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relationship between immunosuppression and infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747680/first-report-of-cytauxzoon-sp-infection-in-domestic-cats-in-switzerland-natural-and-transfusion-transmitted-infections
#1
Alice Nentwig, Marina L Meli, Johanna Schrack, Iris M Reichler, Barbara Riond, Corinne Gloor, Judith Howard, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
BACKGROUND: Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging tick-borne disease of domestic and wild felids. Cytauxzoon felis induces severe and often fatal disease in domestic cats. In Europe, clinical and subclinical infections caused by Cytauxzoon sp. are described. We report the first cases of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats in Switzerland. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data and results of PCR analyses were collected from Cytauxzoon sp. PCR-positive cats and the cats followed for up to 851 days...
May 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746555/human-herpes-virus-8-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-receiving-cancer-chemotherapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Louise E Hogan, Emily Hanhauser, Kristen S Hobbs, Christine D Palmer, Yvonne Robles, Stephanie Jost, Anne S LaCasce, Jeremy Abramson, Ayad Hamdan, Francisco M Marty, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Timothy J Henrich
BACKGROUND: Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8) can cause Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) in immunosuppressed individuals. However, little is known about the association between chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), circulating HHV8 DNA levels, and clinical KS in HIV-1-infected individuals with various malignancies. Therefore, we examined the associations between various malignancies, systemic cancer chemotherapy, T cell phenotypes, and circulating HHV8 DNA in 29 HIV-1-infected participants with concomitant KS or other cancer diagnoses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746300/impact-of-glycemic-status-on-longitudinal-cognitive-performance-in-men-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#3
Jingyan Yang, Lisa P Jacobson, James T Becker, Andrew Levine, Eileen M Martin, Cynthia A Munro, Frank J Palella, Jordan E Lake, Ned C Sacktor, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between glycemic status and cognitive performance in men living with (MLWH) and without HIV infection. DESIGN: A prospective HIV/AIDS cohort study in four U.S. cities between 1999 and 2016. METHODS: Glycemic status was categorized as normal glucose (NG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) and uncontrolled DM at each semi-annual visit. Cognitive performance was evaluated using nine neuropsychological tests which measure attention, constructional ability, verbal learning, executive functioning, memory, and psychomotor speed...
May 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730396/can-serum-procalcitonin-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-on-immunosuppressive-medications
#4
Rashi Arora, Nishant Sahni
BACKGROUND: Patients on immunosuppressive medications may not exhibit the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the setting of bacterial infection. Our study examines the relationship between serum PCT levels and the odds of manifesting SIRS and BSI in patients on immunosuppressive medications and examines whether this relationship is altered from patients who are not on these medications. The diagnostic performance of Procalcitonin (PCT) detecting BSI in patients on immunosuppressive agents is compared to that in non-immunosuppressed patients...
May 3, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720911/association-between-thiopurine-s-methyltransferase-tpmt-genetic-variants-and-infection-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients-treated-with-azathioprine-a-multi-institutional-analysis
#5
Dionna J Green, Son Q Duong, Gilbert J Burckart, Tristan Sissung, Douglas K Price, William D Figg, Maria M Brooks, Richard Chinnock, Charles Canter, Linda Addonizio, Daniel Bernstein, David C Naftel, Adriana Zeevi, James K Kirklin, Steven A Webber, Brian Feingold
OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow suppression is a common adverse effect of the immunosuppressive drug azathioprine. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding thiopurine S -methyltransferase (TPMT) can alter the metabolism of azathioprine, resulting in marrow toxicity and life-threatening infection. In a multicenter cohort of pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients, we determined the frequency of TPMT genetic variation and assessed whether azathioprine-treated recipients with TPMT variants were at increased risk of infection...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713319/debunking-the-myth-of-exercise-induced-immune-suppression-redefining-the-impact-of-exercise-on-immunological-health-across-the-lifespan
#6
REVIEW
John P Campbell, James E Turner
Epidemiological evidence indicates that regular physical activity and/or frequent structured exercise reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and bacterial infections, as well as non-communicable diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Despite the apparent health benefits achieved by leading an active lifestyle, which imply that regular physical activity and frequent exercise enhance immune competency and regulation, the effect of a single bout of exercise on immune function remains a controversial topic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628891/training-load-immune-status-and-clinical-outcomes-in-young-athletes-a-controlled-prospective-longitudinal-study
#7
Katharina Blume, Nina Körber, Dieter Hoffmann, Bernd Wolfarth
Introduction: Beside positive effects on athlete's health, competitive sport can be linked with an increased risk of illness and injury. Because of high relative increases in training, additional physical and psychological strains, and an earlier specialization and professionalization, adolescent athletes needs an increased attention. Training can alter the immune system by inducing a temporary immunosuppression, finally developing infection symptoms. Previous studies identified Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) as potential indicator for the immune status...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627479/classical-swine-fever-virus-induces-pyroptosis-in-the-peripheral-lymphoid-organs-of-infected-pigs
#8
Jin Yuan, Mengjiao Zhu, Shaofeng Deng, Shuangqi Fan, Hailuan Xu, Jiedan Liao, Peng Li, Jingfang Zheng, Mingqiu Zhao, Jinding Chen
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection...
