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HIV in pediatrics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199348/presentation-management-and-outcomes-of-sepsis-in-adults-and-children-admitted-to-a-rural-ugandan-hospital-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#1
Kristina E Rudd, Leonard K Tutaryebwa, T Eoin West
OBJECTIVES: Limited data are available on sepsis in low-resource settings, particularly outside of urban referral centers. We conducted a prospective observational single-center cohort study in May 2013 to assess the presentation, management and outcomes of adult and pediatric patients admitted with sepsis to a community hospital in rural Uganda. METHODS: We consecutively screened all patients admitted to medical wards who met sepsis criteria. We evaluated eligible patients within 24 hours of presentation and 24-48 hours after admission, and followed them until hospital discharge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192579/infectious-diseases-and-immunizations-in-international-adoption
#2
Emily Obringer, Linda Walsh
Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164028/the-clinical-spectrum-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-in-cameroon-a-hospital-based-study-in-yaounde-cameroon
#3
Andreas Chiabi, Berthe Malangue, Seraphin Nguefack, Félicitée Nguefack Dongmo, Florence Fru, Virginie Takou, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1.9% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical aspects and outcome of SAM at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH)...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066999/transplant-infectious-diseases-a-review-of-the-scientific-registry-of-transplant-recipients-published-data
#4
Camille N Kotton, Shirish Huprikar, Deepali Kumar
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) serves to collect data on organ transplants done in the United States. Although the infectious diseases data are limited and include mostly pretransplant serologies and other non-specific infection related outcomes, such multicenter data collection allows for insightful national data and the ability to monitor trends over time. We reviewed the published concise reports for each organ type in SRTR reports containing data from 2005-2014, and summarized our findings with respect to cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodefiency virus (HIV), general infection, and prophylaxis...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027281/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#5
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine vs efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine vs efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/ml at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (p=0...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824723/a-thirty-year-perspective-of-the-long-term-survival-cd4-percentage-and-social-achievements-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-as-a-function-of-their-birth-era
#6
Sharon Vuppula, Donna Tyungu, Aditya Kaul, Sulachni Chandwani, Mona Rigaud, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV has evolved from a pre-antiretroviral era (pre-1989 or Pre-ART) to an antiretroviral (ART) era (1989-1996) & to a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (post-1996). As we have passed the 3rd decade following these individuals, we thought it useful to review clinical, laboratory, & social outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of 399 children infected perinatally. They were divided into Pre-ART, ART & HAART groups...
November 7, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814690/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-children-in-beijing-china-2002-2013
#7
Ling-Yun Guo, Lin-Lin Liu, Yue Liu, Tian-Ming Chen, Shao-Ying Li, Yong-Hong Yang, Gang Liu
BACKGROUND: Data regarding HIV-seronegative pediatric patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) have been very limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed non-HIV-infected in patients with CM from January 2002 through December 2013 in Beijing Children's Hospital. Records of the all patients were obtained and compared. RESULTS: The 34 children had a median age of 5.6 years. Most of the patients were male (67.6 %). Only 23.5 % of the cases had identifiable underlying diseases...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765020/demographic-and-mortality-analysis-of-hospitalized-children-at-a-referral-hospital-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#8
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710244/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-lipodystrophy-syndromes-a-multi-society-practice-guideline
#9
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina I Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes the diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689909/malaria-how-this-parasitic-infection-aids-and-abets-ebv-associated-burkitt-lymphomagenesis
#10
REVIEW
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621353/executive-summary-official-american-thoracic-society-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis
#11
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570762/perspectives-and-practice-of-hiv-disclosure-to-children-and-adolescents-by-health-care-providers-and-caregivers-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Oluyemisi Aderomilehin, Angella Hanciles-Amu, Oluwatobi Ohiole Ozoya
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the highest prevalence of HIV globally, and this is due to persistent new HIV infections and decline in HIV/AIDS-related mortality from improved access to antiretroviral (ART) therapy. There is a limited body of work on perspectives of health-care providers (HCPs) concerning disclosing outcomes of HIV investigations to children and adolescents in SSA. Most studies are country-specific, indicating a need for a regional scope. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the perspectives of HCPs and caregivers of children and adolescents on age group-specific and culture-sensitive HIV disclosure practice...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551970/hearing-loss-in-hiv-infected-children-in-lilongwe-malawi
