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economic analysis

Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Kelly Aparecida da Cunha, Wellington Segheto, Vanessa Guimarães Reis, France Araújo Coelho, Sílvia Helena O Morais, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Giana Zarbato Longo
INTRODUCTION: The identification of risk or protective behavioral patterns associated with abdominal adiposity may aid in prevention and health promotion measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify and to associate behavioral patterns of risk and protection to abdominal adiposity in adults in a Brazilian city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Viçosa, Brazil, with 1,226 adults of both sexes. Information on social-demographic characteristics, food intake, level of physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking were collected by using a questionnaire...
February 13, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Yupeng Liu, Jianguo Wu, Deyong Yu, Ruifang Hao
China's rapid economic growth during the past three decades has resulted in a number of environmental problems, including the deterioration of air quality. It is necessary to better understand how the spatial pattern of air pollutants varies with time scales and what drive these changes. To address these questions, this study focused on one of the most heavily air-polluted areas in North China. We first quantified the spatial pattern of air pollution, and then systematically examined the relationships of air pollution to several socioeconomic and climatic factors using the constraint line method, correlation analysis, and stepwise regression on decadal, annual, and seasonal scales...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Management
Lauren Maxwell, Arijit Nandi, Andrea Benedetti, Karen Devries, Jennifer Wagman, Claudia García-Moreno
Introduction: Inadequately spaced pregnancies, defined as pregnancies fewer than 18 months apart, are linked to maternal, infant, and child morbidity and mortality, and adverse social, educational and economic outcomes in later life for women and children. Quantifying the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and women's ability to space and time their pregnancies is an important part of understanding the burden of disease related to IPV. Methods: We applied Cox proportional hazards models to monthly data from the Demographic and Health Surveys' Reproductive Health Calendar to compare interpregnancy intervals for women who experienced physical, sexual and/or emotional IPV in 29 countries...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Jeong Hee Lee, Eung Do Kim, Eun Jung Jun, Hyoung Sun Yoo, Joon Woo Lee
Background: The purpose of this paper is to provide technology trends and information regarding market and prospects in stents used for human blood vessels in Korea and the world.A stent is a medical device in the form of a cylindrical metal net used to normalize flow when blood or other bodily fluids such as biliary fluids are obstructed in blood vessels, gastrointestinal tracts, etc. by inserting the stent into a narrowed or clogged area. Stents are classified into vascular and non-vascular stents...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Jasmine M Bracher, Maarten D Verhoeven, H Wouter Wisselink, Barbara Crimi, Jeroen G Nijland, Arnold J M Driessen, Paul Klaassen, Antonius J A van Maris, Jean-Marc G Daran, Jack T Pronk
Background: l-Arabinose occurs at economically relevant levels in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Its low-affinity uptake via the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal2 galactose transporter is inhibited by d-glucose. Especially at low concentrations of l-arabinose, uptake is an important rate-controlling step in the complete conversion of these feedstocks by engineered pentose-metabolizing S. cerevisiae strains. Results: Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis yielded 16 putative sugar transporter genes in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum whose transcript levels were at least threefold higher in l-arabinose-limited cultures than in d-glucose-limited and ethanol-limited cultures...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Eduardo González, Ana Cárcaba, Juan Ventura
This paper measures quality of life (QoL) in the 393 largest Spanish municipalities in 2011. We follow recent descriptions of QoL dimensions to propose an integrated framework composed of eight dimensions: material living conditions, health, education, environment, economic and physical safety, governance and political voice, social interaction, and personal activities. Using different sources of information we construct 16 indicators, two per each of the QoL dimensions considered. Weight constrained data envelopment analysis (DEA) is then used to estimate a composite indicator of the QoL of each municipality...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Simon Otjes
In political science the economic left-right dimension plays a central role. A growing body of evidence shows that the economic policy preferences of a large segment of citizens do not scale sufficiently. Using Mokken scale analysis, this study determines the causes of this phenomenon. Differences in the extent to which the economic policy preferences of citizens fit the left-right dimension can be explained in terms of the interaction between individual level and political system-level variables: citizens who spend more attention to politicians with views that conform to the left-right dimension, have views that conform to the left-right dimension...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Margot Jackson, Kathleen Kiernan, Sara McLanahan
Among the core dimensions of socioeconomic status, maternal education is the most strongly associated with children's cognitive development, and is a key predictor of other resources within the family that strongly predict children's well-being: economic insecurity, family structure, and maternal depression. Most studies examine these circumstances in isolation of one another and/or at particular points in time, precluding a comprehensive understanding of how the family environment evolves over time and contributes to educational disparities in children's skill development and learning...
November 2017: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Laura Juguera Rodriguez, Manuel Pardo Rios, César Leal Costa, Matilde Castillo Hermoso, Nuria Perez Alonso, Jose Luis Diaz Agea
STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative study. OBJECTIVE: To detect the major challenges and needs reported by family member caregivers of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Family member caregivers of people with SCI and expert professionals were evaluated. This study was conducted in Spain, and most of the participants attended the National Paraplegics Hospital of Toledo. METHODS: We performed 25 semi-structured interviews...
