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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332583/eating-green-shining-light-on-the-use-of-dietary-phytochemicals-as-a-modern-approach-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancers
#1
Linda L Eastham, Candace M Howard, Premalatha Balachandran, David S Pasco, Pier Paolo Claudio
Enthusiasm for the use of dietary bioactive compounds as chemopreventive agents and adjuvants for current therapies has increased laboratory research conducted on several types of cancers including Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). The green chemoprevention movement is a modern approach to highlight healthy lifestyle changes that aim to decrease the incidence of HNSCC. A healthy diet can be an effective way to prevent the development of oral cancers. Discovery of the naturally occurring plant based compounds called phytochemicals has facilitated the development of new treatment strategies for patients that are at risk for, or have developed HNSCC...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332246/an-historical-perspective-of-the-discovery-of-titin-filaments-part-2
#2
REVIEW
Cristobal G Dos Remedios
In 2017, a Special Issue of Biophysical Reviews was devoted to "Titin and Its Binding Partners. The issue contained a review: "An historical perspective of the discovery of titin filaments" by dos Remedios and Gilmour that was intended to be a history of the discovery of the giant protein titin, previously named connectin. The review took readers back to the earliest discovery of the so-called third filament component of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomeres and ended in 1969. Recently, my colleague Shin'ichi Ishiwata gently reminded me of two papers published in 1990 and 1993 that were unwittingly omitted from the original historical perspective...
January 13, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328190/orbital-angular-momentum-generation-via-a-spiral-phase-microsphere
#3
Yan Zhou, Hui Gao, Jinghua Teng, Xiangang Luo, Minghui Hong
Vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) attracts much attention in many research fields for its special phase and intensity distributions. In this Letter, a novel design called the spiral phase microsphere (SPMS) is proposed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, which can convert incident plane wave light into the focused vortex beam that carries OAM with different topological charges l=±1 and ±2. The vortex beam generation is verified by a self-interfered modification of the SPMS...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328096/approximate-bayesian-computation-techniques-for-optical-characterization-of-nanoparticle-clusters
#4
Ozan Burak Ericok, Ali Taylan Cemgil, Hakan Erturk
Characterization of nanoparticle aggregates from observed scattered light leads to a highly complex inverse problem. Even the forward model is so complex that it prohibits the use of classical likelihood-based inference methods. In this study, we compare four so-called likelihood-free methods based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) that requires only numeric simulation of the forward model without the need of evaluating a likelihood. In particular, rejection, Markov chain Monte Carlo, population Monte Carlo, and adaptive population Monte Carlo (APMC) are compared in terms of accuracy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323915/resonance-energy-transfer-promoted-photothermal-and-photodynamic-performance-of-gold-copper-sulfide-yolk-shell-nanoparticles-for-chemophototherapy-of-cancer
#5
Yun Chang, Yan Cheng, Yanlin Feng, Hui Jian, Li Wang, Xiaomin Ma, Xi Li, Haiyuan Zhang
Gold (Au) core@void@copper sulfide (CuS) shell (Au-CuS) yolk-shell nanoparticles (YSNPs) were prepared in the present study for potential chemo-, photothermal, and photodynamic combination therapy, so called "chemophototherapy". The resonance energy transfer (RET) process was utilized in Au-CuS YSNPs to achieve both enhanced photothermal and photodynamic performance compared with those of CuS hollow nanoparticles (HNPs). A series of Au nanomaterials as cores that had different localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peaks at 520, 700, 808, 860, and 980 nm were embedded in CuS HNPs to screen the most effective Au-CuS YSNPs according to the RET process...
January 11, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323667/making-new-genetic-diagnoses-with-old-data-iterative-reanalysis-and-reporting-from-genome-wide-data-in-1-133-families-with-developmental-disorders
#6
Caroline F Wright, Jeremy F McRae, Stephen Clayton, Giuseppe Gallone, Stuart Aitken, Tomas W FitzGerald, Philip Jones, Elena Prigmore, Diana Rajan, Jenny Lord, Alejandro Sifrim, Rosemary Kelsell, Michael J Parker, Jeffrey C Barrett, Matthew E Hurles, David R FitzPatrick, Helen V Firth
PurposeGiven the rapid pace of discovery in rare disease genomics, it is likely that improvements in diagnostic yield can be made by systematically reanalyzing previously generated genomic sequence data in light of new knowledge.MethodsWe tested this hypothesis in the United Kingdom-wide Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, where in 2014 we reported a diagnostic yield of 27% through whole-exome sequencing of 1,133 children with severe developmental disorders and their parents. We reanalyzed existing data using improved variant calling methodologies, novel variant detection algorithms, updated variant annotation, evidence-based filtering strategies, and newly discovered disease-associated genes...