#13
Susan Hrapcak, Hannah Kuper, Peter Bartlett, Akash Devendra, Atupele Makawa, Maria Kim, Peter Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4-14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516382/official-american-thoracic-society-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-treatment-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis
#14
Payam Nahid, Susan E Dorman, Narges Alipanah, Pennan M Barry, Jan L Brozek, Adithya Cattamanchi, Lelia H Chaisson, Richard E Chaisson, Charles L Daley, Malgosia Grzemska, Julie M Higashi, Christine S Ho, Philip C Hopewell, Salmaan A Keshavjee, Christian Lienhardt, Richard Menzies, Cynthia Merrifield, Masahiro Narita, Rick O'Brien, Charles A Peloquin, Ann Raftery, Jussi Saukkonen, H Simon Schaaf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Jeffrey R Starke, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Andrew Vernon
The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457719/health-outcomes-and-the-transition-experience-of-hiv-infected-adolescents-after-transfer-to-adult-care-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#15
Fatima Kakkar, Dimitri Van der Linden, Silvie Valois, Francois Maurice, Marion Onnorouille, Normand Lapointe, Hugo Soudeyns, Valerie Lamarre
BACKGROUND: Little is known on outcomes after transition to adult care among adolescents with perinatal HIV infection. Though there is data from other chronic pediatric diseases suggesting increased morbidity and mortality following transfer to adult care, this has not well been studied among the first wave of survivors of perinatal HIV infection. The primary objective of this study was to determine outcomes after transition to adult care among a cohort of HIV-infected adolescents in Québec, Canada...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456089/arthritis-in-childhood-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-predominantly-associated-with-human-leukocyte-antigen-b27
#16
Deepti Suri, Avinash Sharma, Sagar Bhattad, Amit Rawat, Sunil Arora, Ranjana W Minz, Surjit Singh
AIM: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection usually present with recurrent and unusual infections. Although reported among adults, arthritis as a predominant presentation in children with HIV is rare. Reactive arthritis is considered to be the most common musculoskeletal manifestation in adults with HIV infection. However, in children, septic or HIV-related arthritis has been described. We report four children having arthritis with HIV disease and their long-term outcome; out of which three had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-related arthritis...
October 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443557/cryptococcal-disease-in-hiv-infected-children
#17
REVIEW
Carol Kao, David L Goldman
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that is remarkable for its tendency to cause meningoencephalitis, especially in patients with AIDS. While disease is less common in children than adults, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children without access to anti-retroviral therapy. This review highlights recent insights into both the biology and treatment of cryptococcosis with a special emphasis on the pediatric literature.
September 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413548/the-need-for-pediatric-formulations-to-treat-children-with-hiv
#18
REVIEW
Adrienne F Schlatter, Andrew R Deathe, Rachel C Vreeman
Over 3.2 million children worldwide are infected with HIV, but only 24% of these children receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence among children is a crucial part of managing human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and extending the life and health of infected children. Important causes of poor adherence are formulation- and regimen-specific properties, including poor palatability, large pill burden, short dosing intervals, and the complex storage and transportation of drugs. This review aims to summarize the various regimen- and formulation-based barriers to ART adherence among children to support the need for new and innovative pediatric formulations for antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410495/parenting-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-the-united-states-challenges-unmet-needs-and-opportunities
#19
Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, Jennifer L Brown, Lisa B Haddad, Rana Chakraborty, Athena P Kourtis
Given the realistic expectations of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults (AYA) to have children and start families, steps must be taken to ensure that youth are prepared to deal with the challenges associated with their HIV and parenting. Literature reviews were conducted to identify published research and practice guidelines addressing parenting or becoming parents among HIV-infected AYA in the United States. Research articles or practice guidelines on this topic were not identified. Given the paucity of information available on this topic, this article provides a framework for the development of appropriate interventions and guidelines for use in clinical and community-based settings...
July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395433/impact-of-hiv-status-disclosure-on-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-children-in-resource-limited-settings-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Justin Nichols, Alexis Steinmetz, Elijah Paintsil
Pediatric HIV remains a significant global health dilemma, especially in resource-constrained nations. As access to ART increases around the world, areas of concern in pediatric HIV treatment include age-appropriate disclosure of HIV status to children and development of adherence habits over time. This review was conducted to synthesize quantitative associations reported between disclosure and adherence among children living with HIV in resource-limited settings. An electronic database search of PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane returned 1348 results after removal of duplicates, 14 of which were found to meet inclusion criteria...
January 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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