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HIV in pediatrics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#1
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224754/prevalence-of-chronic-ear-disease-among-hiv-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
David C Ianacone, Alden F Smith, Margaretha L Casselbrant, Robbert J H Ensink, Farrel Buchinsky, Abebe Melaku, Glenn Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV+, highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-treated children and compare this to the prevalence in healthy children of similar age living in a similar setting. INTRODUCTION: From previous clinical work in Ethiopia, we suspected that chronic middle ear disease was common both in the general pediatric population and especially among children with HIV/AIDS. Few studies have examined the prevalence of chronic ear disease in HIV + children, particularly in those treated with HAART...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194122/improving-postpartum-retention-in-care-for-women-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states
#3
Florence M Momplaisir, Deborah Storm, Hervette Nkwihoreze, Olakunle Jayeola, John B Jemmott
: Research findings have consistently demonstrated that women living with HIV (WLWH) in the United States and globally experience declines in medication adherence and retention in care after giving birth. A number of studies have identified factors associated with postpartum retention in care, but the evidence base for interventions to address the problem and close this gap in the HIV care continuum is limited. Furthermore, the majority of studies have been conducted in low-or moderate resource countries and may be less applicable or require adaptation for use in high resource countries...
November 30, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190337/optimizing-research-to-speed-up-availability-of-pediatric-antiretroviral-drugs-and-formulations
#4
Martina Penazzato, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Pablo Rojo, Marc Lallemant, Linda L Lewis, Francesca Rocchi, Agnes Saint Raymond, Nathan Ford, Rohan Hazra, Carlo Giaquinto, Yodit Belew, Diana M Gibb, Elaine J Abrams
Globally 1.8 million children are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet only 51% of those eligible actually start treatment. Research and development (R&D) for pediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a lengthy process and lags considerably behind drug development in adults. Providing safe, effective, and well-tolerated drugs for children remains critical to ensuring scale-up globally. We review current approaches to R&D for pediatric ARVs and suggest innovations to enable simplified, faster, and more comprehensive strategies to develop optimal formulations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165760/factors-responsible-for-mother-to-child-transmission-mtct-of-hiv-1-a-review
#5
J-F Liu, G Liu, Z-G Li
Many factors have been identified to influence the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Chief amongst these is high maternal VL and advanced disease. High maternal viral load (mVL), measured at delivery, has been described as the strongest risk factor for both in utero (IU) and intrapartum (IP) transmission. Similarly, CD4+ T cell count and clinical stage of infection are also the confirmed significant predictors of transmission. Correspondingly, higher mVL in the genital tract has also been independently associated with a higher risk of MTCT of HIV-1...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968170/broadening-eligibility-criteria-to-make-clinical-trials-more-representative-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-and-friends-of-cancer-research-joint-research-statement
#6
Edward S Kim, Suanna S Bruinooge, Samantha Roberts, Gwynn Ison, Nancy U Lin, Lia Gore, Thomas S Uldrick, Stuart M Lichtman, Nancy Roach, Julia A Beaver, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Paul J Hesketh, Andrea M Denicoff, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Eric Rubin, Pratik Multani, Tatiana M Prowell, Caroline Schenkel, Marina Kozak, Jeff Allen, Ellen Sigal, Richard L Schilsky
Purpose The primary purposes of eligibility criteria are to protect the safety of trial participants and define the trial population. Excessive or overly restrictive eligibility criteria can slow trial accrual, jeopardize the generalizability of results, and limit understanding of the intervention's benefit-risk profile. Methods ASCO, Friends of Cancer Research, and the US Food and Drug Administration examined specific eligibility criteria (ie, brain metastases, minimum age, HIV infection, and organ dysfunction and prior and concurrent malignancies) to determine whether to modify definitions to extend trials to a broader population...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956954/hiv-related-chronic-lung-disease-in-adolescents-are-we-prepared-for-the-future
#7
Pierre Goussard, Robert P Gie
Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review CLD in ALHIV. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases focusing on CLD that were common prior to the introduction of ART (1996-2004), the present situation where ART is widely available (2005 to 2016), and articles which aided us speculating on the impact of HIV-related CLD in adolescents transitioning to adult HIV-clinics...
December 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943171/challenges-and-perspectives-of-compliance-with-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
REVIEW
D L Dahourou, V Leroy
More than 3 million children aged less than 15years are infected with HIV worldwide, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The survival of HIV-infected children depends on their access to antiretroviral therapy whose success mainly depends on a good life-long compliance with antiretroviral therapy. Given its complexity and specificity, assessment and monitoring of pediatric compliance with antiretroviral therapy is a major challenge. There is no consensus on a gold standard for monitoring compliance with antiretroviral therapy...
