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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651016/enhanced-light-microscopy-visualization-of-virus-particles-from-zika-virus-to-filamentous-ebolaviruses
#1
George G Daaboul, David S Freedman, Steven M Scherr, Erik Carter, Alexandru Rosca, David Bernstein, Chad E Mire, Krystle N Agans, Thomas Hoenen, Thomas W Geisbert, M Selim Ünlü, John H Connor
Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647616/photodynamic-therapy-in-dermatology-beyond-non-melanoma-cancer-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Xiang Wen, Yong Li, Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs a photosensitizer (PS) and visible light in the presence of oxygen, leading to production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which can damage the cellular organelles and cause cell death. In dermatology PDT has usually taken the form of topical application of a precursor in the heme biosynthesis pathway, called 5-aminolevulinic acid (or its methyl ester), so that an active PS, protoporphyrin IX accumulates in the skin. As PDT enhances dermal remodeling and resolves chronic inflamation, it has been used to treat cutaneous disorders include actinic keratoses, acne, viral warts, skin rejuvenation, psoriasis, localized scleroderma, some non-melanoma skin cancers and port-wine stains...
June 21, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642163/perianal-structures-in-myrmecophilous-subterranean-aphids-insecta-hemiptera-aphididae-comparative-morphology-of-trophobiotic-organ-with-its-first-description-in-lachninae
#3
Mariusz Kanturski, Jagna Karcz, Natalia Kaszyca, Łukasz Depa
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light stereoscopic microscopy (LSM) were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the so called "trophobiotic organ" on the end of abdomen of apterous viviparous females of six aphid species (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), representatives of the myrmecophilous, subterranean aphids from the subfamilies Anoeciinae (Anoecia furcata), Eriosomatinae (Forda formicaria, Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi), and Lachninae (Protrama flavescens, Trama troglodytes)...
June 19, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641591/foucault-retires-to-the-gym-understanding-embodied-aging-in-the-third-age
#4
Kristi A Allain, Barbara Marshall
In light of recent social pressures leading to a reimagining of the "Third Age" as a time of constant activity rather than repose and relaxation, this article explores the pressure on individuals to age "successfully" by engaging in physical activity in later life. Through semi-structured interviews with 15 retired or semi-retired gym-goers (eight women and seven men), the article examines how this call to increased activity impacts the ways active mid-life and older adults understand themselves and others...
June 23, 2017: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641258/quality-assessment-of-perceptual-crosstalk-on-two-view-auto-stereoscopic-displays
#5
Jongyoo Kim, Taewan Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Alan C Bovik
Crosstalk is one of the most severe factors affecting the perceived quality of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) images. It arises from a leakage of light intensity between multiple views, as in auto-stereoscopic displays. Well-known determinants of crosstalk include the co-location contrast and disparity of the left and right images, which have been dealt with in prior studies. However, when a natural stereo image that contains complex naturalistic spatial characteristics is viewed on an auto-stereoscopic display, other factors may also play an important role in the perception of crosstalk...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640628/oriented-gold-nanorods-and-gold-nanorod-chains-within-smectic-liquid-crystal-topological-defects
#6
Brigita Rožič, Jérôme Fresnais, Celine Molinaro, Joseph Calixte, Shivakumar Umadevi, Stephanie Lau-Truong, Nordin Felidj, Tobias Kraus, Fabrice Charra, Vincent Dupuis, Torsten Hegmann, Celine Fiorini-Debuisschert, Bruno Gallas, Emmanuelle Lacaze
We show that the use of oriented linear arrays of smectic A defects, the so-called smectic oily streaks, enables the orientation of gold nanorods (GNRs) for a large range of GNR diameters, ranging from 7 to 48 nm, and for various ligands. For the small GNRs it enables oriented end-to-end small chains of GNRs when the density is increased from around 2 GNRs/μm(2) to around 6 GNRs/μm(2). We have characterized the orientation of single GNRs by spectrophotometry and two-photon luminescence (TPL). A strongly anisotropic absorption of the composites and an on-off switching of GNR luminescence, both controlled by incident light polarization, are observed, revealing an orientation of the GNRs mostly parallel to the oily streaks...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633754/total-body-skin-examination-adherence-among-young-adults-with-an-increased-risk-for-skin-cancer
#7
Julie Williams Merten, Jessica L King, Erin Largo-Wight
Although ultraviolent radiation exposure and skin cancer rates are rising in the US, there is not a consistent national message calling for routine total body skin examinations (TBSE) by a healthcare provider. This pilot study examined TBSE rates among adults at an increased risk for skin cancer (history of sunburn, indoor tanning use, excessive UV exposure, poor sunscreen use). Overall skin cancer prevention behaviors were insufficient among respondents (n=953) and only a quarter of respondents considered at an increased risk for skin cancer reported a TBSE...
