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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819754/development-of-the-hybrid-cells-in-series-model-to-simulate-ammonia-nutrient-pollutant-transport-along-the-umgeni-river
#1
Kayode O Olowe, Muthukrishnavellaisamy Kumarasamy
Discharge of organic waste results in high nutrient pollution of the water bodies which is a major menace to the environment. A high quantity of nutrients such as ammonia causes a reduction in the dissolved oxygen level and induces algal growth in the water bodies. Water quality models have been the tools to evaluate the rate at which streams can disperse the pollutants they receive. Many water quality models are flawed either because of their inadequacy to completely simulate the advection component of the pollutant transport, or because of the limited application of the models, due to inaccurate estimation of model parameters...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816478/towards-a-unified-model-of-vision-and-attention-effects-of-visual-landmarks-and-identity-cues-on-covert-and-overt-attention-movements
#2
Anthony J Lambert, Jaimie Wilkie, Andrea Greenwood, Nathan Ryckman, Evatte Sciberras-Lim, Laura-Jane Booker, Lenore Tahara-Eckl
To what extent are shifts of attention driven by encoding of visual-spatial landmarks, associated with useful locations, or by encoding of environmental cues that act as symbolic representations, providing information about where to look next? In Experiment 1 we found that when cues were presented with a long exposure time (300 ms) attention shifts were driven by the symbolic identity of cue stimuli, independently of their visual-spatial (landmark) features; but when cues were exposed very briefly, (66 ms), attention shifts were independent of symbolic information, and were driven instead by visual landmark features...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813673/multipotent-basal-stem-cells-maintained-in-localized-proximal-niches-support-directed-long-ranging-epithelial-flows-in-human-prostates
#3
Mohammad Moad, Edouard Hannezo, Simon J Buczacki, Laura Wilson, Amira El-Sherif, David Sims, Robert Pickard, Nicholas A Wright, Stuart C Williamson, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor, Laura Greaves, Craig N Robson, Benjamin D Simons, Rakesh Heer
Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812881/predicting-microbial-fuel-cell-biofilm-communities-and-bioreactor-performance-using-artificial-neural-networks
#4
Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The complex interactions that occur in mixed-species bioelectrochemical reactors, like microbial fuel cells (MFCs), make accurate predictions of performance outcomes under untested conditions difficult. While direct correlations between any individual waste stream characteristic or microbial community structure and reactor performance have not been able to be directly established, the increase in sequencing data and readily available computational power enables the development of alternate approaches. In the current study, 33 MFCs were evaluated under a range of conditions including 8 separate substrates and 3 different wastewaters...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808806/brca1-mimetic-compound-nsc35446-hcl-inhibits-ikkb-expression-by-reducing-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-occupancy-in-the-ikkb-promoter-and-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-antiestrogen-resistant-human-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Shyam Nathan, Yongxian Ma, York A Tomita, Eliseu De Oliveira, Milton L Brown, Eliot M Rosen
PURPOSE: We previously identified small molecules that fit into a BRCA1-binding pocket within estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), mimic the ability of BRCA1 to inhibit ERα activity ("BRCA1-mimetics"), and overcome antiestrogen resistance. One such compound, the hydrochloride salt of NSC35446 ("NSC35446.HCl"), also inhibited the growth of antiestrogen-resistant LCC9 tumor xenografts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the down-stream effects of NSC35446.HCl and its mechanism of action...
August 14, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801829/cloning-and-characterization-of-halomonas-elongata-l-asparaginase-a-promising-chemotherapeutic-agent
#6
Ali Ghasemi, Sedigheh Asad, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Bahareh Dabirmanesh
L-asparaginase has been used in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for more than 30 years. Rapid clearance of the enzyme from blood stream and its L-glutaminase-dependent neurotoxicity has led to searching for new L-asparaginases with more desirable properties. In the present study, L-asparaginase coding gene of Halomonas elongata was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The purified protein was found to have a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa and 1000-folds more activity towards L-asparagine than L-glutamine...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799679/scanning-electron-microscope-investigation-on-the-process-of-healing-of-skin-wounds-in-cirrhinus-mrigala
#7
Neeraj Verma, Usha Kumari, Swati Mittal, Ajay Kumar Mittal
Present scanning electron microscope study, reports healing of excised skin wounds in Cirrhinus mrigala. Healing process of wounds, inflicted on head skin, using biopsy punch was observed at intervals-0 hour (h), 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 h, 1 day (d) 2 and 4 d. Accumulation of mucus in wound region within 1h after infliction of wound has been considered an immediate measure to provide protection to injured skin from microbial invasion and other external environmental hazards. On infliction of wound, mobilization of epithelial cells at wound edge is associated with disturbance of coaptive relationship of epithelial cells till original coaptive stability is reached...
