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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805938/what-is-new-in-the-pathophysiology-of-acne-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
B Dréno
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology includes hyperseborrhoea, abnormal follicular keratinization and Propionibacterium acnes proliferation in the pilosebaceous unit. Recent research has shed some new light on the involvement of the sebaceous gland, as well as on the pro-inflammatory activity of the cutaneous microbiome. During puberty, alteration of the sebaceous lipid profile, called dysseborrhoea, stress, irritation, cosmetics and potential dietary factors lead to inflammation and formation of different types of acne lesions...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805193/optics-of-plasmon-exciton-nanomaterials
#2
Maxim Sukharev, Abraham Nitzan
This review provides a brief introduction to the physics of coupled exciton-plasmon systems, the theoretical description and experimental manifestation of such phenomena, followed by an account of the state-of-the-art methodology for the numerical simulations of such phenomena and supplemented by a number of FORTRAN codes, by which the interested reader can introduce himself/herself to the practice of such simulations. Applications to CW light scattering as well as transient response and relaxation are described...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803264/hyaluronan-in-the-experimental-injury-of-the-cartilage-biochemical-action-and-protective-effects
#3
REVIEW
Angela Avenoso, Angela D'Ascola, Michele Scuruchi, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Alberto Calatroni, Antonino Saitta, Salvatore Campo, Giuseppe M Campo
INTRODUCTION: Our knowledge of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and function has increased enormously over the last decade or so. There is evidence demonstrating that ECM provides signals affecting cell adhesion, shape, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. ECM presents many domains that become active after proteolytic cleavage. These active ECM fragments are called matrikines which play different roles; in particular, they may act as potent inflammatory mediators during cartilage injury...
August 12, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801622/decoupling-frequencies-amplitudes-and-phases-in-nonlinear-optics
#4
Bruno E Schmidt, Philippe Lassonde, Guilmot Ernotte, Matteo Clerici, Roberto Morandotti, Heide Ibrahim, François Légaré
In linear optics, light fields do not mutually interact in a medium. However, they do mix when their field strength becomes comparable to electron binding energies in the so-called nonlinear optical regime. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra where their amplitudes and phases are mutually coupled in a convolution process. Here, we describe a regime of nonlinear interactions without mixing of different frequencies. We demonstrate both in theory and experiment how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from the convolution in conventional time domain interactions...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798760/striking-the-right-chord-signaling-enigma-during-root-gravitropism
#5
REVIEW
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, Ashverya Laxmi
Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they "know" which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797579/an-acid-seeking-carrier-free-drug-achieves-high-antitumor-activity-via-a-solution-particle-transition
#6
Xiaoying Zhang, Cuifeng Wang, Jiamin Wu, Yajun Liu, Zeping Yang, Ye Zhang, Xiaofeng Sui, Min Li, Min Feng
Drug nanocarriers that have long been expected to revolutionize cancer therapy have yet to achieve the significant clinical success. Therefore, it remains controversial to pursue a complex drug nanocarrier that lacks clinical relevance. Herein, we developed an easily-synthesized anti-tumor drug that actively seeks the acidic tumor microenvironment while ignoring the normal tissue without the aid of additional carriers. This called "carrier-free" drug (CFD) is capable of switching its morphology from the unstructured solution to the spherical structure in response to tumor acidity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797214/provider-perspectives-on-employment-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#7
Mark Costa, Michaella Baker, Larry Davidson, Julienne Giard, Linda Guillorn, Angels González Ibáñez, Dawn Weitz, Maria O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI) can lead productive lives, and the majority want to work. Mental health providers can play an important role in helping their clients gain and maintain employment. AIMS: The Provider Survey was developed to shed additional light on providers' views toward employment and recovery, and the utilization of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) services for people with SMI. METHODS: A total of 1,306 providers of the State of Connecticut participated in the survey...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795812/investigation-of-the-adsorption-of-amphipathic-macroraft-agents-onto-montmorillonite-clay
#8
Rodrigo Duarte Silva, Igor Stefanichen Monteiro, Thaïssa De Camargo Chaparro, Raíssa Silva Hardt, Reinaldo Giudici, Ana Barros-Timmons, Elodie Bourgeat-Lami, Amilton Martins Dos Santos
Recently, there has been significant interest in the use of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) technique to generate a variety of organic/inorganic colloidal composite particles in aqueous dispersed media using the so-called macroRAFT-assisted encapsulating emulsion polymerization (REEP) strategy. In this process, special attention should be paid to the adsorption of the macromolecular RAFT (macroRAFT) agent onto the inorganic particles as it determines the final particle morphology and can also influence latex stability...
