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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543655/public-practices-and-personal-perspectives
#1
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
I once heard John Arras, who was one of bioethics' bright lights and, toward the end of his life, a member of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, remark that it is hard for an ethics commission not to "do paint-by-numbers ethics." What I think Arras had in mind is an approach that, in the set of essays that make up this special report, Rebecca Dresser describes as a listing of "general, often relatively uncontroversial" moral positions to support largely procedural recommendations...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542414/the-intestinal-torc2-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-associative-learning-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Naoko Sakai, Hayao Ohno, Masahiro Tomioka, Yuichi Iino
Several types of associative learning are dependent upon the presence or absence of food, and are crucial for the survival of most animals. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a kinase which exists as a component of two complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), is known to act as a nutrient sensor in numerous organisms. However, the in vivo roles of TOR signaling in the nervous system remain largely unclear, partly because its multifunctionality and requirement for survival make it difficult to investigate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538921/women-s-protection-public-policies-evaluation-of-health-care-for-victims-of-sexual-violence
#3
Lucielma Salmito Soares Pinto, Ingrid Mayra Pereira de Oliveira, Eduardo Salmito Soares Pinto, Camila Botelho Campelo Leite, Auricélia do Nascimento Melo, Maria Castelo Branco Rocha de Deus
Violence against women has increased over the years and is a serious violation of human rights. This study aimed to evaluate public policies, women's rights legislation and health care for victims of sexual violence. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with interviews to professionals of the Care Center for Women Victims of Violence of Teresina-PI, and collection of medical records data of victims. We analyzed data in the light of legislation and guidelines recommended by the Ministry of Health, according to the established public policies...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537952/providing-coordinated-cancer-care-a-qualitative-study-of-norwegian-cancer-coordinators-experiences-of-their-role
#4
Nataskja-Elena Kersting Lie, May Aasebø Hauken, Per Koren Solvang
BACKGROUND: There is a growing need for strategies to improve coordinated, tailored services in cancer care to meet the comprehensive needs of cancer patients. In Norway, cancer coordinators (CCs) have been established to improve coordination and patient-centeredness of services. Little is known about how CCs engage to provide patients with the needed services and support throughout the treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how Norwegian CCs experience their role and how they enact it in order to enhance coordinated cancer care...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536954/sex-differences-in-dogs-social-learning-of-spatial-information
#5
Claudia Fugazza, Paolo Mongillo, Lieta Marinelli
We used a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm to investigate dogs' preference and flexibility in the acquisition of different types of spatial information in social learning situations. When required to match the location of the demonstration, dogs (N = 16) preferentially relied on allocentric information, i.e., the relationship between the location of the demonstration and the various objects surrounding it. However, when allocentric cues were inadequate to solve the task, dogs learned to rely on egocentric information, i...
May 23, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536549/self-in-art-self-as-art-museum-selfies-as-identity-work
#6
Robert Kozinets, Ulrike Gretzel, Anja Dinhopl
Selfies, digital images characterized by the desire to frame the self in a picture taken to be shared with an online audience, are important reflections of the contemporary self. Much extant psychological research on selfies has taken a pathologizing view of the phenomenon, focusing on its relationship to narcissism. Our investigation seeks to contribute to a holistic, contextualized and cultural perspective. We focus on the context of museums, places where art, history, education, and culture merge into the selfie taking behaviors of patrons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533980/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-leads-to-the-retardation-of-early-embryonic-development-in-ndufs4-knockout-mice
#7
Mei Wang, Ya-Ping Huang, Han Wu, Ke Song, Cong Wan, A-Ni Chi, Ya-Mei Xiao, Xiao-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The NDUFS4 gene encodes an 18-kD subunit of mitochondria complex I, and mutations in this gene lead to the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease called Leigh syndrome (LS) in humans. To investigate the disease phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of Leigh syndrome, the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse has been widely used as a novel animal model. Because the homozygotes cannot survive beyond child-bearing age, whether Ndufs4 and mitochondrial complex I influence early embryonic development remains unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531089/au-nanoparticle-decorated-silicon-pyramids-for-plasmon-enhanced-hot-electron-near-infrared-photodetection