April 5, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595347/relationship-between-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-infection-and-chronic-periodontitis
#9
Tábata Larissa S Pólvora, Átila Vinícius V Nobre, Camila Tirapelli, Mário Taba, Leandro Dorigan de Macedo, Rodrigo Carvalho Santana, Bruno Pozzetto, Alan Grupioni Lourenço, Ana Carolina F Motta
Current studies show that, even in the era of antiretroviral therapies, HIV-1 infection is associated with more severe and frequent refractory chronic periodontitis. Areas covered: This review, based on a systematic analysis of the literature, intends to provide an update on factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in HIV-1-infected patients, including local immunosuppression, oral microbial factors, systemic inflammation, salivary markers, and the role of gingival tissue as a possible reservoir of HIV-1...
March 29, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582737/case-report-diffuse-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-by-leishmania-infantum-in-a-patient-undergoing-immunosuppressive-therapy-risk-status-in-an-endemic-mediterranean-area
#10
Ma Magdalena Alcover, Vicenç Rocamora, Ma Carmen Guillén, Diana Berenguer, Marta Cuadrado, Cristina Riera, Roser Fisa
This case report highlights the risk of severe cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) by Leishmania infantum in patients undergoing immunosuppressant therapy who either live in an endemic area or are visiting in the transmission season. The case patient, resident in Majorca (Balearic Islands), presented 12 disseminated erythematous skin lesions, 1-6 cm in diameter, located on the scalp, cheek, umbilical region, and lower extremities 8 years after undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Parasite presence in peripheral blood and high levels of specific antibodies were also observed, indicating a possible risk of CL shifting toward a visceral infection...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577632/interleukin-2-receptor-antagonists-a-protective-factor-against-new-onset-diabetes-after-renal-transplantation
#11
Mengjuan Xue, Chenhe Zhao, Chaoyang Lv, Minling Chen, Ming Xu, Ruiming Rong, Yao Zhang, Jing Liang, Jian Gao, Mingxiang Yu, Tongyu Zhu, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the association between interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ra) and new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). METHODS: Overall, 915 patients underwent renal transplantation between January 1993 and March 2014 at our hospital. A total of 557 RTRs were included in the present retrospective cohort study. The incidence of NODAT in this cohort was collected. Multivariate cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors of NODAT and show the association between IL-2Ra use and NODAT development among RTRs...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497344/orbital-inflammatory-complications-of-crohn-s-disease-a-rare-case-series
#12
Tanya M Monaghan, Giorgio Albanese, Philip Kaye, James D Thomas, Lorraine C Abercrombie, Gordon W Moran
Orbital inflammatory disease is a rare ophthalmic manifestation of Crohn's disease. Inflammation is characteristically nonspecific, involving one or multiple structures of the orbit. Mechanisms of disease and optimal methods of treatment are poorly understood. The aim of this report is to present 3 cases of orbital involvement in Crohn's disease. A retrospective case note review of patients with orbital inflammatory disease and Crohn's disease was performed at our academic center to determine the clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features of this condition and its relationship to intestinal Crohn's disease...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483770/comparison-of-the-long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-generic-tacrolimus-tacrobell-with-prograf-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#13
Ho Joong Choi, Dong Goo Kim, Bong Jun Kwak, Jae Hyun Han, Tae Ho Hong, Young Kyoung You
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of generic tacrolimus (Tacrobell [TCB]) and a reference tacrolimus (Prograf [PGF]) in liver transplant recipients. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 167 patients who used TCB or PGF between January 2009 and March 2016 for >1 year (TCB group, n=86; PGF group, n=81). To assess the efficacy and safety of TCB, we evaluated the relationship between drug dose and trough level, survival, rejection, infection, kidney function, and side effects...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474856/interactions-between-immunotoxicants-and-parasite-stress-implications-for-host-health
#14
Ross D Booton, Ryo Yamaguchi, James A R Marshall, Dylan Z Childs, Yoh Iwasa
