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Sputum eosinophil

Tomotaka Kawayama, Takashi Kinoshita, Kazuko Matsunaga, Yoshiko Naito, Jun Sasaki, Yoshikazu Tominaga, Tomoaki Hoshino
Asthma is an allergic disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), reversibility and remodeling. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are effective in many patients with asthma. However, ICS are a controlling, but not but curative treatment, and there are still many patients with refractory and difficult-to-treat asthma. The evaluation of airway inflammation by induced sputum, non-specific AHR by methacholine, and asthmatic reactions by specific allergen challenge techniques are useful not only to investigate the pathogenesis of asthma but also to help develop new drugs for asthma management...
March 16, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
Lixia Fu, Jing Guan, Yujia Zhang, Pei Ma, Yuanyuan Zhuang, Jinye Bai, Yasi Ding, Qi Hou, Wan Gong, Mingbao Lin, Wensheng Zheng, Jianmin Zhang
Background: Tulobuterol patch, one of strongest bronchodilators, was recently shown to improve bronchial hyperresponsiveness and significantly decrease the sputum eosinophil counts by combining with nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs on patients with asthma. However, there is limited study on the anti-inflammatory activities of tulobuterol patch and its potential machenism. Results: The tulobuterol patch significantly ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue, reduced the number of total leukocytes and its differential count, markedly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-11 and IL-4 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, as well as a reduction in IL-4/IFN-γ ratio...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Michael C Peters, Sheena Kerr, Eleanor M Dunican, Prescott G Woodruff, Merritt L Fajt, Bruce D Levy, Elliot Israel, Brenda R Phillips, David T Mauger, Suzy A Comhair, Serpil C Erzurum, Mats W Johansson, Nizar N Jarjour, Andrea M Coverstone, Mario Castro, Annette T Hastie, Eugene R Bleecker, Sally E Wenzel, John V Fahy
BACKGROUND: Airway type 2 inflammation is usually corticosteroid sensitive, but the role of type 2 inflammation as a mechanism of asthma in patients on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine if airway type 2 inflammation persists in patients treated with ICS and to evaluate the clinical features of patients with steroid resistant airway type-2 inflammation. METHODS: We used qPCR to generate a composite metric of type-2 cytokine gene expression (type 2 Gene Mean, "T2GM") in induced sputum cells from healthy controls, severe asthma patients on ICS (n=174), and non-severe asthma patients on ICS (n=85)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A T Hastie, C Steele, C W Dunaway, W C Moore, B M Rector, E Ampleford, H Li, L C Denlinger, N Jarjour, D A Meyers, E R Bleecker
BACKGROUND: The release of various inflammatory mediators into the bronchial lumen is thought to reflect both the type and degree of airway inflammation, eosinophilic Th2, and Th9, or neutrophilic Th1, and Th17, in patients with asthma. AIMS: We investigated whether cytokines and chemokines differed in sputum from subjects with more severe compared with milder asthma, and if unbiased factor analysis of cytokine and chemokine groupings indicates specific inflammatory pathways...
March 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nikolaos Lazarinis, Johan Bood, Cristina Gomez, Johan Kolmert, Ann-Sofie Lantz, Pär Gyllfors, Andy Davis, Craig E Wheelock, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Barbro Dahlén
BACKGROUND: Leukotriene E4 (LTE4 ) is the final active metabolite among the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Animal studies have identified a distinct LTE4 receptor, suggesting that current CysLT1 receptor antagonists may provide incomplete inhibition of CysLT responses. OBJECTIVE: We tested this hypothesis by assessing the influence of the CysLT1 antagonist montelukast on responses induced by inhalation of LTE4 in asthmatic subjects. METHODS: Fourteen subjects with mild intermittent asthma and two subjects with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) received montelukast 20 mg bid and placebo for 5-7 days in a randomized, double blind, crossover study (NCT01841164)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mahboobeh Haji Sadeghi, Caroline E Wright, Simon Hart, Michael Crooks, Alyn Morice
BACKGROUND: Whether the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement can predict the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in chronic cough is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the effectiveness of treatment with 10 mg of montelukast or 20 mg of prednisolone in patients with chronic cough is predicted by FeNO level. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study conducted in the Clinical Trial Unit in Castle Hospital in the United Kingdom, 50 nonsmoking patients with a cough that lasted more than 8 weeks were sequentially enrolled in the study...
