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relationship between immunosuppression and infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432575/liver-transplantation-the-role-of-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Brian C Davis, M Shadab Siddiqui
The long-term survival in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is currently at an historical high level stemming from improvement in perioperative care, infection control, and immunosuppression medications. However, compared to the general population, LTRs have decreased survival. Metabolic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are key determinants of long-term mortality in LTRs. The incidence and prevalence of these metabolic comorbidities is considerably higher in LTRs and likely results from a combination of factors including exposure to chronic immunosuppression, weight gain, and recurrence of chronic liver disease after liver transplantation (LT)...
April 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416540/in-vivo-efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-wild-type-and-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolates-in-two-different-immunosuppressed-models-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#3
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Johan W Mouton, Willem J G Melchers, Paul E Verweij
Using an immunocompetent murine model of invasive aspergillosis (IA), we previously reported (AAC, 2013, 57, 4, 1866-1871) that the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is not hampered by the presence of azole resistance mutations in Aspergillus fumigatus We here investigated the role of immune suppression, i.e. neutropenic and steroid-treated, on L-AmB efficacy in mice infected with a wild type (WT) and azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring TR34/L98H mutation in cyp-51A gene.Survival of treated animals at day 14 in both immunosuppressed models was significantly better than that of non-treated controls...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329664/prospective-evaluation-of-complications-in-dermatologic-surgery-associated-with-hypertension-conroy
#4
Conroy Chow, Matthew J Simpson, Niko Pascua, Harjot Maan, Jacqueline G Berlier, Siegrid Yu, Isaac Neuhaus, Roy Grekin, Sarah T Arron
BackgroundPoorly controlled hypertension is a known risk factor for surgical complications. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the incidence of complications in participants undergoing Mohsmicrographic surgery (MMS) based on preoperative blood pressure (BP) measurement and investigates the role of potential confounders in the relationship between preoperative BP and postoperative complications.MethodsThis 10-month prospective cohort study at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Dermatologic Surgery Center approached all patients undergoing MMS for participation and assessed for the diagnosis of hypertension, anti-hypertensive medication use, use of tobacco or blood thinners, immunosuppression, concomitant diabetes, or previous treatment with radiation therapy at the surgical site...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#5
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326326/genetic-analysis-of-two-chicken-infectious-anemia-virus-variants-related-gyrovirus-in-stray-mice-and-dogs-the-first-report-in-china-2015
#6
Lichun Fang, Yang Li, Yixin Wang, Jiayuan Fu, Shuai Cui, Xiaohan Li, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes acute viral infection in chickens worldwide. It can infect chickens of all ages, but the disease is seen only in young chickens and is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions in the muscles, atrophic changes in the lymphoid organs, aplastic bone marrow, and immunosuppression causing increased mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that CIAV can be isolated from blood specimens of humans and fecal samples of stray cats. In the present study, two variants of CIAV were isolated from fecal samples of mice (CIAV-Mouse) and stray dogs (CIAV-Dog), respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247238/clinical-pharmacokinetic-monitoring-of-leflunomide-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-bk-virus-reactivation-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Joan C Y Ng, Marianna Leung, Alissa J Wright, Mary H H Ensom
Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive drug with in vitro and initial observational evidence of antiviral activity against BK virus (BKV), a pathogen that causes opportunistic infection upon reactivation in renal transplant recipients. Leflunomide is considered an ancillary option to immunosuppression reduction in the management of BKV reactivation. Plasma or blood concentrations of teriflunomide, the active metabolite of leflunomide, are commonly monitored because of high leflunomide doses being used, known inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics, and hepatotoxicity risk...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229616/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#8
David Marti Aguado, María Pilar Ballester, Marta Maia Bosca Watts
Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients at risk of opportunistic infections are those treated with immunomodulators. Toruner and colleagues found that corticosteroid use was more commonly associated with fungal infections. We present a case of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis due to corticosteroid therapy in the context of a severe Ulcerative Colitis flare. We want to highlight the relationship between Aspergillus fumigatus and horses; and the use of leucocitapheresis combined with mesalazine as an effective treatment option in this patients who can not take more immunosuppressive therapy...
February 23, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228112/three-case-reports-of-post-immunization-and-post-viral-bullous-pemphigoid-looking-for-the-right-trigger
#9
Luca Baroero, Paola Coppo, Laura Bertolino, Stefano Maccario, Francesco Savino
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a blistering skin disorder infrequent in infancy and rarely reported in medical literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe three cases of BP which were referred to our department in the last 15 years. Two of them developed an eruption of bullous lesions just a few days after vaccination for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B. The third patient developed the same blistering lesions shortly after herpetic stomatitis...
February 23, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194857/hepatitis-e-risks-pigs-or-blood-that-is-the-question
#10
Richard S Tedder, Samreen Ijaz, Alan Kitchen, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Kate I Tettmar, Patricia Hewitt, Nick Andrews
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) Genotype 3 is recognized as a food-borne zoonosis in developed countries where it usually causes a mild self-limited acute hepatitis. It may cause a persistent infection in the immunosuppressed human that can progress to cirrhosis. To protect the patient from transfusion-acquired HEV infection, steps have been taken in the United Kingdom to provide for at-risk patients only components from donors screened for HEV viremia. This strategy does not protect from dietary exposure and calls into question estimation of relative risk between blood transfusion and diet...
