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relationship between immunosuppression and infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901200/retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-behavior-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-in-215-hiv-seropositive-patients
#1
Daniela Assis do Vale, Fabiana Martins E Martins, Paulo Henrique Braz da Silva, Karem López Ortega
Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual's immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796644/ureaplasma-parvum-causes-hyperammonemia-in-a-pharmacologically-immunocompromised-murine-model
#2
X Wang, K E Greenwood-Quaintance, M J Karau, D R Block, J N Mandrekar, S A Cunningham, J M Mallea, R Patel
A relationship between hyperammonemia and Ureaplasma infection has been shown in lung transplant recipients. We have demonstrated that Ureaplasma urealyticum causes hyperammonemia in a novel immunocompromised murine model. Herein, we determined whether Ureaplasma parvum can do the same. Male C3H mice were given mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and prednisone for 7 days, and then challenged with U. parvum intratracheally (IT) and/or intraperitoneally (IP), while continuing immunosuppression over 6 days. Plasma ammonia concentrations were determined and compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795466/the-characteristics-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-in-hospital-faecal-carriage-in-beijing-tongren-hospital
#3
Maoye Xu, Yanyan Fan, Mei Wang, Xinxin Lu
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Beijing Tongren hospital and find the relationship between colonization and infection. The clinical data of 650 inpatients included between March 2012 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli among inpatients was 25.7% (167/650), with the highest of 50.0% in rheumatology ward and lowest of 10.0% in intensive care unit. Hospital stay more than 2 years, usage of antibiotics less than 3 months, and use of glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive were found to be significantly associated with ESBL carriage (P < 0...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755153/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-and-cancer-risk
#4
Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744057/preliminary-study-on-the-relationship-between-dexamethasone-and%C3%A2-pathogen-susceptibility-on-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus
#5
Xiao-Zhou Qi, Dong-Liang Li, Xiao Tu, Chen-Guang Song, Fei Ling, Gao-Xue Wang
Dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. The effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. The fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group D), 3 days (group C), 6 days (group B), and 9 days (group A), respectively...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694721/prevalence-of-cutaneous-warts-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review
#6
Luisa Moreira Silva, Willer Goncalves Dourado Santos, Mittermayer Barretto Santiago
The aim of this study was to review and evaluate systematically the scientific evidence on the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cutaneous warts (CW) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. With strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, we extensively searched the PUBMED, BVS (Virtual Health Library), and SCOPUS databases for the studies that evaluated the prevalence of CW in patients with SLE. Secondary references were additionally obtained from the selected articles. Only four articles met the research criteria and showed a higher frequency of CW in SLE patients compared to healthy controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693910/is-the-clinical-relevance-of-drug-food-and-drug-herb-interactions-limited-to-grapefruit-juice-and-saint-john-s-wort
#7
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690360/exposure-to-corticosterone-affects-host-resistance-but-not-tolerance-to-an-emerging-fungal-pathogen
#8
Julie Murone, Joseph A DeMarchi, Matthew D Venesky
Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone ("CORT") is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668162/high-level-viruria-as-a-screening-tool-for-bk-virus-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#9
W James Chon, Nidhi Aggarwal, Masha Kocherginsky, Brenna Kane, Jozefa Sutor, Michelle A Josephson
BACKGROUND: Although early monitoring of BK virus infection in renal transplant patients has led to improved outcomes over the past decade, it remains unclear whether monitoring for viremia is the best screening tool for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 368 renal transplant recipients who had a minimum of 18 months of posttransplantation follow-up. The relationship between the presence of BK viruria and a composite end point of BK viremia/BKVN was established, and the predictive value of high-grade BK viruria for development of viremia/BKVN was determined...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548160/inflammatory-cutaneous-diseases-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#10
Paola Savoia, Giovanni Cavaliere, Elisa Zavattaro, Federica Veronese, Paolo Fava
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527346/testosterone-and-haemosporidian-parasites-along-a-tropical-elevational-gradient-in-rufous-collared-sparrows-zonotrichia-capensis
#11
Camilo Escallón, Nicole M Weinstein, James A Tallant, Winfried Wojtenek, Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Elisa Bonaccorso, Ignacio T Moore
Elevation has been proposed as a dominant ecological variable shaping life history traits and subsequently their underlying hormonal mechanisms. In an earlier meta-analysis of tropical birds, elevation was positively related to testosterone levels. Furthermore, parasitism by avian haemosporidians should vary with elevation as environmental conditions affect vector abundance, and while testosterone is needed for breeding, it is hypothesized to be immunosuppressive and thus could exacerbate haemosporidian infection...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521363/the-cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-its-associations-with-human-papillomavirus-detection-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-women
#12
Laura L Reimers, Supriya D Mehta, L Stewart Massad, Robert D Burk, Xianhong Xie, Jacques Ravel, Mardge H Cohen, Joel M Palefsky, Kathleen M Weber, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Minkoff, Jessica Atrio, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Qian Ye, Christine Colie, Christine P Zolnik, Gregory T Spear, Howard D Strickler
BACKGROUND:  Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by low abundance of Lactobacillus species, high pH, and immune cell infiltration and has been associated with an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We molecularly assessed the cervicovaginal microbiota over time in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected women to more comprehensively study the HPV-microbiota relationship, controlling for immune status. METHODS:  16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and HPV DNA testing were conducted annually in serial cervicovaginal lavage specimens obtained over 8-10 years from African American women from Chicago, of whom 22 were HIV uninfected, 22 were HIV infected with a stable CD4(+) T-cell count of > 500 cells/mm(3), and 20 were HIV infected with progressive immunosuppression...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419840/risk-factors-for-aerobic-bacterial-conjunctival-flora-in-preoperative-cataract-patients
#13
S Hoshi, M Hashida, K Urabe
PurposeTo investigate the relationship between the background of preoperative cataract patients and bacterial conjunctival flora.MethodsA total of 990 cataract patients who had completed preoperative examinations in 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients using topical antibiotics at the preoperative examination or having a history of intraocular surgery were excluded. Conjunctival cultures had been preoperatively obtained. Patient characteristics were investigated via medical records. Risk factors for conjunctival flora of seven typical bacteria were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 15, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418152/study-of-intercurrent-infection-pattern-in-hepatitis-c-seropositive-renal-transplant-recipients-relationship-with-t-cell-function
#14
Mohamed A Ibrahim, Heba W El Said, Dawlat H Sany, Afaf A Mostafa
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effect of hepatitis C seropositivity on the percentage of various T-cells in living donor renal transplant recipients (LDRTRs) and their association with intercurrent infections post renal transplantation (post-Tx). METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three matching LDRTRs [A (seronegative) (68 patients) and B (seropositive) (65 patients) by ELISA] were studied prospectively 10 days, 6 months and 12 months post-Tx for intercurrent infections, acute rejection and T-cell% by flow cytometry...
