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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#1
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222153/dissecting-nutrient-related-co-expression-networks-in-phosphate-starved-poplars
#2
Mareike Kavka, Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, but its availability is often limited in soil. Here, we studied changes in the transcriptome and in nutrient element concentrations in leaves and roots of poplars (Populus × canescens) in response to P deficiency. P starvation resulted in decreased concentrations of S and major cations (K, Mg, Ca), in increased concentrations of N, Zn and Al, while C, Fe and Mn were only little affected. In roots and leaves >4,000 and >9,000 genes were differently expressed upon P starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213248/multi-reverse-flow-injection-analysis-integrated-with-multi-optical-sensor-for-simultaneous-determination-of-mn-ii-fe-ii-cu-ii-and-fe-iii-in-natural-waters
#3
Napaporn Youngvises, Kittigan Suwannasaroj, Jaroon Jakmunee, Awadh AlSuhaimi
Multi-reverse flow injection analysis (Mr-FIA) integrated with multi-optical sensor was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of multi ions; Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in water samples. The sample/standard solutions were propelled making use of a four channels peristaltic pump whereas 4 colorimetric reagents specific for the metal ions were separately injected in sample streams using multi-syringe pump. The color zones that formed in the individual mixing coils were then streamed into multi-channels spectrometer, which comprised of four flows through cell and four pairs of light emitting diode and photodiode, whereby signals were measured concurrently...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#4
M Rosenke, K S Weiner, M A Barnett, K Zilles, K Amunts, R Goebel, K Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206714/opposite-effects-of-a-glucokinase-activator-and-metformin-on-glucose-regulated-gene-expression-in-hepatocytes
#5
Ziad H Al-Oanzi, Sophia Fountana, Tabassum Moonira, Susan J Tudhope, John L Petrie, Ahmed Alshawi, Gillian Patman, Catherine Arden, Helen L Reeves, Loranne Agius
AIM: Small molecule activators of glucokinase (GKAs) have been extensively explored as potential anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several GKAs were remarkably effective at lowering blood glucose during early therapy but then lost their glycaemic efficacy chronically during clinical trials. We used rat hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that GKAs raise hepatocyte glucose 6-phosphate, (G6P, the glucokinase product) and down-stream metabolites with consequent repression of the liver glucokinase gene (Gck)...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204874/effects-of-calcium-at-toxic-concentrations-of-cadmium-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Danlian Huang, Xiaomin Gong, Yunguo Liu, Guangming Zeng, Cui Lai, Hassan Bashir, Lu Zhou, Dafei Wang, Piao Xu, Min Cheng, Jia Wan
This review provides new insight that calcium plays important roles in plant growth, heavy metal accumulation and translocation, photosynthesis, oxidative damage and signal transduction under cadmium stress. Increasing heavy metal pollution problems have raised word-wide concerns. Cadmium (Cd), being a highly toxic metal, poses potential risks both to ecosystems and human health. Compared with conventional technologies, phytoremediation, being cost-efficient, highly stable and environment-friendly, is believed to be a promising green technology for Cd decontamination...
February 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202729/synchronous-spikes-are-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-a-synchrony-code-in-populations-of-spiking-neurons
#7
Jan Grewe, Alexandra Kruscha, Benjamin Lindner, Jan Benda
Synchronous activity in populations of neurons potentially encodes special stimulus features. Selective readout of either synchronous or asynchronous activity allows formation of two streams of information processing. Theoretical work predicts that such a synchrony code is a fundamental feature of populations of spiking neurons if they operate in specific noise and stimulus regimes. Here we experimentally test the theoretical predictions by quantifying and comparing neuronal response properties in tuberous and ampullary electroreceptor afferents of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus These related systems show similar levels of synchronous activity, but only in the more irregularly firing tuberous afferents a synchrony code is established, whereas in the more regularly firing ampullary afferents it is not...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202254/robust-interactions-between-the-effects-of-auditory-and-cutaneous-electrical-stimulations-on-cell-activities-in-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#8
Akihisa Kimura
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a cluster of GABAergic cells, is thought to regulate bottom-up and top-down streams of sensory processing in the loop circuitry between the thalamus and cortex. Provided that sensory inputs of different modalities interact in the TRN, the TRN could contribute to fast and flexible cross-modal modulation of attention and perception that incessantly takes place in our every day life. Indeed, diverse subthreshold interactions of auditory and visual inputs have been revealed in TRN cells (Kimura, 2014)...