February 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168577/determination-of-anti-anisakis-simplex-antibodies-and-relationship-with-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-lymphocyte-subpopulations-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#11
C Benet-Campos, C Cuéllar, C García-Ballesteros, V Zamora, R Gil-Borrás, I Catalán-Serra, F López-Chuliá, J C Andreu-Ballester
BACKGROUND: The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is still unknown although new theories are based on defects in innate immunity. We have previously shown a decrease in γδ T cells in CD patients. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of anti-A. simplex immunoglobulins in CD patients. The diminution of γδ T cells in the peripheral blood and intestinal mucosa of CD patients may create a state of immunosuppression that would facilitate A. simplex infection. AIMS: To study the antibody responses to Anisakis antigens in Crohn's disease patients and its relationship with αβ and γδ T cell subsets...
February 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150479/the-intestinal-mycobiota-a-year-of-observation-about-the-incidence-of-yeast-s-isolation-in-fecal-samples
#12
Lucia Barcella, Santa B Rogolino, Angelo P Barbaro
BACKGROUND: Yeast's presence, especially Candida's species, in the intestinal tract is now considered as part of the normal microbial human flora; however, fungal colonization of the colon may induce to fungal infections, becoming a risk not only in immunocompromised patients but also in normalcompetent subjects. The purpose of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the real incidence of yeasts into the fecal samples both from healthy outpatients and from inpatients, except those from wards concerning immunosuppressive and pediatrics pathologies...
June 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137252/enhanced-transcriptomic-responses-in-the-pacific-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-oncorhynchi-to-the-non-native-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-suggests-increased-parasite-fitness
#13
Laura M Braden, Ben J G Sutherland, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of infections with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis vary considerably among its natural hosts (Salmo, Oncorhynchus spp.). Host-parasite interactions range from weak to strong host responses accompanied by high to low parasite abundances, respectively. Parasite behavioral studies indicate that the louse prefers the host Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), which is characterized by a weak immune response, and that this results in enhanced parasite reproduction and growth rates...
January 30, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121912/adult-to-adult-right-lobe-living-donor-liver-transplantation-does-biological-relationship-matter
#14
Wei Zhang, Yifei Tan, Shu Shen, Li Jiang, Lunan Yan, Jiayin Yang, Bo Li, Tianfu Wen, Yong Zeng, WenTao Wang, Mingqing Xu
The influence of the biological relationship between the donor and the recipient is rarely discussed in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), although it is believed to be an important risk factor in other types of organ transplantations. A total of 272 consecutive patients undergoing adult to adult right lobe LDLT were retrospectively analyzed and stratified into a nonbiologically related (NBR) group (69 patients) and a biologically related (BR) group (203 patients). The preoperative data and postoperative outcomes of both recipients and donors were evaluated...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057805/cns-targeted-autoimmunity-leads-to-increased-influenza-mortality-in-mice
#15
Justin D Glenn, Matthew D Smith, Pei Xue, Yee Chan-Li, Samuel Collins, Peter A Calabresi, Maureen R Horton, Katharine A Whartenby
The discovery that central nervous system (CNS)-targeted autoreactive T cells required a process of licensing in the lung revealed an unexpected relationship between these organs. The clinical and immunological significance of this finding is bidirectional in that it showed not only a mechanism by which T cells become pathogenic before entering the CNS, but also the potential for this process to influence lung immunity as well. Epidemiological studies have shown that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, independent of immunosuppressive therapies...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043583/radiographic-manifestations-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-positive-patients-correlation-with-cd4-t-cell-count
#16
Mehrdad Bakhshayesh-Karam, Payam Tabarsi, Seyed Mehdi Mirsaiedi, Majid Valiollahpour Amiri, Soheila Zahirifard, Seyed Davood Mansoori, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Ali Akbar Velayati
BACKGROUND: Observations on Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in addition to epidemiologic molecular studies have recently provided strong evidence for the state of immune system as the major determinant of the TB imaging spectrum. However, the presence of any correlation between radiographic findings and the degree of immunosuppression in HIV+ patients still remains controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the TB radiographic manifestation in HIV+ patients and its relationship to the CD4 cell count...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#17
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#18
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901200/retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-behavior-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-in-215-hiv-seropositive-patients
#19
Daniela Assis do Vale, Fabiana Martins E Martins, Paulo Henrique Braz da Silva, Karem López Ortega
Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual's immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796644/ureaplasma-parvum-causes-hyperammonemia-in-a-pharmacologically-immunocompromised-murine-model
#20
X Wang, K E Greenwood-Quaintance, M J Karau, D R Block, J N Mandrekar, S A Cunningham, J M Mallea, R Patel
A relationship between hyperammonemia and Ureaplasma infection has been shown in lung transplant recipients. We have demonstrated that Ureaplasma urealyticum causes hyperammonemia in a novel immunocompromised murine model. Herein, we determined whether Ureaplasma parvum can do the same. Male C3H mice were given mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and prednisone for 7 days, and then challenged with U. parvum intratracheally (IT) and/or intraperitoneally (IP), while continuing immunosuppression over 6 days. Plasma ammonia concentrations were determined and compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests...
March 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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