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Sputum eosinophil

Simon Couillard, Pierre Larivée, Josiane Courteau, Alain Vanasse
RATIONALE: A subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrates eosinophilic inflammation either in their sputum or blood. Previous studies regarding the association between increased blood eosinophils and poor readmission outcomes are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: Investigate outcomes following severe COPD exacerbations in patients with higher blood eosinophils. METHODS: With an observational study design, hospitalizations for severe COPD exacerbation were retrospectively gathered...
October 13, 2016: Chest
Paula J Busse, Janette M Birmingham, Agustin Calatroni, Joseph Manzi, Anna Goryachokovsky, Giselle Fontela, Alex Federman, Juan Wisnivesky
BACKGROUND: Aged asthma patients experience increased morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the aging effect on airway inflammation and asthma control is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare airway inflammation and its relationship with asthma control in aged vs. younger patients and determine if differences are asthma-specific or due to "inflamm-aging." METHODS: Prospective study of aged (>60 years) and younger (21-40 years) inner-city asthma patients...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zheng Zhu, Yanqing Xie, Weijie Guan, Yi Gao, Shu Xia, Nanshan Zhong, Jinping Zheng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a risk factor for asthma development. The value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in detecting lower airway involvement in the progress of AR-asthma march has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of FeNO in assessing lower airway inflammation and predicting bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in AR with or without asthma. FeNO and eosinophil count in induced sputum, and a methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed in 93 subjects, including: 45 AR patients (AR group); 20 patients with AR and asthma (AR with asthma group); and 28 normal controls (control group)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zheng Zhu, Yanqing Xie, Weijie Guan, Yi Gao, Shu Xia, Rongquan Huang, Nanshan Zhong, Jinping Zheng
Background Both histamine and leukotrienes are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), although the pattern and severity of the nasal response to these two potent inflammatory mediators may differ, which has not been adequately studied in patients with persistent AR. Objective We sought to compare the differential effects of nasal challenge with leukotriene D4 (LTD4 ) and histamine on the airway response and inflammation in patients with AR. Methods An open-label, crossover study was performed in 25 persistent AR patients (AR group) and 16 healthy subjects (control group)...
October 3, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
James L Kreindler, Michael L Watkins, Sally Lettis, Ruth Tal-Singer, Nicholas Locantore
INTRODUCTION: Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Asger Bjerregaard, Ingrid A Laing, Vibeke Backer, Markus Fally, Siew-Kim Khoo, Glenys Chidlow, Chisha Sikazwe, David W Smith, Peter Le Souëf, Celeste Porsbjerg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits...
September 21, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Hanneke Coumou, Elisabeth H Bel
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing eosinophilic asthma is important, because uncontrolled eosinophilic airway inflammation is associated with reduced response to glucocorticoids and increased risk of severe exacerbations. AREAS COVERED: Currently, the diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma is based on measurements of sputum eosinophils, which is time consuming and requires specific technical expertise. Therefore, biomarkers such as blood eosinophils, FeNO, serum IgE and periostin are being used as surrogates...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
J da Silva, C Hilzendeger, C Moermans, F Schleich, M Henket, T Kebadze, P Mallia, M R Edwards, S L Johnston, R Louis
BACKGROUND: Interferons play an important role in innate immunity. Previous studies report deficiency in virus induction of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ in bronchial epithelial and bronchial lavage cells in atopic asthmatics. It is now recognized that asthma is a heterogeneous disease comprising different inflammatory phenotypes, some of which may involve innate immune activation in the absence of overt infection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the severity of asthma or a specific cellular sputum pattern may be linked to evidence of innate immune activation...
September 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A B Pirogov, A G Prikhod'ko, Yu M Perelman, S V Zinovyev, E Yu Afanasyeva, V P Kolosov
Positive reaction of the bronchi to distilled water inhalation in asthmatics is associated with significant stimulation of the respiratory epithelium desquamation against the background of increased content of eosinophilic and neutrophilic leukocytes in induced sputum, predomination of eosinophil and neutrophil cytolysis, and lower activity of myeloperoxidase in leukocyte granules (in comparison with the parameter in patients with a negative response to bronchostimulation). Enhanced cytolysis and destruction of leukocytes and high myeloperoxidase concentration in the extracellular space are essential for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypoosmotic stimulus in asthma...
August 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marek Sanak
Lipid mediators contribute to inflammation providing both pro-inflammatory signals and terminating the inflammatory process by activation of macrophages. Among the most significant biologically lipid mediators, these are produced by free-radical or enzymatic oxygenation of arachidonic acid named "eicosanoids". There were some novel eicosanoids identified within the last decade, and many of them are measurable in clinical samples by affordable chromatography-mass spectrometry equipment or sensitive immunoassays...
November 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Helen L Petsky, Kayleigh M Kew, Cathy Turner, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines aim to guide health practitioners to optimise treatment for patients so as to minimise symptoms, improve or maintain good lung function, and prevent acute exacerbations or flare-ups. The principle of asthma guidelines is based on a step-up or step-down regimen of asthma medications to maximise good health outcomes using minimum medications. Asthma maintenance therapies reduce airway inflammation that is usually eosinophilic. Tailoring asthma medications in accordance with airway eosinophilic levels may improve asthma outcomes such as indices of control or reduce exacerbations or both...