June 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632201/advantageous-developmental-outcomes-of-advancing-paternal-age
#8
M Janecka, F Rijsdijk, D Rai, A Modabbernia, A Reichenberg
Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been associated with negative outcomes in offspring, raising concerns about increasing age at fatherhood. Evidence from evolutionary and psychological research, however, suggests possible link between APA and a phenotypic advantage. We defined such advantage as educational success, which is positively associated with future socioeconomic status. We hypothesised that high IQ, strong focus on the subject of interest and little concern about 'fitting in' will be associated with such success...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630919/discovery-of-lorentz-violating-type-ii-weyl-fermions-in-laalge
#9
Su-Yang Xu, Nasser Alidoust, Guoqing Chang, Hong Lu, Bahadur Singh, Ilya Belopolski, Daniel S Sanchez, Xiao Zhang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Marious-Adrian Husanu, Yi Bian, Shin-Ming Huang, Chuang-Han Hsu, Tay-Rong Chang, Horng-Tay Jeng, Arun Bansil, Titus Neupert, Vladimir N Strocov, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, M Zahid Hasan
In quantum field theory, Weyl fermions are relativistic particles that travel at the speed of light and strictly obey the celebrated Lorentz symmetry. Their low-energy condensed matter analogs are Weyl semimetals, which are conductors whose electronic excitations mimic the Weyl fermion equation of motion. Although the traditional (type I) emergent Weyl fermions observed in TaAs still approximately respect Lorentz symmetry, recently, the so-called type II Weyl semimetal has been proposed, where the emergent Weyl quasiparticles break the Lorentz symmetry so strongly that they cannot be smoothly connected to Lorentz symmetric Weyl particles...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630332/evolutionary-strata-on-young-mating-type-chromosomes-despite-the-lack-of-sexual-antagonism
#10
Sara Branco, Hélène Badouin, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jérôme Gouzy, Fantin Carpentier, Gabriela Aguileta, Sophie Siguenza, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Marco A Coelho, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Sex chromosomes can display successive steps of recombination suppression known as "evolutionary strata," which are thought to result from the successive linkage of sexually antagonistic genes to sex-determining genes. However, there is little evidence to support this explanation. Here we investigate whether evolutionary strata can evolve without sexual antagonism using fungi that display suppressed recombination extending beyond loci determining mating compatibility despite lack of male/female roles associated with their mating types...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625212/mental-health-service-use-and-need-for-care-of-australians-without-diagnoses-of-mental-disorders-findings-from-a-large-epidemiological-survey
#11
I Bobevski, A Rosen, G Meadows
AIMS: While epidemiological surveys worldwide have found a considerable proportion of people using mental health services not to have a diagnosis of a mental disorder, with possible implications of service overuse, other work has suggested that most people without a current diagnosis who used services exhibited other indicators of need. The aims of the present study were, using somewhat different categorisations than previous work, to investigate whether: (1) Australians without a diagnosis of a mental disorder who used mental health services had other indicators of need; and (2) how rate and frequency of service use in Australia related to level of need, then to discuss the findings in light of recent developments in Australian Mental Health Policy and other epidemiological and services research findings...
June 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624897/corrosion-of-harrington-rod-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-long-term-effects
#12
Beth Sherman, Tanya Crowell
PURPOSE: Metal implants have been used to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis since the 1960s. Only recently, however, it has the issue of metal-bone breakdown secondary to metal corrosion in situ come to light, raising concerns of possible long-term complications from the resulting metallosis and inflammation of spinal tissues. We present a case of a patient with neurological deficit, pain, and disability with Harrington rod in place for over 30 years, to bring attention to the issue of bio-corrosion of metal implants and its effect on human tissue...
June 17, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623053/lgbt-healthcare-disparities-what-progress-have-we-made
#13
Kathleen A Bonvicini
Nearly fifteen years have passed since this author's publication which examined the depth of education and training for medical students and practicing physicians specific to clinical competence in the care of lesbian and gay patients in the United States. Since then, there has been an explosion of research gains which have shed a steady light on the needs and disparities of lesbian and gay healthcare. This rich literature base has expanded to include bisexual and transgender (LGBT) healthcare in peer-reviewed journals...
