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relationship between immunosuppression and infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071482/-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections
#1
REVIEW
A Nowag, M Platten, G Plum, P Hartmann
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) are found ubiquitously in the environment and are usually of low pathogenicity. Infection occurs via inhalation of aerosols, and some species may cause severe infections. The incidence of NTM infections is rising worldwide. The risk of developing NTM disease depends on the susceptibility of the host as well as the frequency and duration of exposure. In addition to congenital immune deficiencies and immunosuppressive therapy, structural lung and systemic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are associated with an increased risk for NTM infections...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055067/cutaneous-atypical-papular-cd8-lymphoproliferative-disorder-at-acral-sites-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#2
C Baykal, N Büyükbabani, D Seçkin, A Polat Ekinci, Z Yılmaz, W Kempf
A 20-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of an acute symmetrical eruption, manifesting as asymptomatic ill-defined erythematous macules and hyperkeratotic papules on the palms. The patient was a renal transplant recipient, and the lesions had developed 2 months post-transplantation. Histologically, the eruption shared features of a reactive inflammatory condition called papular eruption of atypical CD8+ lymphocytes as well as primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma (a provisional indolent entity in the new World Health Organisation classification of lymphoid neoplasms, 2016)...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970096/epidemiology-and-microbiological-profile-comparison-between-community-and-hospital-acquired-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-in-lebanon
#3
Roula Matta, Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit, Wafaa Bawab, Anne-Marie Rogues, Pascale Salameh
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the species resistance of different pathogens between community acquired and hospital acquired infections pointing at patients' related independent co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors. METHODS: It was a retrospective cohort, multicenter study from five private hospitals located in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Two hundred fifty-eight adult patients were included. RESULTS: 110 Gram negative pathogens and 26 Gram positive pathogens were implicated in hospital acquired infections...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966514/a-study-of-the-changes-of-t-helper-17-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-herpes-zoster
#4
Min Sung Kim, Dong Jin Kim, Chan Ho Na, Bong Seok Shin
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression and age-related deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity are important factors for the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper 17 (Th17) cells are closely associated with various viral infections. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed Treg cells and Th17 cells in patients with herpes zoster and investigated their relationship with the reactivation of latent VZV. METHODS: Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood and the ratio of Th17 to Treg cells were examined in patients with herpes zoster and healthy controls...
October 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852522/systematic-review-of-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-associated-with-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-association-or-causation
#5
REVIEW
Fateh Bazerbachi, Michael D Leise, Kymberly D Watt, M Hassan Murad, Larry J Prokop, Samir Haffar
Background and aim: Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) has been associated with several viral infections, and chronic hepatitis C is recognized as a major cause. MC associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described and little is known about this rare association. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of MC associated with HEV, and examine the presence of a causal relationship. Methods: An experienced librarian conducted a search of databases from each database's inception to 12 December 2016 based on a priori criteria...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817184/the-influence-of-cytomegalovirus-on-expression-of-hla-g-and-its-ligand-kir2dl4-by-human-peripheral-blood-leucocyte-subsets
#6
Z Albayati, A Alyami, S Alomar, D Middleton, L Bonnett, S Aleem, B F Flanagan, S E Christmas
HLA-G is a non-classical class I HLA antigen, normally expressed in high levels only on extravillous cytotrophoblast. It has immunosuppressive properties in pregnancy and has also been found to be upregulated on leucocytes in viral infection. In this study, proportions of all leucocyte subsets expressing HLA-G were found to be low in healthy subjects positive or negative for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Significantly greater proportions of CD4+ CD69+ and CD56+ T cells expressed HLA-G compared to other T cells. However, following stimulation with CMV antigens or intact CMV, proportions of CD4+, CD8+, CD69+ and CD56+ T cells, and also B cells expressing HLA-G, were significantly increased in CMV+ subjects...
November 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814524/mutation-of-the-putative-immunosuppressive-domain-of-the-retroviral-envelope-glycoprotein-compromises-infectivity
#7
Urszula Eksmond, Bryony Jenkins, Julia Merkenschlager, Walther Mothes, Jonathan P Stoye, George Kassiotis
The envelope glycoprotein of diverse endogenous and exogenous retroviruses is considered inherently immunosuppressive. Extensive work mapped the immunosuppressive activity to a highly conserved domain, termed the immunosuppressive domain (ISD), in the transmembrane (TM) subunit of the envelope glycoprotein and identified two naturally polymorphic key residues that afford immunosuppressive activity to distinct envelope glycoproteins. Concurrent mutation of these two key residues (E14R and A20F) in the envelope glycoprotein of the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) ISD has been reported to abolish its immunosuppressive activity, without affecting its fusogenicity, and to weaken the ability of the virus to replicate specifically in immunocompetent hosts...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#8
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702340/characteristics-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-pulmonary-disease-in-previously-treated-lung-cancer-patients
#9
Erin Meier, Kelly Pennington, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Patricio Escalante
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is responsible for a large portion of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections worldwide. Host factors such as active malignancy, immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis increase the risk of MAC infection. However, the relationship between previously treated lung cancer with subsequent development of MAC pulmonary disease and treatment outcomes have not been previously studied. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients with lung cancer and MAC pulmonary disease documented in medical records at Mayo Clinic between January 2005 and October 2016...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697224/acquired-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-and-its-relationship-to-immunosuppressive-therapy-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Channa G Ovits, Bijal D Amin, Caroline Halverstam
INTRODUCTION: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare inherited dermatosis characterized by increased susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection. Acquired EV occurs in patients with compromised cell-mediated immunity, such as patients with HIV and transplant recipients. Optimal management of acquired EV has not yet been established, as cases are rare and are due to a variety of underlying conditions. Additionally, no distinctions have been made between different immunosuppressive medications and their respective link to EV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688615/innovative-dairy-cow-management-to-improve-resistance-to-metabolic-and-infectious-diseases-during-the-transition-period
#11
REVIEW
P Lacasse, N Vanacker, S Ollier, C Ster
The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production...