#8
Zhiyang Qi, Yusheng Zhai, Long Wen, Qilong Wang, Qin Chen, Sami Iqbal, Guangdian Chen, Ji Xu, Yan Tu
Heterojunction between metal and silicon (Si) is an attractive route to extend the response of Si-based photodiodes into the near-infrared (NIR) region, so-called Schottky barrier diodes. Photons absorbed into a metallic nanostructure excite the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs), which can be damped non-radiatively through the creation of hot electrons. Unfortunately, quantum efficiency of hot electron detectors remains low due to low optical absorption and poor electron injection efficiency. In this study, we propose an efficient and low-cost plasmonic hot electron NIR photodetector based on Au nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated Si pyramid Schottky junction...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530347/-the-need-for-help-of-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-mental-illness-in-a-unique-service-for-families-at-the-beer-sheva-mental-health-center
#9
Anat Shalev, Ron Shor
BACKGROUND: Limited research attention has been given to the needs of family caregivers of persons with mental illness in psychiatric hospitals despite the stressors and difficulties they experience. In light of the recognition of the significance of helping family caregivers, a new model of consultation and support centers for family caregivers, called Meital, has been developed. OBJECTIVES: To examine the needs of family caregivers who receive help in Meital, at the Beer Sheva Mental Health Center...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530330/-the-sherlock-system-clinical-and-logistic-pharmaceutical-services
#10
Roni Leibowitz, Shahar Aflalo, Ornit Cohen, Ahuva Lustig
BACKGROUND: The drug inventory in the hospital consumes a large part of the hospital's budget. Classic drug management is based on weekly visits of the pharmacist in the departments, writing an order and dispensing it. This method is wasteful in terms of sending a bulk of drugs that will not necessarily be utilized, and it is also inefficient in terms of human resources. The unit-dose method, which is more advanced, is based on filling out individual prescriptions for each of the inpatients in the department...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526329/a-behaviour-change-intervention-to-reduce-sedentary-time-in-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Sonia Wing Mei Cheng, Jennifer Alison, Sarah Dennis, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Lissa Spencer, Renae McNamara, Susan Sims, Zoe McKeough
INTRODUCTION: Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518113/enhanced-sample-multiplexing-of-tissues-using-combined-precursor-isotopic-labeling-and-isobaric-tagging-cpilot
#12
Christina D King, Joseph D Dudenhoeffer, Liqing Gu, Adam R Evans, Renã A S Robinson
There is an increasing demand to analyze many biological samples for disease understanding and biomarker discovery. Quantitative proteomics strategies that allow simultaneous measurement of multiple samples have become widespread and greatly reduce experimental costs and times. Our laboratory developed a technique called combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT), which enhances sample multiplexing of traditional isotopic labeling or isobaric tagging approaches. Global cPILOT can be applied to samples originating from cells, tissues, bodily fluids, or whole organisms and gives information on relative protein abundances across different sample conditions...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518108/identification-of-plant-ice-binding-proteins-through-assessment-of-ice-recrystallization-inhibition-and-isolation-using-ice-affinity-purification
#13
Melissa Bredow, Heather E Tomalty, Virginia K Walker
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) belong to a family of stress-induced proteins that are synthesized by certain organisms exposed to subzero temperatures. In plants, freeze damage occurs when extracellular ice crystals grow, resulting in the rupture of plasma membranes and possible cell death. Adsorption of IBPs to ice crystals restricts further growth by a process known as ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI), thereby reducing cellular damage. IBPs also demonstrate the ability to depress the freezing point of a solution below the equilibrium melting point, a property known as thermal hysteresis (TH) activity...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514503/slicing-diamond-for-more-sp3-group-14-allotropes-reaching-from-direct-band-gap-to-poor-metals
#14
Thomas Friedrich Fässler, Antti J Karttunen, Laura-Alice Jantke
The large interest in novel Si allotropes has led to an intense investigation of tetrahedral framework structures during the last years. Recently, a guide to deriving sp3-Si allotropes from atom slabs of the diamond structure enabled a systematic deduction of several low-density modifications. Some of the Si networks were recognized as experimentally known frameworks - so-called chemi-inspired structures. We herein present nine novel Si by modifying three-atom thick slabs of the cubic diamond structure after their smooth distortion by applying the same construction kit...