March 21, 2018: Spinal Cord
B Maskery, D L Posey, M S Coleman, R Asis, W Zhou, J A Painter, L T Wingate, M Roque, M S Cetron
SETTING: In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised its tuberculosis (TB) technical instructions for panel physicians who administer mandatory medical examinations among US-bound immigrants. Many US-bound immigrants come from the Philippines, a high TB prevalence country. OBJECTIVE: To quantify economic and health impacts of smear- vs. culture-based TB screening. DESIGN: Decision tree modeling was used to compare three Filipino screening programs: 1) no screening, 2) smear-based screening, and 3) culture-based screening...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Xue-Juan Bai, You-Rong Yang, Jian-Qin Liang, Hui-Ru An, Jie Wang, Yan-Bo Ling, Zhong-Yuan Wang, Xue-Qiong Wu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bacterium-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB is challenging clinically. The detection of the anti-TB antibody has an important, auxiliary, clinical diagnostic value. Therefore, TB antibody detection kits should be screened and evaluated, and the reagents with the highest sensitivity and specificity should be chosen and used clinically. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of 7 commercially available TB antibody detection kits (kits A, B, C, D, E, F and G) based on the gold immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM antibodies were simultaneously evaluated and compared in 62 TB cases and 56 non-TB cases in a laboratory...
March 22, 2018: Military Medical Research
Farhaan S Vahidy, Ellie G Meyer, Arvind B Bambhroliya, Jennifer R Meeks, Charles E Begley, Tzu-Ching Wu, Jon E Tyson, Charles C Miller, Ritvij Bowry, Wamda O Ahmed, Gretchel A Gealogo, Louise D McCullough, Steven Warach, Sean I Savitz
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disease with no specific treatment modalities. A significant proportion of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are transferred to large stroke treatment centers, such as Comprehensive Stroke Centers, because of perceived need for higher level of care. However, evidence of improvement in patient-centered outcomes for these patients treated at larger stroke treatment centers as compared to community hospitals is lacking. METHODS / DESIGN: "Efficient Resource Utilization for Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage (EnRICH)" is a prospective, multisite, state-wide, cohort study designed to assess the impact of level of care on long-term patient-centered outcomes for patients with primary / non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage...
March 21, 2018: BMC Neurology
Caroline Carney, Michaela Benzeval
BACKGROUND: Grip strength in early adulthood and midlife is an important predictor of disability, morbidity and mortality in later life. Understanding social patterning in grip strength at different life stages could improve insight into inequalities in age-related decline and when in the life course interventions could prevent the emergence of inequalities. METHODS: Using United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) data on 19,292 people aged 16 to 99, fractional polynomial models were fitted to identify which function of age best described its association with grip strength...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ellen C L Geerlings, Claire Heffernan
BACKGROUND: Efficient A(H5N1) control is unlikely to be based on epidemiological data alone. Such control depends on a thorough understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of epidemiological, social, and economic factors that contribute to A(H5N1) vulnerability. To date, the control of A(H5N1) in Egypt has been challenging. The disease has been endemic for more than 10 years with a dramatic increase in human cases between December 2014 and March 2015. Part of the problem has been a lack of understanding of the inter-play of drivers, conditions and motives that influence preventive behaviours at the household level...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Grażyna Janikowska, Tomasz Janikowski, Alina Pyka-Paj K, Urszula Mazurek, Marcin Janikowski, Maciej Gonciarz, Zbigniew Lorenc
BACKGROUNDS: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries. Molecular studies and, in particular, gene expression have contributed to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers. Genes can be molecular and therapeutic markers, but because of the large molecular diversity in colorectal cancer the knowledge is not yet fully established. Probably one of the most crucial processes during early cancer development is inflammation. The inflammatory response in the tumor is an important indicator of molecular etiology and later of cancer progression...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
Philip A Powell, Olivia Wills, Gemma Reynolds, Kaisa Puustinen-Hopper, Jennifer Roberts
In this paper we explored the effects of exposure to images of the suffering and vulnerability of others on altruistic, trust-based, and reciprocated incentivized economic decisions, accounting for differences in participants' dispositional empathy and reported in-group trust for their recipient(s). This was done using a pictorial priming task, framed as a memory test, and a triadic economic game design. Using the largest experimental sample to date to explore this issue, our integrated analysis of two online experiments (total N = 519), found statistically consistent evidence that exposure to images of suffering and vulnerability (vs...
2018: PloS One
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Tomáš Glomb, Adam Mertel, Zdeněk Pospíšil, Zdeněk Stachoň, Aleš Chalupa
Early in the Ptolemaic era, Egyptian cults, particularly those of Isis and Sarapis, spread successfully to ports across the ancient Aegean Sea. Leading researchers in the field claim that the spread of these cults was influenced by multiple factors, ones that were mainly economic or political in character. However, the question of which factors had more weight or impact than others in the process of the early spread of Egyptian cults has not yet been answered in academic discussion. This could be related to the fact that the issue of the spread of religious innovations in the ancient Mediterranean has been addressed mainly by established historiographical methods such as the collection and critical analysis of archaeological and literary sources...
2018: PloS One
Gehendra Mahara, Kun Yang, Sipeng Chen, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts...
March 21, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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