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HIV in pediatrics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824723/a-thirty-year-perspective-of-the-long-term-survival-cd4-percentage-and-social-achievements-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-as-a-function-of-their-birth-era
#1
Sharon Vuppula, Donna Tyungu, Aditya Kaul, Sulachni Chandwani, Mona Rigaud, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV has evolved from a pre-antiretroviral era (pre-1989 or Pre-ART) to an antiretroviral (ART) era (1989-1996) & to a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (post-1996). As we have passed the 3rd decade following these individuals, we thought it useful to review clinical, laboratory, & social outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 399 children infected perinatally. They were divided into Pre-ART, ART & HAART groups...
November 7, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814690/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-children-in-beijing-china-2002-2013
#2
Ling-Yun Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Yue Liu, Tian-Ming Chen, Shao-Ying Li, Yong-Hong Yang, Gang Liu
BACKGROUND: Data regarding HIV-seronegative pediatric patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) have been very limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed non-HIV-infected in patients with CM from January 2002 through December 2013 in Beijing Children's Hospital. Records of the all patients were obtained and compared. RESULTS: The 34 children had a median age of 5.6 years. Most of the patients were male (67.6 %). Only 23.5 % of the cases had identifiable underlying diseases...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#3
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710244/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-lipodystrophy-syndromes-a-multi-society-practice-guideline
#4
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689909/malaria-how-this-parasitic-infection-aids-and-abets-ebv-associated-burkitt-lymphomagenesis
#5
REVIEW
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621353/executive-summary-official-american-thoracic-society-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis
#6
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570762/perspectives-and-practice-of-hiv-disclosure-to-children-and-adolescents-by-health-care-providers-and-caregivers-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Oluyemisi Aderomilehin, Angella Hanciles-Amu, Oluwatobi Ohiole Ozoya
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest prevalence of HIV globally, and this is due to persistent new HIV infections and decline in HIV/AIDS-related mortality from improved access to antiretroviral (ART) therapy. There is a limited body of work on perspectives of health-care providers (HCPs) concerning disclosing outcomes of HIV investigations to children and adolescents in SSA. Most studies are country-specific, indicating a need for a regional scope. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the perspectives of HCPs and caregivers of children and adolescents on age group-specific and culture-sensitive HIV disclosure practice...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551970/hearing-loss-in-hiv-infected-children-in-lilongwe-malawi
#8
Susan Hrapcak, Hannah Kuper, Peter Bartlett, Akash Devendra, Atupele Makawa, Maria Kim, Peter Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4-14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516382/official-american-thoracic-society-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis
#9
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457719/health-outcomes-and-the-transition-experience-of-hiv-infected-adolescents-after-transfer-to-adult-care-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#10
Fatima Kakkar, Dimitri Van der Linden, Silvie Valois, Francois Maurice, Marion Onnorouille, Normand Lapointe, Hugo Soudeyns, Valerie Lamarre
BACKGROUND: Little is known on outcomes after transition to adult care among adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. Though there is data from other chronic pediatric diseases suggesting increased morbidity and mortality following transfer to adult care, this has not well been studied among the first wave of survivors of perinatal HIV infection. The primary objective of this study was to determine outcomes after transition to adult care among a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents in Québec, Canada...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456089/arthritis-in-childhood-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-predominantly-associated-with-human-leukocyte-antigen-b27
#11
Deepti Suri, Avinash Sharma, Sagar Bhattad, Amit Rawat, Sunil Arora, Ranjana W Minz, Surjit Singh
AIM: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present with recurrent and unusual infections. Although reported among adults, arthritis as a predominant presentation in children with HIV is rare. Reactive arthritis is considered to be the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adults with HIV infection. However, in children, septic or HIV-related arthritis has been described. We report four children having arthritis with HIV disease and their long-term outcome; out of which three had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-related arthritis...
July 26, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443557/cryptococcal-disease-in-hiv-infected-children
#12
REVIEW
Carol Kao, David L Goldman
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that is remarkable for its tendency to cause meningoencephalitis, especially in patients with AIDS. While disease is less common in children than adults, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children without access to anti-retroviral therapy. This review highlights recent insights into both the biology and treatment of cryptococcosis with a special emphasis on the pediatric literature.
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413548/the-need-for-pediatric-formulations-to-treat-children-with-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Adrienne F Schlatter, Andrew R Deathe, Rachel C Vreeman
Over 3.2 million children worldwide are infected with HIV, but only 24% of these children receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence among children is a crucial part of managing human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and extending the life and health of infected children. Important causes of poor adherence are formulation- and regimen-specific properties, including poor palatability, large pill burden, short dosing intervals, and the complex storage and transportation of drugs. This review aims to summarize the various regimen- and formulation-based barriers to ART adherence among children to support the need for new and innovative pediatric formulations for antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410495/parenting-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-united-states-challenges-unmet-needs-and-opportunities
#14
Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, Jennifer L Brown, Lisa B Haddad, Rana Chakraborty, Athena P Kourtis
Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings...
