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relationship between immunosuppression and infections

Álvaro H Borges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Xiao-Zhou Qi, Dong-Liang Li, Xiao Tu, Chen-Guang Song, Fei Ling, Gao-Xue Wang
Dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. The effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. The fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group D), 3 days (group C), 6 days (group B), and 9 days (group A), respectively...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Luisa Moreira Silva, Willer Goncalves Dourado Santos, Mittermayer Barretto Santiago
The aim of this study was to review and evaluate systematically the scientific evidence on the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cutaneous warts (CW) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. With strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, we extensively searched the PUBMED, BVS (Virtual Health Library), and SCOPUS databases for the studies that evaluated the prevalence of CW in patients with SLE. Secondary references were additionally obtained from the selected articles. Only four articles met the research criteria and showed a higher frequency of CW in SLE patients compared to healthy controls...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Stéphane Mouly, Célia Lloret-Linares, Pierre-Olivier Sellier, Damien Sene, J-F Bergmann
An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Julie Murone, Joseph A DeMarchi, Matthew D Venesky
Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone ("CORT") is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
W James Chon, Nidhi Aggarwal, Masha Kocherginsky, Brenna Kane, Jozefa Sutor, Michelle A Josephson
BACKGROUND: Although early monitoring of BK virus infection in renal transplant patients has led to improved outcomes over the past decade, it remains unclear whether monitoring for viremia is the best screening tool for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 368 renal transplant recipients who had a minimum of 18 months of posttransplantation follow-up. The relationship between the presence of BK viruria and a composite end point of BK viremia/BKVN was established, and the predictive value of high-grade BK viruria for development of viremia/BKVN was determined...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Paola Savoia, Giovanni Cavaliere, Elisa Zavattaro, Federica Veronese, Paolo Fava
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Camilo Escallón, Nicole M Weinstein, James A Tallant, Winfried Wojtenek, Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Elisa Bonaccorso, Ignacio T Moore
Elevation has been proposed as a dominant ecological variable shaping life history traits and subsequently their underlying hormonal mechanisms. In an earlier meta-analysis of tropical birds, elevation was positively related to testosterone levels. Furthermore, parasitism by avian haemosporidians should vary with elevation as environmental conditions affect vector abundance, and while testosterone is needed for breeding, it is hypothesized to be immunosuppressive and thus could exacerbate haemosporidian infection...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Laura L Reimers, Supriya D Mehta, L Stewart Massad, Robert D Burk, Xianhong Xie, Jacques Ravel, Mardge H Cohen, Joel M Palefsky, Kathleen Weber, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Minkoff, Jessica Atrio, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Qian Ye, Christine Colie, Christine P Zolnik, Gregory T Spear, Howard D Strickler
BACKGROUND:  Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by low abundance of Lactobacillus spp., high pH, immune cell infiltration, and has been associated with increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We molecularly assessed the cervicovaginal microbiota over time in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women to more comprehensively study the HPV-microbiota relationship, controlling for immune status. METHODS:  16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and HPV DNA testing was conducted annually in serial cervicovaginal lavage specimens obtained over 8-10 years in African American women from Chicago: (i) N=22 HIV-uninfected, (ii) N=22 HIV-infected with stable CD4 >500 cells/mm(3), (iii) N=20 HIV-infected women with progressive immunosuppression...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
S Hoshi, M Hashida, K Urabe
PurposeTo investigate the relationship between the background of preoperative cataract patients and bacterial conjunctival flora.MethodsA total of 990 cataract patients who had completed preoperative examinations in 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients using topical antibiotics at the preoperative examination or having a history of intraocular surgery were excluded. Conjunctival cultures had been preoperatively obtained. Patient characteristics were investigated via medical records. Risk factors for conjunctival flora of seven typical bacteria were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 15, 2016: Eye
Mohamed A Ibrahim, Heba W El Said, Dawlat H Sany, Afaf A Mostafa
BACKGROUND: We assessed the effect of hepatitis C seropositivity on the percentage of various T-cells in living donor renal transplant recipients (LDRTRs) and their association with intercurrent infections post renal transplantation (post-Tx). METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three matching LDRTRs [A (seronegative) (68 patients) and B (seropositive) (65 patients) by ELISA] were studied prospectively 10 days, 6 months and 12 months post-Tx for intercurrent infections, acute rejection and T-cell% by flow cytometry...
September 2016: Renal Failure
S Chatzipanagiotou, A Ioannidis, E Trikka-Graphakos, N Charalampaki, C Sereti, R Piccinini, A M Higgins, T Buranda, R Durvasula, A L Hoogesteijn, G P Tegos, Ariel L Rivas
BACKGROUND: To extract more information, the properties of infectious disease data, including hidden relationships, could be considered. Here, blood leukocyte data were explored to elucidate whether hidden information, if uncovered, could forecast mortality. METHODS: Three sets of individuals (n = 132) were investigated, from whom blood leukocyte profiles and microbial tests were conducted (i) cross-sectional analyses performed at admission (before bacteriological tests were completed) from two groups of hospital patients, randomly selected at different time periods, who met septic criteria [confirmed infection and at least three systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria] but lacked chronic conditions (study I, n = 36; and study II, n = 69); (ii) a similar group, tested over 3 days (n = 7); and (iii) non-infected, SIRS-negative individuals, tested once (n = 20)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Soykan Özkoç, Songül Bayram Delibaş, Çiler Akısü
INTRODUCTION: Microsporidia spp. are ubiquitous and infect a wide variety of intervertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Pulmonary microsporidiosis, characterized by nonspecific symptoms like fever, cough and dyspnea, is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infections in immunsupressed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary microsporidiosis in iatrogenically immunosuppressed patients and to evaluate the patient characteristics...
