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Baptiste Coxam, Holger Gerhardt
In recent years, use of the zebrafish embryo as a model organism to study vascular development in vivo has provided valuable insights into the genetic and cellular events shaping the embryonic vasculature. In this chapter, we aim to present the methods for the measurement of some of the most commonly investigated dynamic parameters in endothelial cells during developmental angiogenesis, namely, migration speed and acceleration, filopodia extension, front-rear polarity, cell cycle progression, membrane deformations, and junctional rearrangements...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Claire Latroche, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Bénédicte Chazaud
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is crucial for efficient skeletal muscle regeneration. Myogenesis and angiogenesis take place concomitantly during muscle regeneration. Myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) are in close proximity to vessels and interact with neighboring endothelial cells (ECs) to expand and differentiate. To demonstrate functional interplay between the two cell types, we established a robust and predictive ex vivo assay to evaluate activity of MPCs on angiogenesis and vice-et-versa, of ECs on myogenesis...
September 22, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eliana Rezende Adami, Claudia Rita Corso, Natalia Mulinari Turin-Oliveira, Claudia Martins Galindo, Letícia Milani, Maria Caroline Stipp, Georgia Erdmann do Nascimento, Andressa Chequin, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Rosangela Locatelli Dittrich, José Ederaldo Queiroz-Telles, Giseli Klassen, Edneia A S Ramos, Lucimara M C Cordeiro, Alexandra Acco
The present study investigated the antineoplastic effects of pectic polysaccharides that were extracted from green sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum [CAP]) in the Ehrlich carcinoma in mice and in human mammary tumor lineages. After the subcutaneous inoculation of 2 × 106 Ehrlich tumor cells, Female Swiss mice received 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg CAP or vehicle orally once daily or methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg, i.p., every 5 days) for 21 days. CAP dose-dependently reduced Ehrlich tumor growth. It also reduced the viability of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-436 human mammary cell lineages...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Y S Basmaeil, A M Al Subayyil, T Khatlani, E Bahattab, M Al-Alwan, F M Abomaray, B Kalionis, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, M H Abumaree
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from chorionic villi of human term placentae (pMSCs) protect human endothelial cells from injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In diabetes, elevated levels of glucose (hyperglycaemia) induce H2 O2 production, which causes the endothelial dysfunction that underlies the enhanced immune responses and adverse complications associated with diabetes, which leads to thrombosis and atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the ability of pMSCs to protect endothelial cell functions from the negative impact of high level of glucose...
September 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Deborah Chicharro, Jose M Carrillo, Mónica Rubio, Ramón Cugat, Belén Cuervo, Silvia Guil, Jerónimo Forteza, Victoria Moreno, Jose M Vilar, Joaquín Sopena
BACKGROUND: The use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) are today extensively studied in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, human and veterinary medicine prefer to avoid using traumatic techniques and choose low or non-invasive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRGF, ASCs and the combination of both in wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits. With this purpose, a total of 144 rabbits were used for this study...
September 21, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Joseph A Caruso, Nicholas J Carruthers, Bryan Thibodeau, Timothy J Geddes, Alan A Dombkowski, Paul M Stemmer
Intracellular signaling is controlled to a large extent by the phosphorylation status of proteins. To determine how human breast cells can be reprogrammed during tumorigenic progression, we profiled cell lines in the MCF10A lineage by phosphoproteomic analyses. A large cluster of proteins involved in RNA splicing were hypophosphorylated as cells progressed to a hyperplastic state, and then hyperphosphorylated after progression to a fully metastatic phenotype. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach was used to determine whether alterations in splicing factor phosphorylation status would be reflected in changes in mRNA splicing...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Poulami Majumder
Angiogenesis, sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculatures, plays a critical role in regulating tumor growth. Binding interactions between integrin, a heterodimeric transmembrane glycoprotein receptor, and its extracellular matrix (ECM) protein ligands govern the angiogenic potential of tumor endothelial cells. Integrin receptors are attractive targets in cancer therapy due to their overexpression on tumor endothelial cells, but not on quiescent blood vessels. These receptors are finding increasing applications in anti-angiogenic therapy via targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and nucleic acids to tumor vasculatures...