February 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188223/hypoxic-proliferation-requires-egfr-mediated-erk-activation-in-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#9
Hilary A White, Yi Jin, Louis G Chicoine, Bernadette Chen, Yusen Liu, Leif D Nelin
We have previously shown that hypoxic proliferation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (hPMVEC) depends on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. To determine down-stream signaling leading to proliferation, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced proliferation in hPMVEC would require EGFR-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) leading to arginase II induction. To test this hypothesis, hPMVEC were incubated in either normoxia (21% O2, 5% CO2) or hypoxia (1% O2, 5% CO2) and western blotting was performed for EGFR, arginase II, phosphorylated-ERK (pERK), and total ERK (ERK)...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184933/effects-of-different-mycotoxins-on-humans-cell-genome-and-their-involvement-in-cancer-review
#10
Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed Adam, Yasser M Tabana, Khirun Binti Musa, Doblin Anak Sandai
The chemical nature of most of the mycotoxins makes them highly liposoluble compounds that can be absorbed from the site of exposure such as from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract to the blood stream where it can be dissimilated throughout the body and reach different organs such as the liver and kidneys. Mycotoxins have a strong tendency and ability to penetrate the human and animal cells and reach the cellular genome where it causes a major mutagenic change in the nucleotide sequence which leads to strong and permanent defects in the genome...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184390/gold-nanoparticle-interactions-with-endothelial-cells-cultured-under-physiological-conditions
#11
C Freese, L Anspach, R C Deller, S-J Richards, M I Gibson, C J Kirkpatrick, R E Unger
PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have an extended circulation time after intravenous injection in vivo and exhibit favorable properties for biosensing, diagnostic imaging, and cancer treatment. No impact of PEGylated AuNPs on the barrier forming properties of endothelial cells (ECs) has been reported, but recent studies demonstrated that unexpected effects on erythrocytes are observed. Almost all studies to date have been with static-cultured ECs. Herein, ECs maintained under physiological cyclic stretch and flow conditions and used to generate a blood-brain barrier model were exposed to 20 nm PEGylated AuNPs...
February 10, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184386/cell-agglomeration-in-the-wells-of-a-24-well-plate-using-acoustic-streaming
#12
Yuta Kurashina, Kenjiro Takemura, James Friend
Cell agglomeration is essential both to the success of drug testing and to the development of tissue engineering. Here, a MHz-order acoustic wave is used to generate acoustic streaming in the wells of a 24-well plate to drive particle and cell agglomeration. Acoustic streaming is known to manipulate particles in microfluidic devices, and even provide concentration in sessile droplets, but concentration of particles or cells in individual wells has never been shown, principally due to the drag present along the periphery of the fluid in such a well...
February 10, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183626/stavudine-loaded-gelatin-liposomes-for-hiv-therapy-preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-cytotoxic-evaluation
#13
Debasis Nayak, Ankita Boxi, Sarbani Ashe, Neethi Chandra Thathapudi, Bismita Nayak
Despite continuous research and availability of 25 different active compounds for treating chronic HIV-1 infection, there is no absolute cure for this deadly disease. Primarily, the residual viremia remains hidden in latently infected reservoir sites and persistently release the viral RNA into the blood stream. The study proposes the dual utilization of the prepared stavudine-containing nanoformulations to control the residual viremia as well as target the reservoir sites. Gelatin nanoformulations containing very low dosage of stavudine were prepared through classical desolvation process and were later loaded in soya lecithin-liposomes...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170265/immunoprotein-mediated-sirna-delivery
#14
Nicole Bäumer, Wolfgang E Berdel, Sebastian Bäumer
RNA interference strategies offer an alternative to small molecular drug targeting. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) constitutes a class of molecules that allows the effective and specific inhibition of the biosynthesis of any protein. Indeed, siRNA have emerged as a major tool in molecular biology techniques and an important approach to identify suitable therapy targets in cancer. However, siRNA therapy approaches in vivo are scarce. Two major problems hinder siRNA as a therapeutic tool: (1) delivery through the bloodstream leads to degradation or rapid renal clearance (stabilization) and (2) specific uptake by the desired cell type (specificity)...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167948/mouse-liver-sinusoidal-endothelium-eliminates-hiv-like-particles-from-blood-at-a-rate-of-100-million-per-minute-by-a-second-order-kinetic-process