January 11, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323251/vitamin-e-inhibits-the-uvai-induction-of-light-and-dark-cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimers-and-oxidatively-generated-dna-damage-in-keratinocytes
#7
George J Delinasios, Mahsa Karbaschi, Marcus S Cooke, Antony R Young
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage has acute, and long-term adverse effects in the skin. This damage arises directly by absorption of UVR, and indirectly via photosensitization reactions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E on UVAI-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes in vitro. Incubation with vitamin E before UVAI exposure decreased the formation of oxidized purines (with a decrease in intracellular oxidizing species), and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD)...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#8
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321334/mechanism-of-hiv-1-resistance-to-an-electronically-constrained-%C3%AE-helical-peptide-membrane-fusion-inhibitor
#9
Xiyuan Wu, Zixuan Liu, Xiaohui Ding, Danwei Yu, Huamian Wei, Bo Qin, Yuanmei Zhu, Huihui Chong, Sheng Cui, Yuxian He
SC29EK is an electronically constrained α-helical peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor highly effective against both wild-type and enfuvirtide (T20)-resistant viruses. In this study, we focused on investigating the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance to SC29EK by two approaches. First, SC29EK-escaping HIV-1 variants were selected and characterized. Three mutant viruses, which possessed two (E43K/E49A) or three (Q39R/N43K/N126K, N43K/E49A/N126K) amino acid substitutions in the N- and C-terminal repeat regions of gp41 were identified as conferring high resistance to SC29EK and cross-resistance to the first-generation (T20, C34) and newly-designed (sifuvirtide, MT-SC29EK, 2P23) fusion inhibitors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321328/activities-of-thrombin-and-factor-xa-are-essential-for-replication-of-hepatitis-e-virus-and-are-possibly-implicated-in-the-orf1-polyprotein-processing
#10
Gayatri D Kanade, Kunal D Pingale, Yogesh A Karpe
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a clinically important positive-sense RNA virus. The ORF1 of HEV encodes a non-structural polyprotein of 1693 amino acids. It is not clear whether the ORF1 polyprotein is processed into distinct enzymatic domains. Many researchers have attempted to understand the mechanisms of pORF1 processing. However, these studies gave varied results and could never convincingly establish the mechanism of pORF1 processing. In this study, we demonstrated the possible role of thrombin and factor Xa in pORF1 processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317356/comparative-proteomics-of-the-larval-and-adult-stages-of-the-model-cestode-parasite-mesocestoides-corti
#11
Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Tatiana Noel Basika Cabrera, Gabriela Prado Paludo, Hercules Moura, John R Barr, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
Mesocestoides corti is a widely used model for the study of cestode biology, and its transition from the larval tetrathyridium (TT) stage to the strobilated, adult worm (ST) stage can be induced and followed in vitro. Here, a proteomic approach was used to describe and compare M. corti TT and ST protein repertories. Overall, 571 proteins were identified, 238 proteins in TT samples and 333 proteins in ST samples. Among the identified proteins, 207 proteins were shared by TTs and STs, while 157 were stage-specific, being 31 exclusive from TTs, and 126 from STs...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316318/a-perspective-review-on-the-materials-and-mechanisms-of-photo-assisted-chemical-reactions-under-light-and-dark-can-it-be-called-as-day-night-photocatalysis
#12
Sakar Mohan, Nguyen Chinh-Chien, Vu Manh-Hiep, Trong-On Do
The photo-assisted catalytic reaction, conventionally known as photocatalysis, is blooming into the field of energy and environmental applications. It is widely known that the discovery of TiO2-assited photochemical reactions has led to achieve several unique applications such as degradation of pollutants in water and air, hydrogen production through water splitting, fuel conversion, cancer treatment, anti-bacterial activity, self-cleaning glasses and concrete, etc. These multifaceted applications of this phenomenon can be enriched and expanded further if this process is equipped with more tools and functions...
January 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314461/solution-of-the-puzzle-of-smectic-q-the-phase-structure-and-the-origin-of-spontaneous-chirality
#13
Huan-Jun Lu, Xiang-Bing Zeng, Goran Ungar, Christian Dressel, Carsten Tschierske
The so-called Smectic-Q phase (SmQ) liquid crystal phase has been discovered in 1983 in rod-like molecules, but its structure remain unclear in spite of numer-ous attempts to solve it. Here we report what we believe to be the solution: a unique bicontinuous phase that is non-cubic and is made up of orthogonal twist-ed columns with planar 4-way junctions. While previously SmQ had only been seen in chiral compounds, here we show that this chiral phase forms also in achiral materials through spontaneous symmetry breaking...
January 4, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310771/a-review-on-suppression-and-utilization-of-the-coffee-ring-effect
#14
REVIEW
Dileep Mampallil, Huseyin Burak Eral
Evaporation of sessile droplets containing non-volatile solutes dispersed in a volatile solvent leaves behind ring-like solid stains. As the volatile species evaporates, pinning of the contact line gives rise to capillary flows that transport non-volatile solutes to the contact line. This phenomenon, called the coffee-ring effect, compromises the overall performance of industrially relevant manufacturing processes involving evaporation such as printing, biochemical analysis, manufacturing of nano-structured materials through colloidal and macromolecular patterning...