July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395433/impact-of-hiv-status-disclosure-on-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-children-in-resource-limited-settings-a-systematic-review
#15
Justin Nichols, Alexis Steinmetz, Elijah Paintsil
Pediatric HIV remains a significant global health dilemma, especially in resource-constrained nations. As access to ART increases around the world, areas of concern in pediatric HIV treatment include age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to children and development of adherence habits over time. This review was conducted to synthesize quantitative associations reported between disclosure and adherence among children living with HIV in resource-limited settings. An electronic database search of PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane returned 1348 results after removal of duplicates, 14 of which were found to meet inclusion criteria...
July 9, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335781/giant-condyloma-acuminatum-in-the-genital-perineal-and-perianal-region-in-a-pediatric-patient-literature-review-and-case-report
#16
Rodrigo Suárez-Ibarrola, Alexander Heinze, Fabian Sánchez-Sagástegui, Atziri Negrin-Ramírez, Roberto Aguilar-Anzures, Luis Xochihua-Diaz, Juan Osvaldo Cuevas-Alpuche
Condyloma acuminata is caused by the proliferation of squamous epithelial cells in the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. There are several treatment options available for anogenital warts, however, none have proven to be more efficacious. We present the case of a 3 year-8 months-old male, diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who presented with multiple warts in the anogenital region. Lesions were treated with imiquimod 5%, electrosurgical resection and interferon α-2b...
July 2016: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308805/hospitalized-children-reveal-health-systems-gaps-in-the-mother-child-hiv-care-cascade-in-kenya
#17
Irene N Njuguna, Anjuli D Wagner, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Judith A Onyango, Daisy J Chebet, Helen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Jennifer A Slyker, Grace C John-Stewart, Dalton C Wamalwa
To identify missed opportunities in HIV prevention, diagnosis, and linkage to care, we enrolled 183 hospitalized, HIV-infected, ART-naïve Kenyan children 0-12 years from four hospitals in Nairobi and Kisumu, and reviewed prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), hospitalization, and HIV testing history. Median age was 1.8 years (IQR = 0.8, 4.5). Most mothers received HIV testing during pregnancy (77%). Among mothers tested, 60% and 40% reported HIV-negative and positive results, respectively; 33% of HIV-diagnosed mothers did not receive PMTCT antiretrovirals...
March 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282427/targeted-spontaneous-reporting-assessing-opportunities-to-conduct-routine-pharmacovigilance-for-antiretroviral-treatment-on-an-international-scale
#18
Beth Rachlis, Rakhi Karwa, Celia Chema, Sonak Pastakia, Sten Olsson, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Beatrice Jakait, Mercy Maina, Marcel Yotebieng, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Aimee Freeman, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Stephany N Duda, Mary-Ann Davies, Paula Braitstein
INTRODUCTION: Targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) is a pharmacovigilance method that can enhance reporting of adverse drug reactions related to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Minimal data exist on the needs or capacity of facilities to conduct TSR. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium, the present study had two objectives: (1) to develop a list of facility characteristics that could constitute key assets in the conduct of TSR; (2) to use this list as a starting point to describe the existing capacity of IeDEA-participating facilities to conduct pharmacovigilance through TSR...
October 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225854/antiretroviral-therapy-in-children-less-than-24-months-of-age-at-pediatric-hiv-centers-in-tanzania-12-month-clinical-outcomes-and-survival
#19
Neel Mahesh Naik, Jason Bacha, Anthony E Gesase, Theresa Barton, Gordon E Schutze, Richard Sebastian Wanless, Mercy Maria Minde, Lumumba Francis Mwita, Mike A Tolle
BACKGROUND: Without antiretroviral therapy (ART), approximately one-half of HIV-infected infants will die by two years. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that all HIV-infected infants < 24 months be initiated on ART regardless of their clinical/immunologic status. However, there remains little published data detailing cohorts of infants on ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes baseline characteristics and 12 month outcomes of a cohort of HIV-infected children < 24 months of age at pediatric HIV centers in Mwanza and Mbeya, Tanzania...
September 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082516/mapping-the-epidemiology-of-kaposi-sarcoma-and-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-among-children-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Chris A Rees, Elizabeth M Keating, Heather Lukolyo, Heather E Danysh, Michael E Scheurer, Parth S Mehta, Joseph Lubega, Jeremy S Slone
Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) compared to HIV-negative children. We compiled currently published epidemiologic data on KS and NHL among children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Among countries with available data, the median incidence of KS was 2.05/100,000 in the general pediatric population and 67.35/100,000 among HIV-infected children. The median incidence of NHL was 1.98/100,000 among the general pediatric population, while data on NHL incidence among HIV-infected children were lacking...
August 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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