#15
Jessica M Mates, Zhili Yao, Alana M Cheplowitz, Ozan Suer, Gary S Phillips, Jesse J Kwiek, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Jonghan Kim, John M Robinson, Latha P Ganesan, Clark L Anderson
We crafted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-like particles of diameter about 140 nm, which expressed two major HIV-1 proteins, namely, env and gag gene products, and used this reagent to simulate the rate of decay of HIV from the blood stream of BALB/c male mice. We found that most (~90%) of the particles were eliminated (cleared) from the blood by the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), the remainder from Kupffer cells; suggesting that LSECs are the major liver scavengers for HIV clearance from blood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164577/clinical-and-experimental-analysis-of-platelet-micro-particles-inducing-thrombosis-after-coronary-stenting
#16
Muyesai Nijiati, Abulijiang Saidaming, Adelijiang Tuohuti, Li Guoqing, Du Rong
BACKGROUND: A limited number of reports are analyzing the etiology and the mechanism of coronary heart disease by examining the source cells of micro particles (MPs) in coronary heart disease patients with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aims to explore the circulating platelet micro particles (PMPs) content variation in the blood stream and the mechanism of MPs-inducing thrombosis in patients operated with coronary stenting, with the intent to analyze the impact of PMPs on thrombosis and in-stent restenosis...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164480/real-time-raman-and-srs-imaging-of-living-human-macrophages-reveals-cell-to-cell-heterogeneity-and-dynamics-of-lipid-uptake
#17
Clara Stiebing, Tobias Meyer, Ingo Rimke, Christian Matthäus, Michael Schmitt, Stefan Lorkowski, Jürgen Popp
Monitoring living cells in real-time is important in order to unravel complex dynamic processes in life sciences. In particular the dynamics of initiation and progression of degenerative diseases is intensely studied. In atherosclerosis the thickening of arterial walls is related to high lipid levels in the blood stream, which trigger the lipid uptake and formation of droplets as neutral lipid reservoirs in macrophages in the arterial wall. Unregulated lipid uptake finally results in foam cell formation, which is a hallmark of atherosclerosis...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160444/imaging-mass-cytometry
#18
EDITORIAL
Qing Chang, Olga I Ornatsky, Iram Siddiqui, Alexander Loboda, Vladimir I Baranov, David W Hedley
Imaging Mass Cytometry (IMC) is an expansion of mass cytometry, but rather than analyzing single cells in suspension, it uses laser ablation to generate plumes of particles that are carried to the mass cytometer by a stream of inert gas. Images reconstructed from tissue sections scanned by IMC have a resolution comparable to light microscopy, with the high content of mass cytometry enabled through the use of isotopically labeled probes and ICP-MS detection. Importantly, IMC can be performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, so can be applied to the retrospective analysis of patient cohorts whose outcome is known, and eventually to personalized medicine...
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154184/bax-bak-independent-mitochondrial-depolarization-and-reactive-oxygen-species-induction-by-sorafenib-overcome-resistance-to-apoptosis-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#19
Bernhard Gillissen, Anja Richter, Antje Richter, Robert Preissner, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff, Frank Essmann, Peter T Daniel
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is polyresistant to chemo- and radiotherapy or biologicals including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of RCC, has been shown to sensitize cancer cells toward TRAIL-induced apoptosis, in particular by downregulation of the Bak-inhibitory Bcl 2 family protein Mcl 1. Here, we demonstrate that sorafenib overcomes TRAIL resistance in RCC by a mechanism that does not rely on Mcl 1 downregulation. Instead, sorafenib induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) that is accompanied by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147596/acoustic-and-streaming-velocity-components-in-a-resonant-waveguide-at-high-acoustic-levels
#20
Virginie Daru, Ida Reyt, Hélène Bailliet, Catherine Weisman, Diana Baltean-Carlès
Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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