January 2, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310587/unique-dual-indexed-sequencing-adapters-with-umis-effectively-eliminate-index-cross-talk-and-significantly-improve-sensitivity-of-massively-parallel-sequencing
#15
Laura E MacConaill, Robert T Burns, Anwesha Nag, Haley A Coleman, Michael K Slevin, Kristina Giorda, Madelyn Light, Kevin Lai, Mirna Jarosz, Matthew S McNeill, Matthew D Ducar, Matthew Meyerson, Aaron R Thorner
BACKGROUND: Sample index cross-talk can result in false positive calls when massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is used for sensitive applications such as low-frequency somatic variant discovery, ancient DNA investigations, microbial detection in human samples, or circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA) variant detection. Therefore, the limit-of-detection of an MPS assay is directly related to the degree of index cross-talk. RESULTS: Cross-talk rates up to 0.29% were observed when using standard, combinatorial adapters, resulting in 110,180 (0...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305704/the-power-of-optogenetics-potential-in-cardiac-experimental-and-clinical-electrophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Franziska Schneider-Warme
Optogenetics is an emerging, interdisciplinary research area which combines genetic and optical technologies to steer and monitor specific biological processes. To this end, light-activated proteins, so-called optogenetic actuators, or fluorescent sensor proteins are genetically targeted to the cells of interest. Light activation can then be used to modulate or record cellular behaviour with high spatiotemporal precision. In cardiac research, optogenetic approaches have been used to unravel heterocellular electrotonic interactions, both in vitro and in situ...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304841/paediatric-medical-emergency-calls-to-a-danish-emergency-medical-dispatch-centre-a-retrospective-observational-study
#17
Kasper Andersen, Søren Mikkelsen, Gitte Jørgensen, Stine Thorhauge Zwisler
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational study on paediatric medical emergency calls managed by the EMDC in the Region of Southern Denmark in February 2016. We reviewed audio recordings of emergency calls and ambulance records to identify calls concerning patients ≤ 15 years...
January 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304198/impairment-of-lhca4-a-subunit-of-lhci-causes-high-accumulation-of-chlorophyll-and-the-stay-green-phenotype-in-rice
#18
Hiroshi Yamatani, Kaori Kohzuma, Michiharu Nakano, Tsuneaki Takami, Yusuke Kato, Yoriko Hayashi, Yuki Monden, Yutaka Okumoto, Tomoko Abe, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Ayumi Tanaka, Wataru Sakamoto, Makoto Kusaba
Chlorophyll is an essential molecule for acquiring light energy during photosynthesis. Mutants that retain chlorophyll during leaf senescence are called 'stay-green' mutants. One of the several types of stay-green mutants, Type E, accumulates high levels of chlorophyll in the presenescent leaves, resulting in delayed yellowing. We isolated delayed yellowing1-1 (dye1-1), a rice mutant whose yellowing is delayed in the paddy field. dye1-1 accumulated more chlorophyll than the wild-type in the presenescent and senescent leaves, but did not retain leaf functionality in the 'senescent green leaves', suggesting that dye1-1 is a Type E stay-green mutant...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303960/lhcsr-expression-under-hsp70-rbcs2-promoter-as-a-strategy-to-increase-productivity-in-microalgae
#19
Federico Perozeni, Giulio Rocco Stella, Matteo Ballottari
Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms considered as potential alternative sources for biomass, biofuels or high value products. However, limited biomass productivity is commonly experienced in their cultivating system despite their high potential. One of the reasons for this limitation is the high thermal dissipation of the light absorbed by the outer layers of the cultures exposed to high light caused by the activation of a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In the model organism for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is triggered by pigment binding proteins called light-harvesting-complexes-stress-related (LHCSRs), which are over-accumulated in high light...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302176/no-more-broken-promises-challenges-and-opportunities-for-key-populations-in-demanding-more-transparency-accountability-and-participation-in-the-global-response-against-the-hiv-and-aids-epidemic
#20
Tomás A Chang Pico, Jillian Clare Kohler, Julia Hoffmann, Lucy Mungala
The global fight against HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges: infection rates are on the rise in many settings, stigma and discrimination remain rampant, and the global response is under increasing financial pressure. There is a high risk of losing what has been achieved so far in the fight against HIV and AIDS, but also the momentum to meet the so-called Fast Track targets for 2030. In light of these trends, it is fundamental to focus on the human rights of key populations (KPs)-especially to health, non-discrimination, access to information, and to equal and meaningful participation in political and public affairs-by placing them at the center of the global HIV response...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
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