June 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639065/nosocomial-rhinocerebral-mucormycosis-two-cases-with-a-temporal-relationship
#12
Justo Sánchez-Gil, Emilio Guirao-Arrabal, Ginés David Parra-García, María Del Pilar Luzón-García, Maria Fe Bautista-Marín, Matías Barayobre-Barayobre, Andrés Fontalba-Navas
Mucormycosis is an unusual fungal infection that usually affects immunosuppressed patients. Small outbreaks of mucormycosis have been previously reported. We present two clinical cases of fatal rhinocerebral mucormycosis with a close temporal relationship between them and a possible nosocomial transmission: case 1 was a 75-year-old male with diabetes and COPD, treated with antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids, who developed rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Case 2 was an 88-year-old woman who was treated with systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids and developed the same infection after insertion of a nasogastric tube...
June 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580210/immunosuppressive-medication-is-not-associated-with-surgical-site-infection-after-surgery-for-intractable-ulcerative-colitis-in-children
#14
Keiichi Uchida, Yoshikazu Ohtsuka, Atsushi Yoden, Hitoshi Tajiri, Hideaki Kimura, Takashi Isihige, Hiroyuki Yamada, Katsuhiro Arai, Takeshi Tomomasa, Kosuke Ushijima, Tomoki Aomatsu, Satoru Nagata, Kohei Otake, Kohei Matsushita, Mikihiro Inoue, Takahiro Kudo, Kenji Hosoi, Kazuo Takeuchi, Toshiaki Shimizu
Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) sometimes progresses to an intractable condition for medical therapy. The surgical management of UC is challenging because of difficult procedures and frequent infectious complications. The aim of this study was to survey surgical procedures and infectious complications in pediatric patients with UC in Japan and to assess the relationship between preoperatively administered immunosuppressive drugs and postoperative surgical site infection (SSI). A survey of pediatric patients treated from 2000 to 2012 was sent to 683 facilities nationwide...
May 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566075/-evaluation-of-quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-tube-test-and-tuberculin-skin-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Raika Durusoy, Melike Yaşar, Münevver Kayın
The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube (QFT) test and its agreement with the tuberculin skin test (TST), to investigate possible factors associated with indeterminate QFT test results and to explore the relationship between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBE) prevalence and the rate of tuberculosis (TB) cases in our region. 1455 cases with QFT test performed in Ege University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 2013 and 2015 were included in the study and simultaneously TST results of 268 of 1455 cases were reached...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501040/-the-relationship-between-immunodepression-and-the-development-of-skin-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Maria Mendonça Sanches, Ana Rita Travassos, Luis Soares-de-Almeida
The effects of immunodepression on several disease states have constituted an important area of research, leading to the identification of relevant associations between immunodepression and a vast set of comorbidities, including infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Research on the effects of immunodepression has mostly been conducted in individuals under immunodepression by the human immunodeficiency virus and transplant recipients under pharmacological immunosuppression, due to the difficulties in obtaining relevant samples sizes in other contexts of immunodepression...
January 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457899/the-integrity-of-prrsv-nucleocapsid-protein-is-necessary-for-up-regulation-of-optimal-interleukin-10-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-mapk-pathways-in-porcine-alveolar-macrophages
#17
Jiang Yu, Yanyan Liu, Yuyu Zhang, Xiwang Zhu, Sufang Ren, Lihui Guo, Xing Liu, Wenbo Sun, Zhi Chen, Xiaoyan Cong, Lei Chen, Jianli Shi, Yijun Du, Jun Li, Jiaqiang Wu, Jinbao Wang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a highly contagious disease, has been constantly causing huge economic losses all over the world. PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection results in immunosuppression and IL-10 up-regulation. The relationship between them is still in dispute. Previous studies demonstrated the protein of PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein is able to up-regulate IL-10, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the expression kinetics of IL-10 up-regulation induced by PRRSV N protein were analyzed in immortalized porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs)...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432575/liver-transplantation-the-role-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Brian C Davis, M Shadab Siddiqui
The long-term survival in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is currently at an historical high level stemming from improvement in perioperative care, infection control, and immunosuppression medications. However, compared to the general population, LTRs have decreased survival. Metabolic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are key determinants of long-term mortality in LTRs. The incidence and prevalence of these metabolic comorbidities is considerably higher in LTRs and likely results from a combination of factors including exposure to chronic immunosuppression, weight gain, and recurrence of chronic liver disease after liver transplantation (LT)...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416540/in-vivo-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-wild-type-and-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-in-two-different-immunosuppression-models-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#20
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Johan W Mouton, Willem J G Melchers, Paul E Verweij
Using an immunocompetent murine model of invasive aspergillosis (IA), we previously reported that the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) (Ambisome) is not hampered by the presence of azole resistance mutations in Aspergillus fumigatus (S. Seyedmousavi, W. J. G. Melchers, J. W. Mouton, and P. E. Verweij, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:1866-1871, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02226-12). We here investigated the role of immune suppression, i.e., neutropenia and steroid treatment, in L-AmB efficacy in mice infected with wild-type (WT) A...
June 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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