August 11, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798838/simultaneous-measurement-of-erythrocyte-deformability-and-blood-viscoelasticity-using-micropillars-and-co-flowing-streams-under-pulsatile-blood-flows
#8
Yang Jun Kang
The biophysical properties of blood provide useful information on the variation in hematological disorders or diseases. In this study, a simultaneous measurement method of RBC (Red Blood Cell) deformability and blood viscoelasticity is proposed by evaluating hemodynamic variations through micropillars and co-flowing streams under sinusoidal blood flow. A disposable microfluidic device is composed of two inlets and two outlets, two upper side channels, and two lower side channels connected to one bridge channel...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798242/a-rare-urological-presentation-of-appendicitis
#9
Nick Simson, Thomas Stonier, Alberto Coscione, Ahmed Qteishat
A 17-year-old boy with no medical comorbidities, but a significant family history of malignancy, presented to Accident and Emergency following 3 days of increasing rectal pain, symptoms of bladder outflow obstruction (poor flow, intermittent stream and hesitancy) and dysuria. Notably he had no abdominal pain. Digital rectal examination revealed a tender, enlarged prostate. Inflammatory markers were significantly raised (white cell count 17.7, C reactive protein 191). He was diagnosed clinically as prostatitis and commenced on intravenous antibiotics...
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795092/-data-characterizing-microfabricated-human-blood-vessels-created-via-hydrodynamic-focusing
#10
Kyle A DiVito, Michael A Daniele, Steven A Roberts, Frances S Ligler, André A Adams
This data article provides further detailed information related to our research article titled "Microfabricated Blood Vessels Undergo Neovascularization" (DiVito et al., 2017) [1], in which we report fabrication of human blood vessels using hydrodynamic focusing (HDF). Hydrodynamic focusing with advection inducing chevrons were used in concert to encase one fluid stream within another, shaping the inner core fluid into 'bullseye-like" cross-sections that were preserved through click photochemistry producing streams of cellularized hollow 3-dimensional assemblies, such as human blood vessels (Daniele et al...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794629/design-of-theranostic-nanomedicine-ii-synthesis-and-physicochemical-properties-of-a-biocompatible-polyphosphazene-docetaxel-conjugate
#11
Yong Joo Jun, Jung Hyun Park, Prakash G Avaji, Kyung Su Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Hwa Jeong Lee, Youn Soo Sohn
To prepare an efficient theranostic polyphosphazene-docetaxel (DTX) conjugate, a new drug delivery system was designed by grafting a multifunctional lysine ethylester (LysOEt) as a spacer group along with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) to the polyphosphazene backbone ([NP]n), and then DTX was conjugated to the carrier polymer using acid-cleavable cis-aconitic acid (AA) as a linker. The resultant polyphosphazene-DTX conjugate, formulated as [NP(MPEG550)3(Lys-OEt)(AA)(DTX)]n and named "Polytaxel", exhibited high water solubility and stability by forming stable polymeric micelles as shown in its transmission electron microscopy image and dynamic light scattering measurements...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783330/a-simplified-microfluidic-device-for-particle-separation-with-two-consecutive-steps%C3%AF-induced-charge-electroosmotic-prefocusing-and-dielectrophoretic-separation
#12
Xiaoming Chen, Yukun Ren, Weiyu Liu, Xiangsong Feng, Yankai Jia, Ye Tao, Hongyuan Jiang
Continuous dielectrophoretic separation is recognized as a powerful technique for a large number of applications including early-stage cancer diagnosis, water quality analysis, and stem cell-based therapy. Generally, the prefocusing of a particle mixture into a stream is an essential process to ensure all particles are subjected to the same electric field geometry in the separation region. However, accomplishing this focusing process either requires hydrodynamic squeezing, which requires an encumbering peripheral system and a complicated operation to drive and control the fluid motion, or depends on dielectro-phoretic forces, which are highly sensitive to the dielectric characterization of particles...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780452/the-impact-of-antibacterial-handsoap-constituents-on-the-dynamics-of-triclosan-dissolution-from-dry-sand
#13
Daniel A Koehler, Keith A Strevett, Charalambos Papelis, Tohren C G Kibbey
Triclosan has been widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer and industrial products, and large quantities continue to be discharged to natural waters annually. The focus of this work was on studying the dynamics of triclosan dissolution following evaporative drying. Warm weather can cause the water in intermittent streams or the unsaturated zone to evaporate, causing nonvolatile compounds to form solid precipitates. Because dissolution of precipitates is a relatively slow process, the dynamics of dissolution following evaporation may play an important role in controlling the release of contaminants to the environment...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777420/procalcitonin-level-as-a-surrogate-for-catheter-related-blood-stream-infection-among-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Mahmoud Hamada Imam, Eman Gamal
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771911/organic-free-synthesis-of-a-highly-siliceous-faujasite-zeolite-with-spatially-biased-q4-nal-si-speciation
#15
Matthew D Oleksiak, Koki Muraoka, Ming-Feng Hsieh, Marlon T Conato, Atsushi Shimojima, Tatsuya Okubo, Watcharop Chaikittisilp, Jeffrey D Rimer
We report the most siliceous FAU-type zeolite, HOU-3, prepared via a one-step organic-free synthesis route. Computational studies indicate that it is thermodynamically feasible to synthesize FAU with SAR = 2 - 7, though kinetic factors seemingly impose a more restricted upper limit for HOU-3 (SAR = 3). Our findings suggest that a slow rate of crystallization and/or low concentration of Na+ ions in HOU-3 growth mixtures facilitate Si incorporation into the framework. Interestingly, Q4(nAl) Si speciation measured by solid-state NMR can only be modeled with a few combinations of Al positioning at tetrahedral sites in the crystal unit cell, indicating the distribution of Si(-O-Si)4-n(-O-Al)n species is spatially-biased as opposed to being random...