March 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Yali Huang, Shengding Zhang, Xiaoyu Fang, Lu Qin, Yu Fan, Dandan Ding, Xiansheng Liu, Min Xie
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between plasma miRNAs levels and inflammatory characteristics in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Eligible adults with untreated asthma (n = 35) underwent a clinical assessment, sputum induction, and assessment of pulmonary function test and Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores. Asthma phenotypes were defined using the sputum cell count. miR-199a-5p expression was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2018: PloS One
Iñigo Ojanguren, Gregory Moullec, Jad Hobeika, Marc Miravitlles, Catherine Lemiere
INTRODUCTION: Although Asthma-COPD Overlap (ACO) has been described among populations of subjects with COPD or asthma, ACO has never been described among a population of subjects with occupational asthma (OA). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to: 1. identify ACO in a population of subjects with OA; and 2. compare the clinical characteristics between ACO and OA. METHODS: This retrospective study included all subjects diagnosed with OA between 2000 and 2017 in an OA referral center...
2018: PloS One
Rihuang Qiu, Jiaxing Xie, Kian Fan Chung, Naijian Li, Zhaowei Yang, Mengzhang He, Jing Li, Rongchang Chen, Nanshan Zhong, Qingling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical manifestations and inflammatory pathologies that is punctuated by exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and inflammatory characteristics of asthma patients treated in hospital for an acute exacerbation. METHODS: Data from 320 adult patients receiving treatment for an acute exacerbation of asthma were obtained. In 218 with complete data , we used Ward's hierarchical clustering to obtain clusters...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Wei Tang, Steven G Smith, Wei Du, Akash Gugilla, Juan Du, John Paul Oliveria, Karen Howie, Brittany M Salter, Gail M Gauvreau, Paul M O'Byrne, Roma Sehmi
Background: Eosinophil-lineage committed progenitor cells (EoP) migrate from the bone marrow and differentiate locally to provide an ongoing source of mature eosinophils in asthmatic inflammatory responses in the airways. Sputum levels of EoP are increased in asthmatics compared to normal controls suggesting an exaggerated eosinophilopoietic environment in the airways. Understanding what factors promote EoP traffic to the airways is important to understand the diathesis of asthma pathology...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Hanneke Coumou, Guus A Westerhof, Selma B de Nijs, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Elisabeth H Bel
Little is known about the prognosis of adults with new-onset asthma. Cross-sectional studies suggest that these patients may exhibit accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ). However, risk factors for accelerated decline in lung function have not yet been identified.We aimed to identify these risk factors in a prospective 5-year follow-up study in 200 adults with newly diagnosed asthma. In the current study, clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were assessed annually for 5 years...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Shu Xia, Zheng Zhu, Wei-Jie Guan, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Ying An, Tao Peng, Rong-Chang Chen, Jin-Ping Zheng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between eosinophilic inflammation in the upper and lower airways of patients with CARAS. Stable patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR or asthma were recruited. Healthy subjects and patients with AR alone were recruited as controls. Clinical characteristics, including disease history, lung function, nasal airway inspiratory resistance and upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammation were evaluated and compared...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kian Fan Chung
Severe therapy-resistant asthma has been defined as "asthma which requires treatment with high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus a second controller (and/or systemic corticosteroids) to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy". Patients who usually present with 'difficult-to-treat asthma' should first be assessed to determine whether he/she has asthma with the exclusion of other diagnoses and if so, whether the asthma can be classified as severe therapy-resistant...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Hui Fang Lim, Parameswaran Nair
Severe asthma is a complex disease consisting of different endotypes with different inflammatory and clinicopathological characteristics due to the heterogeneity of immune responses and smooth muscle dysfunction. There is an unmet clinical need to develop and to validate biomarkers that can differentiate between the asthma endotypes and guide clinical management, particularly since the availability of biologicals directed against T2 cytokines. The presence of a "Th2 endotype" is currently assessed in clinical practice using markers, such as eosinophil count in sputum or blood, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, and immunoglobulin E...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
