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Obesity and transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929856/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-left-ventricular-assist-devices-as-a-bridge-to-transplant
#1
Russell B Hawkins, Kristina Go, Steven L Raymond, Alexander Ayzengart, Jeffrey Friedman
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an epidemic that is closely associated with heart failure. The ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure is cardiac transplantation. Patients with morbid obesity are often excluded from receiving donor organs. Many transplant centers use body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2 as a contraindication to listing for heart transplant. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were developed as a bridge to transplant for many heart failure patients, but bariatric surgery for LVAD patients has not been well described...
April 19, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927763/nutrition-dietary-intake-and-eating-behavior-after-liver-transplantation
#2
Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Samanta Catherine Ferreira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status of patients after liver transplantation is affected by dietary intake and this, in turn, is affected by eating behavior. The present review will highlight recent studies on these topics after liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Malnutrition drops significantly after liver transplantation. Recovery of weight lost during liver disease occurs within 1 year. Liver transplantation recipients gain weight up to the second or third year, often becoming overweight and obese...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921799/nutritional-requirements-of-lung-transplant-recipients-challenges-and-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Valerie Jomphe, Larry C Lands, Genevieve Mailhot
An optimal nutritional status is associated with better post-transplant outcomes and survival. Post-lung transplant nutrition management is however particularly challenging as lung recipients represent a very heterogeneous group of patients in terms of age, underlying diseases, weight status and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, the post-transplant period encompasses several stages characterized by physiological and pathophysiological changes that affect nutritional status of patients and necessitate tailored nutrition management...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916987/the-evolution-of-kidney-transplantation-surgery-into-the-robotic-era-and-it-prospects-for-obese-recipients
#4
Ahmer M Hameed, Jinna Yao, Richard D M Allen, Wayne J Hawthorne, Henry C Pleass, Howard Lau
Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) represents the most recent innovation in the evolution of kidney transplantation surgery. Vascular techniques enabling kidney transplantation have existed since the early 20 century and contributed to the first successful open kidney transplant procedure in 1954. Technical advances have since facilitated minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic techniques in live-donor surgery, and subsequently for the recipient procedure. This review follows the development of surgical techniques for kidney transplantation, with a special focus on the advent of robotic-assisted transplantation because of its potential to facilitate transplantation of those deemed previously too obese to transplant by standard means...
June 18, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916894/modified-treatment-algorithm-for-pseudogynecomastia-after-massive-weight-loss
#5
Ulrich E Ziegler, Udo Lorenz, Adrien Daigeler, Selina N Ziegler, Philip H Zeplin
BACKGROUND: Pseudogynecomastia is the increased aggregation of fatty tissue in the area of the male breast with resultant female appearance. Two forms can appear: pseudogynecomastia after massive weight loss (pseudogynecomastia obese [PO]) and pseudogynecomastia, which is caused only by adipose tissue (pseudogynecomastia fat). For PO, only the Gusenoff classification with corresponding operative treatment options exists. However, this classification is limited by the fact that it underestimates the extensive variability of residual fat tissue and skin excess, both crucial factors for operative planning...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#6
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907091/end-stage-renal-disease-treated-in-provence-alpes-c%C3%A3-te-d-azur-12-years-follow-up-and-forecast-to-the-year-2030
#7
Anne-Claire Durand, Elisabeth Jouve, Jean-Christophe Delarozière, Mohamed Boucekine, Ghizlane Izaaryene, Adeline Crémades, Franck Mazoué, Bénédicte Devictor, Asmatullah Kakar, Roland Sambuc, Philippe Brunet, Stéphanie Gentile
BACKGROUND: This study describes the time trend of renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the Provence-Alpes Côte d'Azur region (PACA) between 2004 and 2015, and forecasts up to 2030. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on all ESRD patients treated in PACA and recorded in the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) during this period. Time trends and forecasts to 2030 were analyzed using Poisson regression models...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902198/intimal-and-medial-arterial-changes-defined-by-ultra-high-frequency-ultrasound-response-to-changing-risk-factors-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
Frida Dangardt, Marietta Charakida, Scott Chiesa, Devina Bhowruth, Alicja Rapala, Daniela Thurn, Franz Schaefer, John Deanfield, Rukshana Shroff