August 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792772/tunneling-flight-time-chemistry-and-special-relativity
#9
Jakob Petersen, Eli Pollak
Attosecond ionization experiments have not resolved the question: ``What is the tunneling time?''. Different definitions of tunneling time lead to different results.Secondly, a zero tunneling time for a material particle suggests that the non-relativistic theory includes speeds greater than the speed of light. Chemical reactions, occurring via tunneling, should then not be considered in terms of a non-relativistic quantum theory calling into question quantum dynamics computations on tunneling reactions. To answer these questions, we define a new experimentally measurable paradigm - the tunneling flight time - and show that it vanishes for scattering through an Eckart or a square barrier, irrespective of barrier length or height, generalizing the Hartman effect...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790338/statistical-analysis-of-mutant-allele-frequency-level-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-and-blood-cells-in-healthy-individuals
#10
Ligang Xia, Zhoufang Li, Bo Zhou, Geng Tian, Lidong Zeng, Hongyu Dai, Xiaohua Li, Chaoyu Liu, Shixin Lu, Feiyue Xu, Xiaonian Tu, Fang Deng, Yuancai Xie, Weiren Huang, Jiankui He
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma has emerged as a potential important biomarker in clinical diagnostics, particularly in cancer. However, somatic mutations are also commonly found in healthy individuals, which interfere with the effectiveness for cancer diagnostics. This study examined the background somatic mutations in white blood cells (WBC) and cfDNA in healthy controls based on sequencing data from 821 non-cancer individuals and several cancer samples with the aim of understanding the patterns of mutations detected in cfDNA...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773226/on-critical-states-rupture-states-and-interlocking-strength-of-granular-materials
#11
Chris M Szalwinski
The Mohr-Coulomb theory of strength identifies cohesion and internal friction as the two principal contributions to the shear strength of a granular material. The contribution of cohesion in over-compacted granular materials has been challenged and replacing cohesion with interlocking has been proposed. A theory of rupture strength that includes interlocking is derived herein. The physics-chemistry concept of critical state is elaborated to accommodate granular materials, based on empirical definitions established in the fields of soil mechanics and bulk solids' flow...
July 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769667/molecular-morphological-and-acoustic-assessment-of-the-genus-ophryophryne-anura-megophryidae-from-langbian-plateau-southern-vietnam-with-description-of-a-new-species
#12
Nikolay A Poyarkov Jr, Tang Van Duong, Nikolai L Orlov, Svetlana S Gogoleva, Anna B Vassilieva, Luan Thanh Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang Nguyen, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Jing Che, Stephen Mahony
Asian Mountain Toads (Ophryophryne) are a poorly known genus of mostly small-sized anurans from southeastern China and Indochina. To shed light on the systematics within this group, the most comprehensive mitochondrial DNA phylogeny for the genus to date is presented, and the taxonomy and biogeography of this group is discussed. Complimented with extensive morphological data (including associated statistical analyses), molecular data indicates that the Langbian Plateau, in the southern Annamite Mountains, Vietnam, is one of the diversity centres of this genus where three often sympatric species of Ophryophryne are found, O...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769103/flower-like-internal-emission-distribution-of-leds-with-monolithic-integration-of-ingan-based-quantum-wells-emitting-narrow-blue-green-and-red-spectra
#13
Kwanjae Lee, Ilgyu Choi, Cheul-Ro Lee, Tae-Hoon Chung, Yoon Seok Kim, Kwang-Un Jeong, Dong Chul Chung, Jin Soo Kim
We report a phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes (LED) realized by the monolithic integration of In0.18Ga0.82N/GaN (438 nm, blue), In0.26Ga0.74N/GaN (513 nm, green), and In0.45Ga0.55N/In0.13Ga0.87N (602 nm, red) quantum wells (QWs) as an active medium. The QWs corresponding to blue and green light were grown using a conventional growth mode. For the red spectral emission, five-stacked In0.45Ga0.55N/In0.13Ga0.87N QWs were realized by the so-called Ga-flow-interruption (Ga-FI) technique, wherein the Ga supply was periodically interrupted during the deposition of In0...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769067/3-d-imaging-reveals-four-extraordinary-cases-of-convergent-evolution-of-acoustic-communication-in-crickets-and-allies-insecta
#14
Laure Desutter-Grandcolas, Lauriane Jacquelin, Sylvain Hugel, Renaud Boistel, Romain Garrouste, Michel Henrotay, Ben H Warren, Ioana C Chintauan-Marquier, Patricia Nel, Philippe Grandcolas, André Nel
When the same complex trait is exhibited by closely related species, a single evolutionary origin is frequently invoked. The complex stridulatory apparatus present in the forewings of extant crickets, mole crickets, katydids, and prophalangopsids, is currently interpreted as sharing a single common origin due to their similarity and unique function. An alternative hypothesis of convergent evolution in these ensiferan groups has challenged this common view, but remained controversial because of competing interpretations of wing venation...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767452/ultra-small-v-shaped-gold-split-ring-resonators-for-biosensing-using-fundamental-magnetic-resonance-in-the-visible-spectrum
#15
Alana Mauluidy Soehartono, Aaron Mueller, Landobasa Y M Tobing, Kok Ken Chan, Dao Hua Zhang, Ken-Tye Yong
Strong light localization within metal nanostructures occurs by collective oscillations of plasmons in the form of electric and magnetic resonances. This so-called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has gained much interest in the development of low-cost sensing platforms in the visible spectrum. However, demonstrations of LSPR-based sensing are mostly limited to electric resonances due to the technological limitations for achieving magnetic resonances in the visible spectrum. In this work, we report the first demonstration of LSPR sensing based on fundamental magnetic resonance in the visible spectrum using ultrasmall gold v-shaped split ring resonators...
