receptor, AdipoR1, is overexpressed in β-cells in a manner synchronous with insulin demand...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301270/a-fully-integrated-paper-microfluidic-electrochemical-device-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-physiologic-blood-ions
#17
Joon-Hyung Jin, Joon Hyub Kim, Sang Ki Lee, Sam Jin Choi, Chan Won Park, Nam Ki Min
A fully integrated paper microfluidic electrochemical device equipped with three different cation permeable films is developed to determine blood ions (Cl-, Na⁺, K⁺, and Ca2+) at a time. These blood ions that are normally dissolved in the real human blood stream are essential for cell metabolisms and homeostasis in the human body. Abnormal concentration of blood ions causes many serious disorders. The optimized microfluidic device working without any external power source can directly and effectively separate human blood components, and subsequently detect a specific blood ion with minimized interference...
January 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298488/engineered-cellular-uptake-and-controlled-drug-delivery-using-two-dimensional-nanoparticle-and-polymer-for-cancer-treatment
#18
Sudipta Senapati, Rashmi Shukla, Arun Kumar Mahanta, Dipak Rana, Pralay Maiti, Yamini B Tripathi
Two major problems in chemotherapy, poor bioavailability of hydrophobic anti-cancer drug and its adverse side effects causing nausea, are taken into accounts by developing sustained drug release vehicle along with enhanced bioavailability using two-dimensional layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with appropriate surface charge and its subsequent embedment in polymer matrix. A model hydrophobic anti-cancer drug, raloxifene hydrochloride (RH), is intercalated into a series of zinc iron LDHs with varying anion charge densities using ion exchange technique...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297226/a-novel-design-of-single-layer-microchannel-for-continuous-sheathless-single-stream-particle-inertial-focusing
#19
Yan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Fei Tang, Weihua Li, Xiaohao Wang
High-throughput, high-precision single-stream focusing of microparticles has potential wide range of applications in bio-chemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this work, we develop a sheathless three-dimensional (3D) particle focusing method in a single-layer microchannel. This novel microchannel consists of periodic high-aspect-ratio curved channels and straight channels. The proposed method takes advantage of both the curved channels, which induce Dean flow to promote particle migration, and straight channels, which suppress the remaining stirring effects of Dean flow to stabilize the achieved particle focusing...
January 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289719/the-distribution-of-ki-67-and-doublecortin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-brains-of-three-strepsirrhine-primates-galago-demidoff-perodicticus-potto-and-lemur-catta
#20
Thandi M Fasemore, Nina Patzke, Consolate Kaswera-Kyamakya, Emmanuel Gilissen, Paul R Manger, Amadi O Ihunwo
This study investigated the pattern of adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of three prosimian primate species using immunohistochemical techniques for endogenous markers of this neural process. Two species, Galago demidoff and Perodicticus potto were obtained from wild populations in the primary rainforest of central Africa, while one species, Lemur catta, was captive-bred. Two brains from each species, perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, were sectioned (50 µm section thickness) in sagittal and coronal planes...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
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