G M Gauvreau, J M FitzGerald, L P Boulet, R M Watson, L Hui, H Villineuve, T X Scime, A R Schlatman, C Obminski, J Kum, S Boehme, T W Ly, K B Bacon, P M O'Byrne
BACKGROUND: CCR3 is the cognate receptor for major human eosinophil chemoattractants from the eotaxin family of proteins that are elevated in asthma and correlate with disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-mechanism study examined the effect of AXP1275, an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of CCR3, on airway responses to inhaled allergen challenge. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with mild atopic asthma and documented early and late asthmatic responses to an inhaled aeroallergen completed a randomized double-blind cross-over study to compare early and late allergen-induced asthmatic responses, methacholine PC20 , blood and sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide after 2 weeks of treatment with once-daily doses of AXP1275 (50 mg) or placebo...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ji Ho Lee, Hyun Young Lee, Chang Gyu Jung, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Young Min Ye, Dong Ho Nahm, Hae Sim Park
PURPOSE: Omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) monoclonal antibody, has proved to be effective for the treatment of severe asthma. However, there is no direct evidence of effectiveness of omalizumab in Korean patients with severe asthma. We sought to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of omalizumab in Korean adult patients suffering from severe asthma and to identify predictors of favorable response. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of electrical medical records was performed on severe allergic asthmatic patients with omalizumab treatment group (OT group) for more than 6 months between March 2008 and February 2016...
March 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Tekin Yıldız, Seyhan Dülger
Non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB) is eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract, without any bronchospasm. In this article, we want to draw attention to the NAEB. It should also be considered in differential diagnosis of chronic cough. Eosinophilia is present in all induced or spontaneous sputum samples of NAEB patients. NAEB patients and asthmatic patients have similar airway inflammation. Remarkably, NAEB mainly occurs in the lower airways. Unlike asthma, mast cells in NAEB are active in the bronchial epithelium...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
E Ramos-Martínez, M R López-Vancell, J C Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre, J Rojas-Serrano, A Chavarría, A Velasco-Medina, G Velázquez-Sámano
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a molecule that modulates the immune response and shows anti-inflammatory effects that are beneficial for the control of chronic diseases such as asthma. The trial aim was to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of allergic asthmatic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted in 86 patients between 18 and 50 years of age who were randomly divided into two groups...
February 2, 2018: Cytokine
Eleanor M Dunican, Brett M Elicker, David S Gierada, Scott K Nagle, Mark L Schiebler, John D Newell, Wilfred W Raymond, Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Selena Di Maio, Eric A Hoffman, Mario Castro, Sean B Fain, Nizar N Jarjour, Elliot Israel, Bruce D Levy, Serpil C Erzurum, Sally E Wenzel, Deborah A Meyers, Eugene R Bleecker, Brenda R Phillips, David T Mauger, Erin D Gordon, Prescott G Woodruff, Michael C Peters, John V Fahy
BACKGROUND: The link between mucus plugs and airflow obstruction has not been established in chronic severe asthma, and the role of eosinophils and their products in mucus plug formation is unknown. METHODS: In clinical studies, we developed and applied a bronchopulmonary segment-based scoring system to quantify mucus plugs on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) lung scans from 146 subjects with asthma and 22 controls, and analyzed relationships among mucus plug scores, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and airway eosinophils...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
David Mayhew, Nathalie Devos, Christophe Lambert, James R Brown, Stuart C Clarke, Viktoriya L Kim, Michal Magid-Slav, Bruce E Miller, Kristoffer K Ostridge, Ruchi Patel, Ganesh Sathe, Daniel F Simola, Karl J Staples, Ruby Sung, Ruth Tal-Singer, Andrew C Tuck, Stephanie Van Horn, Vincent Weynants, Nicholas P Williams, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the composition of the lung microbiome associated with adverse clinical outcomes, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated with disease severity and exacerbations in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To characterise longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome in the AERIS study (Acute Exacerbation and Respiratory InfectionS in COPD) and their relationship with associated COPD outcomes. METHODS: We surveyed 584 sputum samples from 101 patients with COPD to analyse the lung microbiome at both stable and exacerbation time points over 1 year using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
January 31, 2018: Thorax
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