August 2, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767083/full-duplex-cooperative-sensing-for-spectrum-heterogeneous-cognitive-radio-networks
#16
Peng Liu, Wangdong Qi, En Yuan, Li Wei, Yuexin Zhao
In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), spectrum sensing is critical for guaranteeing that the opportunistic spectrum access by secondary users (SUs) will not interrupt legitimate primary users (PUs). The application of full-duplex radio to spectrum sensing enables SU to carry out sensing and transmission simultaneously, improving both spectrum awareness and CRN throughput. However, the issue of spectrum sensing with full-duplex radios deployed in heterogeneous environments, where SUs may observe different spectrum activities, has not been addressed...
August 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762726/intracellular-uncaging-of-cgmp-with-blue-light
#17
Hitesh K Agarwal, Shenyu Zhai, D James Surmeier, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
We have made a new caged cGMP that is photolyzed with blue light. Using our recently developed derivative of 7-diethylaminocourmarin (DEAC) called DEAC450, we synthesized coumarin phosphoester derivatives of cGMP with two negative charges appended to the DEAC450 moiety. DEAC450-cGMP is freely soluble in physiological buffer without the need for any organic cosolvents. With a photolysis quantum yield of 0.18 and an extinction coefficient of 43 000 M(-1) cm(-1) at 453 nm, DEAC450-cGMP is the most photosensitive caged cGMP made to date...
August 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762593/influencing-everyday-activities-in-a-nursing-home-setting-a-call-for-ethical-and-responsive-engagement
#18
Margarita Mondaca, Staffan Josephsson, Arlene Katz, Lena Rosenberg
This study focuses on influence that older adults, living in nursing homes, have over everyday activities. Everyday activities are key to sustain a sense of stability, predictability, and enjoyment in the local world of people's everyday and therefore a critical dimension of the person-centeredness framework applied within gerontology. This narrative ethnographic study aimed to shed light on how influence can be situated contextually, and how it can emerge through activities as well as how it is negotiated in everyday by frail older adults living in a nursing home...
August 1, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760346/a-defect-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-mpv17-underlies-the-transparent-casper-zebrafish
#19
Gianluca D'Agati, Rosanna Beltre, Anna Sessa, Alexa Burger, Yi Zhou, Christian Mosimann, Richard M White
The casper strain of zebrafish is widely used in studies ranging from cancer to neuroscience. casper offers the advantage of relative transparency throughout adulthood, making it particularly useful for in vivo imaging by epifluorescence, confocal, and light sheet microscopy. casper was developed by selective breeding of two previously described recessive pigment mutants: 1) nacre, which harbors an inactivating mutation of the mitfa gene, rendering the fish devoid of pigmented melanocytes; and 2) roy orbison, a mutant with so-far unidentified genetic cause that lacks reflective iridophores...
July 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758025/pursuing-ethical-coherence-in-the-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-of-hiv-justice-and-injustice-in-option-b
#20
EDITORIAL
Nathan Hodson, Susan Bewley
Improved prevention of vertical transmission of HIV is an essential part of the global response to HIV. The Option B+ strategy took the extraordinary step of treating many non-pregnant women living with HIV (those with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/mm(3)) in the absence of evidence that they themselves would benefit from ART. This example of so-called AIDS exceptionalism reflects an understanding that the global response to HIV demands a different set of morals. This philosophical article explores a retrospective analysis of the ethical arguments made in support of Option B+ incorporating utilitarian, feminist and equity-based frameworks...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
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