September 22, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913332/the-impact-of-disclosure-on-health-and-related-outcomes-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Angela Odiachi
This review explores the association between pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure and health and related outcomes among children living with HIV. A multi-stage process was used to search for relevant articles on the ISI Web of Knowledge database. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Five major outcomes emerged from children's knowledge of their HIV-seropositive status: physical/physiological outcomes; adherence to antiretroviral therapy; psychosocial outcomes; sexual and reproductive health, including HIV prevention outcomes; and disclosure of status by the children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883971/vaccination-of-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-implications-for-protection-of-their-young-infants
#11
REVIEW
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#12
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734516/pediatric-human-immunodeficiency-virus-continuum-of-care-a-concise-review-of-evidence-based-practice
#13
REVIEW
Megan E Gray, Phillip Nieburg, Rebecca Dillingham
Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a population that requires a unique approach to HIV care. Prevention, testing, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention and engagement in care are critical steps. Each step requires providers to address age-specific barriers, so that successful and prolonged viral suppression can occur. Adherence to ART, disclosure of HIV-positive status, and stigma are examples of struggles faced by youth, their families, and health care providers...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721963/pediatric-hiv-in-india-current-scenario-and-the-way-forward
#14
REVIEW
Anita Nath
In India, the prevention of parent-to-child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services for HIV-infected mothers and children have been rapidly scaled up over the recent years. Despite these advances, a large number of HIV-infected children are born in every year. A thorough literature review has been done by retrieving related studies (published from the year 2000 onward); using a Medline search and by extracting recent findings from the official websites of the National AIDS Control Organization, UNAIDS, UNICEF, and World Health Organization...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694707/did-the-2011-aap-recommendations-on-youth-hiv-testing-change-practice-trends-from-a-large-urban-adolescent-program
#15
Sujatha Seetharaman, Cathryn L Samples, Maria Trent
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is adherence to the October 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for HIV screening in a large urban adolescent program with availability of a publicly funded program providing free, confidential, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV counseling and testing (then rapid or third generation HIV testing), nested in the same adolescent clinic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV screening trends among 13- to 24-year-old patients tested for HIV during periods of January 2010 to June 2011 (18 months pre-AAP recommendations period) and July 2011 to December 2012 (18-month period, which included 15 months after the AAP recommendations)...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#16
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505015/virologic-response-to-first-line-efavirenz-or-nevirapine-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-african-children
#17
Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Alexander J Szubert, Moira Spyer, Richard Katuramu, Victor Musiime, Tawanda Mhute, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Oscar Senfuma, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Poorer virologic response to nevirapine- versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in adult systematic reviews and pediatric studies. METHODS: We compared drug discontinuation and viral load (VL) response in ART-naïve Ugandan/Zimbabwean children ≥3 years of age initiating ART with clinician-chosen nevirapine versus efavirenz in the ARROW trial. Predictors of suppression <80, <400 and <1000 copies/mL at 36, 48 and 144 weeks were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination (P = 0...
June 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502224/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-an-insight-review
#18
Nityananda Mandal, Parveen Kumar Anand, Subhash Gautam, Shritam Das, Tahziba Hussain
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem, invading all age groups world-wide. It is an opportunistic infection affecting the individuals alone or with co-infections. Childhood TB is a neglected aspect and a significant health problem in epidemic areas. It constitutes more than 20% of TB incidence. Pediatric TB exists in the shadow of adult TB. The clinicians concentrate on pulmonary manifestation of TB, whereas it is a major problem in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary infections. The rate of infection with this disease is mostly associated with poverty, social disruption and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456065/improving-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-rates-after-pediatric-acute-sexual-assault
#19
Samantha Schilling, Stephanie A Deutsch, Rebecca Gieseker, Jennifer Molnar, Jane M Lavelle, Philip V Scribano
The purpose of our study was to increase the rate of children with appropriate HIV-PEP regimens among those diagnosed with sexual assault in The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Emergency Department (ED). The outcome measure was the percent of patients receiving correct HIV-PEP. We retrospectively reviewed 97 charts over 31 months to define the baseline rate of children receiving appropriate HIV-PEP regimens (pre QI-implementation period: 2/2012-8/2014). Among children in which HIV-PEP was indicated following sexual assault, 40% received the recommended 28-day course...
April 26, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
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