March 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Jason B Noon, Mingsheng Qi, Danielle N Sill, Usha Muppirala, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Thomas R Maier, Drena Dobbs, Melissa G Mitchum, Tarek Hewezi, Thomas J Baum
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, delivers effector proteins into soybean roots to initiate and maintain an obligate parasitic relationship. HgGLAND18 encodes a candidate H. glycines effector and is expressed throughout the infection process. We used a combination of molecular, genetic, bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses to determine the role of HgGLAND18 during H. glycines infection. HgGLAND18 is necessary for pathogenicity in compatible interactions with soybean. The encoded effector strongly suppresses both basal and hypersensitive cell death innate immune responses, and immunosuppression requires the presence and coordination between multiple protein domains...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Soheil Tavakolpour, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Shahnaz Sali
CONTEXT: Due to the close relationship between the immune system and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, it is essential to monitor patients with current or past HBV infection under any type of immunosuppression. Cancer chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapies in autoimmune diseases, and immunosuppression in solid organ and stem cell transplant recipients are the major reasons for hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBVr). In this review, the challenges associated with HBVr are discussed according to the latest studies and guidelines...
April 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Hiroshi Nakase, Kei Onodera
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common cause of opportunistic infection leading to severe and fatal disease in immune-compromised individuals. In inflammatory bowel disease patients, particularly those with ulcerative colitis (UC), CMV is often reactivated because these patients are frequently treated with immunosuppressive agents. Many reports have described the relationship between CMV reactivation and UC exacerbation, however, a therapeutic strategy for CMV infection in UC patients has not been established...
May 21, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Keith A Wharton, Catherine Quigley, Marian Themeles, Robert W Dunstan, Kathryn Doyle, Ellen Cahir-McFarland, Jing Wei, Alex Buko, Carl E Reid, Chao Sun, Paul Carmillo, Gargi Sur, John P Carulli, Keith G Mansfield, Susan V Westmoreland, Susan M Staugaitis, Robert J Fox, Werner Meier, Susan E Goelz
Over half of adults are seropositive for JC polyomavirus (JCV), but rare individuals develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating JCV infection of the central nervous system. Previously, PML was primarily seen in immunosuppressed patients with AIDS or certain cancers, but it has recently emerged as a drug safety issue through its association with diverse immunomodulatory therapies. To better understand the relationship between the JCV life cycle and PML pathology, we studied autopsy brain tissue from a 70-year-old psoriasis patient on the integrin alpha-L inhibitor efalizumab following a ~2 month clinical course of PML...
2016: PloS One
Hafize Kılınçkaya Doğan, Esvet Mutlu, Sadi Köksoy, Vural T Yılmaz, Hüseyin Koçak, Dilek Çolak, Derya Mutlu, Filiz Günseren, Ayhan Dinçkan, İbrahim Aliosmanoğlu, Gültekin Süleymanlar, Meral Gültekin
In spite of the improvements in the clinical management of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients provided by immunosuppresion and universal prophylaxis, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections continue to be one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Cell-mediated immunity specific to CMV (CMV-CMI) plays an important role in the control of CMV replication. Therefore, monitoring of CMV-specific T-cell response can be used to predict individuals at increased risk of CMV disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of CMV-specific interferon (IFN)-γ producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in kidney transplant recipients before and after the transplantation, by cytokine flow cytometry...
April 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Joanna E Long, Mark T Drayson, Angela E Taylor, Kai M Toellner, Janet M Lord, Anna C Phillips
OBJECTIVES: Older adults are less able to produce a protective antibody response to vaccinations. One factor that contributes to this is immune ageing. Here we examined whether diurnal variations in immune responses might extend to the antibody response to vaccination. DESIGN: We utilised a cluster-randomised trial design. SETTING: 24 General Practices (GPs) across the West Midlands, UK who were assigned to morning (9-11am; 15 surgeries) or afternoon (3-5pm; 9 surgeries) vaccination times for the annual UK influenza vaccination programme...
May 23, 2016: Vaccine
A Solazzo, C Botta, F Nava, A Baisi, D Bonucchi, G Cappelli
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk of developing pulmonary complications related to immunosuppression, and inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORi) has been reported as a potential cause. METHODS: Five hundred kidney-transplanted patients were retrospectively analyzed for pulmonary complications on the basis of clinical and instrumental data (chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, broncho-alveolar lavage, oximetry)...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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