May 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510314/a-photoswitchable-dualsteric-ligand-controlling-receptor-efficacy
#15
Luca Agnetta, Michael Kauk, Maria Consuelo Alonso Canizal, Regina Messerer, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Carsten Hoffmann, Michael Decker
The investigation of the mode and time course of the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in particular muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh or M) receptors, is still in its infancy despite the tremendous therapeutic relevance of M receptors and GPCRs in general. We herein made use of a dualsteric ligand that can concomitantly interact with the orthosteric, that is, the neurotransmitter, binding site and an allosteric one. We synthetically incorporated a photoswitchable (photochromic) azobenzene moiety...
May 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508892/high-precision-hyperfine-measurements-in-bismuth-challenge-bound-state-strong-field-qed
#16
Johannes Ullmann, Zoran Andelkovic, Carsten Brandau, Andreas Dax, Wolfgang Geithner, Christopher Geppert, Christian Gorges, Michael Hammen, Volker Hannen, Simon Kaufmann, Kristian König, Yuri A Litvinov, Matthias Lochmann, Bernhard Maaß, Johann Meisner, Tobias Murböck, Rodolfo Sánchez, Matthias Schmidt, Stefan Schmidt, Markus Steck, Thomas Stöhlker, Richard C Thompson, Christian Trageser, Jonas Vollbrecht, Christian Weinheimer, Wilfried Nörtershäuser
Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth (209)Bi(82+) experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508049/mechanism-and-color-modulation-of-fungal-bioluminescence
#17
Zinaida M Kaskova, Felipe A Dörr, Valentin N Petushkov, Konstantin V Purtov, Aleksandra S Tsarkova, Natalja S Rodionova, Konstantin S Mineev, Elena B Guglya, Alexey Kotlobay, Nadezhda S Baleeva, Mikhail S Baranov, Alexander S Arseniev, Josef I Gitelson, Sergey Lukyanov, Yoshiki Suzuki, Shusei Kanie, Ernani Pinto, Paolo Di Mascio, Hans E Waldenmaier, Tatiana A Pereira, Rodrigo P Carvalho, Anderson G Oliveira, Yuichi Oba, Erick L Bastos, Cassius V Stevani, Ilia V Yampolsky
Bioluminescent fungi are spread throughout the globe, but details on their mechanism of light emission are still scarce. Usually, the process involves three key components: an oxidizable luciferin substrate, a luciferase enzyme, and a light emitter, typically oxidized luciferin, and called oxyluciferin. We report the structure of fungal oxyluciferin, investigate the mechanism of fungal bioluminescence, and describe the use of simple synthetic α-pyrones as luciferins to produce multicolor enzymatic chemiluminescence...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507663/molecular-engineering-and-sequential-cosensitization-for-preventing-the-trade-off-effect-with-photovoltaic-enhancement
#18
Weiwei Zhang, Yongzhen Wu, Xin Li, Erpeng Li, Xiongrong Song, Huiyun Jiang, Chao Shen, Hao Zhang, He Tian, Wei-Hong Zhu
In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), it is essential to use rational molecular design to obtain promising photosensitizers with well-matched energy levels and narrow optical band gaps. However, the "trade-off" effect between the photocurrent and photovoltage is still a challenge. Here we report four benzoxidazole based D-A-π-A metal-free organic dyes (WS-66, WS-67, WS-68 and WS-69) with different combinations of π-spacer units and anchoring-acceptor groups. Either extending the π-spacer or enhancing the electron acceptor can efficiently modulate the molecular energy levels, leading to a red-shift in the absorption spectra...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506274/contextual-and-psychosocial-factors-predicting-ebola-prevention-behaviours-using-the-ranas-approach-to-behaviour-change-in-guinea-bissau
#19
Anna E Gamma, Jurgita Slekiene, Gregor von Medeazza, Fredrik Asplund, Placido Cardoso, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH) in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505726/entrainment-range-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-affected-by-the-difference-in-the-neuronal-amplitudes-between-the-light-sensitive-and-light-insensitive-regions
#20
Changgui Gu, Huijie Yang, Zhongyuan Ruan
Mammals not only can be synchronized to the natural 24-h light-dark cycle, but also to a cycle with a non-24-h period. The range of the period of the external cycle, for which the animals can be entrained to, is called the entrainment range, which differs among species. The entrainment range as a characteristic of the animal is determined by the main circadian clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. The SCN is composed of ∼10000 heterogeneous neurons, which can be divided into two subgroups, i...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
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