September 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chih-Hsi Scott Kuo, Stelios Pavlidis, Matthew Loza, Fred Baribaud, Anthony Rowe, Ioannis Pandis, Uruj Hoda, Christos Rossios, Ana Sousa, Susan J Wilson, Peter Howarth, Barbro Dahlen, Sven-Erik Dahlen, Pascal Chanez, Dominick Shaw, Norbert Krug, Thomas Sandström, Bertrand De Meulder, Diane Lefaudeux, Stephen Fowler, Louise Fleming, Julie Corfield, Charles Auffray, Peter J Sterk, Ratko Djukanovic, Yike Guo, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by diverse immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. We used transcriptomic profiling of airway tissues to help define asthma phenotypes. METHODS: The transcriptome from bronchial biopsies and epithelial brushings of 107 moderate-to-severe asthmatics were annotated by gene-set variation analysis (GSVA) using 42 gene-signatures relevant to asthma, inflammation and immune function. Topological data analysis (TDA) of clinical and histological data was used to derive clusters and the nearest shrunken centroid algorithm used for signature refinement...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
J R Anderson, K Mortimer, L Pang, K M Smith, H Bailey, D B Hodgson, D E Shaw, A J Knox, T W Harrison
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation in models of asthma. To determine whether pioglitazone improves measures of asthma control and airway inflammation, we performed a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. METHODS: Sixty-eight participants with mild asthma were randomized to 12 weeks pioglitazone (30 mg for 4 weeks, then 45 mg for 8 weeks) or placebo...
2016: PloS One
Jeong-Hwa Kwon, Se Jin Jang, Joon Seon Song, Seung-Ho Choi, Kyung-Ja Cho
Primary tracheal adenocarcinomas are rare. Here, we report on the liquid-based sputum cytology of a bicomponent mucin-producing tracheal adenocarcinoma with histologic and immunohistochemical comparison. A 72-year-old man presented with dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed a lobulated mass in the mid-trachea. Sputum cytology showed clusters of atypical cuboidal cells that have pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei and intracytoplasmic mucin. There were additional bland-looking components of regular clusters of cuboidal epithelial cells...
August 22, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Siddharth Gosavi, Pratibha Nadig, Alamelu Haran
INTRODUCTION: In-spite of the availability of effective medications, it is observed that patients with bronchial asthma on treatment are poorly controlled. An objective evaluation of asthma control especially with respect to inflammation and the factors contributing towards poor control is crucial in obtaining relief of symptoms. AIM: 1) To measure the asthma control using modified Mini Asthma Quality Of Life Questionnaire (MAQOL) and sputum eosinophil count; 2) To identify the role of factors viz...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Sherif Gonem, Rachid Berair, Amisha Singapuri, Ruth Hartley, Marie F M Laurencin, Gerald Bacher, Björn Holzhauer, Michelle Bourne, Vijay Mistry, Ian D Pavord, Adel H Mansur, Andrew J Wardlaw, Salman H Siddiqui, Richard A Kay, Christopher E Brightling
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation is often present in asthma, and reduction of such inflammation results in improved clinical outcomes. We hypothesised that fevipiprant (QAW039), an antagonist of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2, might reduce eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic asthma. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial at Glenfield Hospital (Leicester, UK)...
September 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Jeffrey R Stokes, Thomas B Casale
OBJECTIVE: To describe the concept of precision medicine in treating severe asthma and the utility of relevant biomarkers. DATA SOURCES: PubMed was searched for published articles on human clinical trials using biologics for T-helper type 2 cell (TH2)-low and TH2-high asthma. STUDY SELECTIONS: Studies were selected if they were double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals and relevant to the topic...
August 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Julian Casciano, Jerry A Krishnan, Mary Buatti Small, Philip O Buck, Gokul Gopalan, Chenghui Li, Robert Kemp, Zenobia Dotiwala
BACKGROUND: Asthma represents a significant clinical and economic burden to the US healthcare system. Along with other clinical manifestations of the disease, elevated sputum and blood eosinophil levels are observed in patients experiencing asthma exacerbations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood eosinophil levels and asthma severity defined using Expert Panel Report 3 guidelines. METHODS: Patients with asthma diagnosis between 2004 and 2011 were extracted from the EMRClaims+ database (eMAX Health, White Plains, NY) containing electronic medical records linked to insurance claims for over 675,000 patients...
2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Antoine Vermette, Marie-Eve Boulay, Louis-Philippe Boulet
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of discrepancies between clinical, physiological, and inflammatory asthma control parameters between patients with asthma and obesity and patients with asthma but not obesity using the Asthma Control Scoring System (ACSS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of demographic data and ACSS scores was performed in two groups of patients with asthma (74 with obesity and 74 without obesity) paired for sex, age, and asthma severity. Scores from each asthma control parameter-clinical (respiratory symptoms), physiological (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), and inflammatory (sputum eosinophil percentage)-were compared...
September 2016: Obesity
Netsanet A Negewo, Vanessa M McDonald, Katherine J Baines, Peter Ab Wark, Jodie L Simpson, Paul W Jones, Peter G Gibson
INTRODUCTION: Sputum eosinophilia occurs in approximately one-third of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and can predict exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatments. Sputum induction, however, requires expertise, may not always be successful, and does not provide point-of-care results. Easily applicable diagnostic markers that can predict sputum eosinophilia in stable COPD patients have the potential to progress COPD management. This study investigated the correlation and predictive relationship between peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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