September 20, 2018: Bioengineering
Dagmara Tymecka, Anna K Puszko, Piotr F J Lipiński, Bartlomiej Fedorczyk, Beata Wilenska, Karolina Sura, Gerard Y Perret, Aleksandra Misicka
The demonstrated involvement of VEGF165 /NRP-1 complex in pathological angiogenesis has catalyzed interest in blocking this interaction to combat angiogenesis dependent diseases. It was shown before that Lys-Pro-Pro-Arg is a fairly strong inhibitor of the VEGF165 /NRP-1 interaction. Our current findings suggest that the side chain elongation of the Lys1 by branching it with additional homoarginine (Har) residue, to obtain Lys(Har)-Pro-Pro-Arg, allows more effective inhibition. Moreover, increasing the flexibility of the middle part of molecule, in particular with simultaneous introduction of additional interacting elements at the second or third position, produced compounds up to 30-fold more active (IC50  = 0...
September 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Se-Young Kim, Min-Jung Park, Jeong-Eun Kwon, Kyuong Ah Jung, Joo-Yeon Jhun, Seon-Yeong Lee, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Jae-Yoon Rye, Jin-Ah Beak, Jong-Young Choi, Mi-La Cho
Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a biochemical compound found in plants that are members of the family CuE has been studied for its roles in anti-inflammation and the inhibition of angiogenesis as well as for its properties as an antioxidant. CuE is a new agent that was identified as a selective inhibitor of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-related pathway. STAT3, a pivotal transcription factor for Th17 differentiation, is critical for T cell alloactivation in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD)...
September 18, 2018: Immunology Letters
Ana Guerra, Jorge Belinha, Renato Natal Jorge
The occurrence of wounds is a main health concern in Western society due to their high frequency and treatment cost. During wound healing, the formation of a functional blood vessel network through angiogenesis is an essential process. Angiogenesis allows the reestablishment of the normal blood flow, the sufficient exchange of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of metabolic waste, necessary for cell proliferation and viability. Mathematical and computational models provide new tools to improve the healing process...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Roberto F Nespolo, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Fernanda V Fernandez, Andrea X Silva, Cristian Molina, Kenneth B Storey, Francisco Bozinovic
The small South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides, known as the missing link between the American and the Australian marsupials, is one of the few South American mammals known to hibernate. Expressing both daily torpor and seasonal hibernation, this species may provide crucial information about the mechanisms and the evolutionary origins of marsupial hibernation. Here we compared torpid and active individuals, applying high-throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-seq) to profile gene expression in three D...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Morgan E Stevenson, Nicole A Lensmire, Rodney A Swain
BACKGROUND: Exercise induces plasticity in the hippocampus, which includes increases in neurogenesis, the proliferation of new neurons, and angiogenesis, the sprouting of new capillaries from preexisting blood vessels. Following exercise, astrocytes also undergo morphological changes that parallel the events occurring in the neurovascular system. Interestingly, there have also been reports of apoptosis in the hippocampus following aerobic exercise. This experiment aimed to identify which population of hippocampal cells undergoes apoptosis after an acute bout of exercise...
September 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
J A P Marchesi, A M G Ibelli, J O Peixoto, M E Cantão, J R C Pandolfi, C M M Marciano, R Zanella, M L Settles, L L Coutinho, M C Ledur
White striping (WS) is one of the most common myopathies identified in broiler chickens leading to substantial production losses, where the incidence reaches 12% in commercial chickens. It occurs primarily in heavier chickens being a modification of the breast muscle characterized by the presence of pale parallel streaks in the same orientation of the muscle fibers. Since the WS etiology remains unclear, we aimed to identify the biological and genetic mechanisms involved in its occurrence through the whole transcriptome analysis of WS in affected and unaffected chicken breast muscles...