September 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375617/detecting-the-hidden-properties-of-immunological-data-and-predicting-the-mortality-risks-of-infectious-syndromes
#15
S Chatzipanagiotou, A Ioannidis, E Trikka-Graphakos, N Charalampaki, C Sereti, R Piccinini, A M Higgins, T Buranda, R Durvasula, A L Hoogesteijn, G P Tegos, Ariel L Rivas
BACKGROUND: To extract more information, the properties of infectious disease data, including hidden relationships, could be considered. Here, blood leukocyte data were explored to elucidate whether hidden information, if uncovered, could forecast mortality. METHODS: Three sets of individuals (n = 132) were investigated, from whom blood leukocyte profiles and microbial tests were conducted (i) cross-sectional analyses performed at admission (before bacteriological tests were completed) from two groups of hospital patients, randomly selected at different time periods, who met septic criteria [confirmed infection and at least three systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria] but lacked chronic conditions (study I, n = 36; and study II, n = 69); (ii) a similar group, tested over 3 days (n = 7); and (iii) non-infected, SIRS-negative individuals, tested once (n = 20)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266280/evaluation-of-pulmonary-microsporidiosis-in-iatrogenically-immunosuppressed-patients
#16
Soykan Özkoç, Songül Bayram Delibaş, Çiler Akısü
INTRODUCTION: Microsporidia spp. are ubiquitous and infect a wide variety of intervertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Pulmonary microsporidiosis, characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, cough and dyspnea, is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunsupressed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary microsporidiosis in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and to evaluate the patient characteristics...
December 0: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265684/a-plasmodium-like-virulence-effector-of-the-soybean-cyst-nematode-suppresses-plant-innate-immunity
#17
Jason B Noon, Mingsheng Qi, Danielle N Sill, Usha Muppirala, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Thomas R Maier, Drena Dobbs, Melissa G Mitchum, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J Baum
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, delivers effector proteins into soybean roots to initiate and maintain an obligate parasitic relationship. HgGLAND18 encodes a candidate H. glycines effector and is expressed throughout the infection process. We used a combination of molecular, genetic, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses to determine the role of HgGLAND18 during H. glycines infection. HgGLAND18 is necessary for pathogenicity in compatible interactions with soybean. The encoded effector strongly suppresses both basal and hypersensitive cell death innate immune responses, and immunosuppression requires the presence and coordination between multiple protein domains...
October 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257429/hepatitis-b-reactivation-during-immunosuppressive-therapy-or-cancer-chemotherapy-management-and-prevention-a-comprehensive-review-screened
#18
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Shahnaz Sali
CONTEXT: Due to the close relationship between the immune system and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, it is essential to monitor patients with current or past HBV infection under any type of immunosuppression. Cancer chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapies in autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppression in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients are the major reasons for hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr). In this review, the challenges associated with HBVr are discussed according to the latest studies and guidelines...
April 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211020/targeting-cytomegalovirus-during-ulcerative-colitis-flare-ups
#19
Hiroshi Nakase, Kei Onodera
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of opportunistic infection leading to severe and fatal disease in immune-compromised individuals. In inflammatory bowel disease patients, particularly those with ulcerative colitis (UC), CMV is often reactivated because these patients are frequently treated with immunosuppressive agents. Many reports have described the relationship between CMV reactivation and UC exacerbation, however, a therapeutic strategy for CMV infection in UC patients has not been established...
May 21, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191595/jc-polyomavirus-abundance-and-distribution-in-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-pml-brain-tissue-implicates-myelin-sheath-in-intracerebral-dissemination-of-infection
#20
Keith A Wharton, Catherine Quigley, Marian Themeles, Robert W Dunstan, Kathryn Doyle, Ellen Cahir-McFarland, Jing Wei, Alex Buko, Carl E Reid, Chao Sun, Paul Carmillo, Gargi Sur, John P Carulli, Keith G Mansfield, Susan V Westmoreland, Susan M Staugaitis, Robert J Fox, Werner Meier, Susan E Goelz
Over half of adults are seropositive for JC polyomavirus (JCV), but rare individuals develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating JCV infection of the central nervous system. Previously, PML was primarily seen in immunosuppressed patients with AIDS or certain cancers, but it has recently emerged as a drug safety issue through its association with diverse immunomodulatory therapies. To better understand the relationship between the JCV life cycle and PML pathology, we studied autopsy brain tissue from a 70-year-old psoriasis patient on the integrin alpha-L inhibitor efalizumab following a ~2 month clinical course of PML...
2016: PloS One
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