June 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621976/dark-vibronic-polaritons-and-the-spectroscopy-of-organic-microcavities
#14
Felipe Herrera, Frank C Spano
Organic microcavities are photonic nanostructures that strongly confine the electromagnetic field, allowing exotic quantum regimes of light-matter interaction with disordered organic semiconductors. The unambiguous interpretation of the spectra of organic microcavities has been a long-standing challenge due to several competing effects involving electrons, vibrations, and cavity photons. Here we present a theoretical framework that is able to describe the main spectroscopic features of organic microcavities consistently...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621725/how-environmental-factors-affect-the-production-of-guanidine-alkaloids-by-the-mediterranean-sponge-crambe-crambe
#15
Eva Ternon, Erica Perino, Renata Manconi, Roberto Pronzato, Olivier P Thomas
Most marine sponges are known to produce a large array of low molecular-weight metabolites which have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The production of so-called specialized metabolites may be closely related to environmental factors. In this context, assessing the contribution of factors like temperature, nutrients or light to the metabolomes of sponges provides relevant insights into their chemical ecology as well as the supply issue of natural sponge products. The sponge Crambe crambe was chosen as a model due to its high content of specialized metabolites belonging to polycyclic guanidine alkaloids (PGA)...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621416/all-in-one-integrating-cell-polarity-meiosis-mitosis-and-mechanical-forces-in-early-oocyte-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#16
Yaniv M Elkouby
While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620342/challenges-for-service-robots-requirements-of-elderly-adults-with-cognitive-impairments
#17
Agnieszka Korchut, Sebastian Szklener, Carla Abdelnour, Natalia Tantinya, Joan Hernández-Farigola, Joan Carles Ribes, Urszula Skrobas, Katarzyna Grabowska-Aleksandrowicz, Dorota Szczęśniak-Stańczyk, Konrad Rejdak
OBJECTIVE: We focused on identifying the requirements and needs of people suffering from Alzheimer disease and early dementia stages with relation to robotic assistants. METHODS: Based on focus groups performed in two centers (Poland and Spain), we created surveys for medical staff, patients, and caregivers, including: functional requirements; human-robot interaction, the design of the robotic assistant and user acceptance aspects. Using Likert scale and analysis made on the basis of the frequency of survey responses, we identified users' needs as high, medium, and low priority...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620305/comparative-effects-of-chloride-channel-inhibitors-on-lrrc8-vrac-mediated-chloride-conductance
#18
Jonas Friard, Michel Tauc, Marc Cougnon, Vincent Compan, Christophe Duranton, Isabelle Rubera
Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620035/molecular-interactions-shaping-the-tetraspanin-web
#19
REVIEW
Sjoerd J van Deventer, Vera-Marie E Dunlock, Annemiek B van Spriel
To facilitate the myriad of different (signaling) processes that take place at the plasma membrane, cells depend on a high degree of membrane protein organization. Important mediators of this organization are tetraspanin proteins. Tetraspanins interact laterally among themselves and with partner proteins to control the spatial organization of membrane proteins in large networks called the tetraspanin web. The molecular interactions underlying the formation of the tetraspanin web were hitherto mainly described based on their resistance to different detergents, a classification which does not necessarily correlate with functionality in the living cell...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619755/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-targeted-photoimmunotherapy-pit-for-the-treatment-of-egfr-expressing-bladder-cancer
#20
Reema Railkar, L Spencer Krane, Q Quentin Li, Thomas Sanford, Mohammad Rashid Siddiqui, Diana Haines, Srinivas Vourganti, Sam J Brancato, Peter L Choyke, Hisataka Kobayashi, Piyush K Agarwal
The use of light as a means of therapy for bladder cancer (BC) has a long history but has been hampered by a lack of tumor specificity and therefore, damage to the normal bladder mucosa. Here, we describe a targeted form of photo-therapy called photoimmunotherapy (PIT) which targets EGFR-expressing BC. Anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab (pan) was labeled with the photo-absorber (PA), IRDye 700Dx (IR700), to create a pan IR700 antibody-PA conjugate which is activated by near-infrared radiation (NIR). BC tissue microarray (TMA) and BC cell lines were analyzed for expression of EGFR...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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