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are exposed to both traditional 'Framingham' and uremia related cardiovascular risk factors that drive atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic disease, but these cannot be differentiated using conventional ultrasound. We used ultra-high-frequency ultrasound (UHFUS) to differentiate medial thickness (MT) from intimal thickness (IT) in CKD patients, identify their determinants and monitor their progression. METHODS: Fifty-four children and adolescents with CKD and 12 healthy controls underwent UHFUS measurements using 55-70MHz transducers in common carotid and dorsal pedal arteries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893159/impact-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-quality-of-life-of-liver-transplant-recipients
#9
Zhenshun Wang, Ning Li, Dongdong Lin
Objective The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) increases after liver transplantation. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of MS on patients' quality of life after liver transplantation. Methods We collected the medical records of 152 patients during their post-liver transplantation outpatient follow-up. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data on the patients' general condition as well as MS-related indicators were assessed in all patients...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892279/introduction-of-human-flt3-l-and-gm-csf-into-humanized-mice-enhances-the-reconstitution-and-maturation-of-myeloid-dendritic-cells-and-the-development-of-foxp3-cd4-t-cells
#10
Ryutaro Iwabuchi, Shota Ikeno, Mie Kobayashi-Ishihara, Haruko Takeyama, Manabu Ato, Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Kazutaka Terahara
Two cytokines, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3-L) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are considered to be the essential regulators of dendritic cell (DC) development in vivo . However, the combined effect of Flt3-L and GM-CSF on human DCs has not been evaluated in vivo . In this study, we, therefore, aimed at evaluating this using a humanized mouse model. Humanized non-obese diabetic/SCID/Jak3null (hNOJ) mice were constructed by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells from human umbilical cord blood into newborn NOJ mice, and in vivo transfection (IVT) was performed by hydrodynamic injection-mediated gene delivery using plasmids encoding human Flt3-L and GM-CSF...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884851/pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-outcomes-when-ideal-body-weight-is-used-to-dose-busulfan-in-obese-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#11
Shawn P Griffin, Sarah E Wheeler, Laura E Wiggins, Hemant S Murthy, Jack W Hsu, Ashley I Richards
Weight-based dosing of intravenous busulfan is widely used in hematopoietic cell transplantation. However, a variety of dosing weights have been described. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the pharmacokinetic impact of using ideal body weight as the initial dosing weight in obese as compared to non-obese transplant recipients. The secondary objectives were to describe the use of alternative dosing weights, the impact on survival, and the rates of toxicities. The mean steady-state concentration was 779...
June 8, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876867/stem-cell-and-obesity-current-state-and-future-perspective
#12
Moloud Payab, Parisa Goodarzi, Najmeh Foroughi Heravani, Mahdieh Hadavandkhani, Zeinab Zarei, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Fakher Rahim, Babak Arjmand
Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Despite of gaining partially desirable results, the problem is remained unsolved. Therefore, finding a new approach that can overcome previous limitations is very attractive for both researchers and clinicians...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870676/fecal-transplant-from-resveratrol-fed-donors-improves-glycaemia-and-cardiovascular-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Ty T Kim, Nirmal Parajuli, Miranda M Sung, Suresh C Bairwa, Jody Levasseur, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, David S Wishart, Karen Madsen, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
Oral administration of resveratrol attenuates several symptoms associated with the metabolic syndrome such as impaired glucose homeostasis and hypertension. Recent work has shown that resveratrol can improve glucose homeostasis in obesity via changes in the gut microbiota. Studies involving fecal microbiome transplants (FMTs) suggest that either live gut microbiota or bacterial-derived metabolites from resveratrol ingestion are responsible for producing the observed benefits in recipients. Herein, we show that obese mice receiving FMTs from healthy resveratrol-fed mice have improved glucose homeostasis within 11 days of the first transplant, and that resveratrol-FMTs is more efficacious than oral supplementation of resveratrol for the same duration...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870421/obesity-in-kidney-transplantation-impact-on-transplant-candidates-recipients-and-donors
#14
Daniel Glicklich, M Raza Mustafa
Obesity is now common among children and adults who are kidney transplant candidates and recipients. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. This also pertains to potential living kidney donors with obesity. Obese patients with endstage renal disease benefit from transplantation as do non-obese patients, but obesity is also associated with more risk. A complicating factor is that obesity is also associated with increased survival on maintenance dialysis in adults, but not in children...