September 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Vito Del Deo, Antonio Fico, Corrado Marini, Salvatore Senese, Giulio Gasparini
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study, involving 11 patients, is to share our experience on an integrated treatment modality, namely, the use of cellular therapy simultaneously with surgical reconstruction. Published works show that the implantation of monocytes in ischemic tissue enhances healing by providing neo-angiogenesis, a key mechanism in tissue regenerative processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our approach included the utilization of autologous monocytes and endothelial precursor cells in the bone graft itself to improve the success rate of the integration of the bone graft and its long-term viability/survival by promoting angiogenesis...
September 19, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Lei Bao, Cecilia Chau, Jeremy Bao, Maria M Tsoukas, Lawrence S Chan
IL-4 plays an important role in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis by dysregulating many key factors at the transcriptional level. In this study, using microRNA array technique and IL-4 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that IL-4 dysregulates microRNAs involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphoangiogenesis and apoptosis. Of all the 372 common microRNAs examined, 26 and 1 microRNAs are up- and down-regulated, respectively. MicroRNA-101-5p, -122-5p, -142-3p, -204-5p, -335-3p, -376a-3p, -378a-5p, -639 and -9-5p are among the most significantly up-regulated microRNAs...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Yucang He, Xiaofang Yu, Zhuojie Chen, Liqun Li
Autologous fat transplantation is increasingly applied in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Stromal vascular fraction cells (SVFs) combined with angiogenic factors, such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor A) and Ang-1 (angiogenin-1), can improve angiogenesis, which is a critical factor for graft survival. However, direct transplant with such a mixture is insufficient owing to the short half-life of angiogenic factors. In this study, we evaluated whether a double sustained release system of VEGF/ANG-1-PLGA (poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)) microspheres plus SVFs can improve angiogenesis and graft survival after autologous fat transplantation...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Ephrin A1 has a role in a variety of biological events, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and angiogenesis. Ephrin A1 expression is abundant in trophoblasts and endometrial cells during the implantation period; however, its intracellular activities have not yet been reported in bovine endometrial (BEND) epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to identify the functional role of ephrin A1 in BEND cells, which have served as a good model system for investigating the regulation of signal transduction following treatment with interferon-τ (IFNT) in vitro...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mariana Costa Braga Schmidt, Katia L P Morais, Maíra Estanislau Soares de Almeida, Asif Iqbal, Mauricio Barbugiani Goldfeder, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi
In a tumor microenvironment, endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis allow cancer to spread to other organs causing metastasis. This event is regulated by proteinases that induce extracellular matrix degradation and cell-substratum detachment. In this sense, a number of molecules that are involved in cytoskeleton re-organization and intracellular signaling, including uPA its receptor uPAR as well as Rho-GTPases, have been investigated for their effects on tumor cell growth and metastasis. Along the same line, Amblyomin-X, a recombinant Kunitz-type protein, has been shown to reduce metastasis and tumor growth in in vivo experiments...
September 21, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Masayuki Nagahashi, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Many inflammatory mediators are involved in the process of carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In addition to cytokines and chemokines, lipid mediators have recently attracted attention as signaling molecules associated with inflammatory diseases. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic lipid mediator that regulates cell survival and migration, immune cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. S1P also plays a significant role in inflammation and cancer. The gradation of S1P concentration in the blood, lymph, and tissue regulates lymphocyte trafficking, an important component of inflammation...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Science
Jordan Darden, Laura Beth Payne, Huaning Zhao, John C Chappell
Pericyte investment into new blood vessels is essential for vascular development such that mis-regulation within this phase of vessel formation can contribute to numerous pathologies including arteriovenous and cerebrovascular malformations. It is critical therefore to illuminate how angiogenic signaling pathways intersect to regulate pericyte migration and investment. Here, we disrupted vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling in ex vivo and in vitro models of sprouting angiogenesis, and found pericyte coverage to be compromised during VEGF-A perturbations...
September 20, 2018: Angiogenesis
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