August 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759115/anti-muc1-aptamer-a-potential-opportunity-for-cancer-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Maryam Sadat Nabavinia, Aida Gholoobi, Fahimeh Charbgoo, Mahboobeh Nabavinia, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a protein usually found on the apical surface of most normal secretory epithelial cells. However, in most adenocarcinomas, MUC1 is overexpressed, so that it not only appears over the entire cell surface, but is also shed as MUC1 fragments into the blood stream. These phenomena pinpoint MUC1 as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer; consequently, interest has increased in MUC1 as a molecular target for overcoming cancer therapy challenges. MUC1 currently ranks second among 75 antigen candidates for cancer vaccines, and different antibodies or aptamers against MUC1 protein are proving useful for tracing cancer cells in the emerging field of targeted delivery...
July 31, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757546/roles-of-wnt-target-genes-in-the-journey-of-cancer-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Jee-Heun Kim, So-Yeon Park, Youngsoo Jun, Ji-Young Kim, Jeong-Seok Nam
The importance of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been acknowledged; however, the mechanism through which it regulates the biological function of CSCs and promotes cancer progression remains elusive. Hence, to understand the intricate mechanism by which Wnt controls stemness, the specific downstream target genes of Wnt were established by analyzing the genetic signatures of multiple types of metastatic cancers based on gene set enrichment. By focusing on the molecular function of Wnt target genes, the biological roles of Wnt were interpreted in terms of CSC dynamics from initiation to metastasis...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754385/alignment-of-actin-filament-streams-driven-by-myosin-motors-in-crowded-environments
#18
Takahiro Iwase, Yasuhiko Sasaki, Kuniyuki Hatori
BACKGROUND: Cellular dynamics depend on cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins. Collective movements of filaments driven by motor proteins are observed in the presence of dense filaments in in vitro systems. As multiple macromolecules exist within cells and the physiological ionic conditions affect their interactions, crowding might contribute to ordered cytoskeletal architecture because of collective behavior. METHODS: Using an in vitro reconstituted system, we observed the emergence of stripe patterns resulting from collective actin filament streaming driven by myosin motors in the presence of the crowding agent, methylcellulose (MC)...
July 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753520/interleukin-10-inhibits-neuroinflammation-mediated-apoptosis-of-ventral-mesencephalic-neurons-via-jak-stat3-pathway
#19
Yan Zhu, Zhan Liu, Yu-Ping Peng, Yi-Hua Qiu
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Interleukin (IL)-10 is one of the most important and best anti-inflammatory cytokines. The objective of this report is to investigate whether IL-10 has any role in protecting ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons in in vitro model of neuroinflammation. In this study, primary neuron-enriched culture was prepared from the VM tissues of E14 embryos of rats. The cells were pretreated with IL-10 (15 or 50ng/mL) for 1h followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50ng/mL) application...
September 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752716/-progress-on-mechanisms-for-pathogensto-evade-nod-like-receptor-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathways
#20
H E Yujie, Pan Jianping
The innate immune system provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, in which the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and initiate the downstream signaling pathways to eliminate the encountered pathogens. There are two main classes of such signaling pathways: NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. The microbial pathogens under selective pressure have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid and/or manipulate the NLR and TLR signal transduction for survival and replication...
March 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
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