June 4, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858436/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
James Maurice, Pinelopi Manousou
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a global prevalence of about 25%. Incidence is increasing with rising levels of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD is predicted to become the leading cause of cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation in the next decade. However, the cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and only a minority will develop fibrosis and liver-related complications. Therefore, it is imperative to identify patients with advanced disease using non-invasive markers of fibrosis, which include serology-based tests (eg NAFLD Fibrosis Score and ELF test) and imaging (eg transient elastography)...
June 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850987/the-hepatobiliary-complications-of-malnutrition-and-nutritional-support-in-adults
#16
Andrew McNeice, Ryan Scott, Gerard Patrick Rafferty, William Jonathan Cash, Graham Blake Turner
Hepatobiliary complications of hypoalimentation and parenteral nutrition (PN) are widely recognised. Hypoalimentation includes conditions such as anorexia nervosa (AN), obesity malnutrition and liver disease following bariatric surgery. Treatment of the underlying condition causing hypoalimentation can result in an improvement in liver dysfunction. Liver function test abnormalities are also commonly found in patients on PN, with the three main complications being steatosis, cholestasis and biliary system sludge/stones...
May 31, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848600/the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-organism-specific-peritonitis
#17
Dev Jegatheesan, David W Johnson, Yeoungjee Cho, Elaine M Pascoe, Darsy Darssan, Htay Htay, Carmel Hawley, Philip A Clayton, Monique Borlace, Sunil V Badve, Kamal Sud, Neil Boudville, Stephen P McDonald, Annie-Claire Nadeau-Fredette
BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasingly prevalent worldwide, and a greater number of patients initiate renal replacement therapy with a high body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to evaluate the association between BMI and organism-specific peritonitis. METHODS: All adult patients who initiated peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Australia between January 2004 and December 2013 were included. Data were accessed through the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry...
May 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846977/organ-donors-does-size-really-matter
#18
Wai H Lim, Germaine Wong
Obesity is highly prevalent in the community, with over 35% of the world's adult population considered overweight or obese. Paralleling the obesity epidemic, the prevalence of obese deceased donors with body mass index (BMI) of ≥30kg/m2 in the United States 1 , United Kingdom 2 and Australia 3 are 25%, 25% and 22%, respectively. With the greater acceptance and utilization of obese donors for kidney transplantation, studies examining the association between obese donors and kidney allograft outcomes are important to inform clinicians and patients regarding recipients' outcomes following acceptance of kidneys from obese donors...
May 30, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843693/first-right-lobe-living-donor-hepatectomy-after-sleeve-gastrectomy
#19
Aiman Obed, Abdalla Bashir, Anwar Jarrad
BACKGROUND: Obesity presents one of the leading causes of many chronic liver disorders and injuries. Nowadays, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) demonstrates a challenging issue for the global health system. NASH can progress to life-threatening conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular or cholangio carcinoma. Currently, NASH cirrhosis is a major indication for liver transplant (LT). CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 37 year-old male who has lost 74 kg after undergoing successful laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) four years ago...
May 29, 2018: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806971/should-obesity-affect-suitability-for-kidney-donation
#20
Mala Sachdeva
As with the suitability for kidney transplantation for obese recipients, there is no universally accepted guideline for clinicians for obese donors; criteria for acceptance are variable among transplant centers. Obesity is on the rise in the United States and the number of living kidney donors who are obese parallel this national trend. Careful risk assessment and informed consent must be undertaken predonation prior to accepting an obese kidney donor in order to minimize long- and short-term complications...
May 28, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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