Many organisms face a wide variety of biotic and abiotic stressors which reduce individual survival, interacting to further reduce fitness. Here we studied the effects of two such interacting stressors: immunotoxicant exposure and parasite infection. We model the dynamics of a within-host infection and the associated immune response of an individual. We consider both the indirect sub-lethal effects on immunosuppression and the direct effects on health and mortality of individuals exposed to toxicants. We demonstrate that sub-lethal exposure to toxicants can promote infection through the suppression of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#15
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus ; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248120/infection-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-by-leishmania-infantum-increases-erythropoiesis-and-alters-the-phenotypic-and-functional-profiles-of-progeny
#16
Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Diana Raquel Moreira, Mariana Resende, Matheus Fernandes Costa-Silva, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Cláudia Maria Franco Ribeiro, Daniel Dias Ribeiro, Ricardo Silvestre, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho
Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for Visceral Leishmaniasis. Post-immunosuppression leishmaniasis is characterized by an increase of parasite burden, hematopoietic disorders and unusual clinical manifestations. Although there are many reports on bone marrow findings in VL, less is known about the relationship between parasite dynamics in this organ and the function of either hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells themselves. In the present study, we tackle these issues using a new approach of infecting human stem cells derived from bone marrow with L...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213206/hiv-transmission-clusters-among-injecting-drug-users-in-romania
#17
Aura Temereanca, Cristiana Oprea, Joel O Wertheim, Irina Ianache, Emanoil Ceausu, Costin Cernescu, Sanjay R Mehta, Simona Ruta
Injection drug use is increasingly an important route of HIV transmission in Romania (from 1.5% of the newly diagnosed cases prior to 2010 to 31% in 2013). In this study we investigated the viral characteristics and relationships in newly HIV infected persons who inject drugs in Bucharest, Romania. Results: HIV-1 pol sequencing, followed by phylogenetic and clustering analysis was performed on blood from 37 injecting drug users (IDUs) newly diagnosed with HIV infection. While HIV subtype F1, the dominant strain in Romania since 1990, remains prevalent, new subtypes were found including G, B, B/G and B/F recombinants...
January 2017: Romanian Biotechnological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211841/perioperative-benefit-and-outcome-of-thoracic-epidural-in-esophageal-surgery-a-clinical-review
#18
P Feltracco, A Bortolato, S Barbieri, E Michieletto, E Serra, A Ruol, S Merigliano, C Ori
Surgery for esophageal cancer is a highly stressful and painful procedure, and a significant amount of analgesics may be required to eliminate perioperative pain and blunt the stress response to surgery. Proper management of postoperative pain has invariably been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and accelerate recovery. Neuraxial analgesic techniques after major thoracic and upper abdominal surgery have long been established to reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal complications...
December 2, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071482/-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections
#19
REVIEW
A Nowag, M Platten, G Plum, P Hartmann
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) are found ubiquitously in the environment and are usually of low pathogenicity. Infection occurs via inhalation of aerosols, and some species may cause severe infections. The incidence of NTM infections is rising worldwide. The risk of developing NTM disease depends on the susceptibility of the host as well as the frequency and duration of exposure. In addition to congenital immune deficiencies and immunosuppressive therapy, structural lung and systemic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are associated with an increased risk for NTM infections...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055067/cutaneous-atypical-papular-cd8-lymphoproliferative-disorder-at-acral-sites-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#20
C Baykal, N Büyükbabani, D Seçkin, A Polat Ekinci, Z Yılmaz, W Kempf
A 20-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of an acute symmetrical eruption, manifesting as asymptomatic ill-defined erythematous macules and hyperkeratotic papules on the palms. The patient was a renal transplant recipient, and the lesions had developed 2 months post-transplantation. Histologically, the eruption shared features of a reactive inflammatory condition called papular eruption of atypical CD8+ lymphocytes as well as primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma (a provisional indolent entity in the new World Health Organisation classification of lymphoid neoplasms, 2016)...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
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