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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652891/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-expanded-review
#1
REVIEW
Mark Benedict, Xuchen Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses the simple steatosis to more progressive steatosis with associated hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is a growing epidemic, not only in the United States, but worldwide in part due to obesity and insulin resistance leading to liver accumulation of triglycerides and free fatty acids. Numerous risk factors for the development of NAFLD have been espoused with most having some form of metabolic derangement or insulin resistance at the core of its pathophysiology...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622834/morbid-obesity-and-functional-status-as-predictors-of-surgical-complication-after-renal-transplantation
#2
Tara M Veasey, James N Fleming, Sara E Strout, Ryan Miller, Nicole A Pilch, Holly B Meadows, Caitlin R Mardis, Benjamin A Mardis, Sunil Shenvi, John McGillicuddy, Kenneth D Chavin, Prabhakar Baliga, David J Taber
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) and patient functional status on the risk for surgical complications after kidney transplant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients grouped patients by baseline Karnofsky status (low function ≤ 70%) and further stratified by morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) to assess surgical complication risk. RESULTS: 736 patients were included with surgical complications occurring in 25%...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620642/early-intervention-with-live-donor-liver-transplantation-reduces-resource-utilization-in-nash-the-toronto-experience
#3
Andrew S Barbas, Nicolas Goldaracena, Martin J Dib, David P Al-Adra, Aloysious D Aravinthan, Leslie B Lilly, Eberhard L Renner, Nazia Selzner, Mamatha Bhat, Mark S Cattral, Anand Ghanekar, Ian D McGilvray, Gonzalo Sapisochin, Markus Selzner, Paul D Greig, David R Grant
BACKGROUND: In parallel with the obesity epidemic, liver transplantation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing dramatically in North America. Although survival outcomes are similar to other etiologies, liver transplantation in the NASH population has been associated with significantly increased resource utilization. We sought to compare outcomes between live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) at a high volume North American transplant center, with a particular focus on resource utilization...
June 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612381/body-mass-index-as-a-predictor-of-outcomes-among-pediatric-kidney-transplant-recipient
#4
André A S Dick, Ryan N Hansen, Martin I Montenovo, Patrick J Healey, Jodi M Smith
Controversies exist regarding the impact of obesity on patients undergoing kidney transplantation. We sought to estimate the association between BMI and patient outcomes (survival and graft function) among pediatric kidney transplant patients in the USA. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database (1987-2013), which revealed 13 014 pediatric patients (<18 years old) who underwent primary kidney transplantation. Patients were stratified into five BMI categories established by the World Health Organizations according to their Z score, which is based on age, gender and BMI...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611473/apc-targeted-proinsulin-expression-inactivates-insulin-specific-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nod-mice
#5
Peta Ls Reeves, Rajeev Rudraraju, Xiao Liu, F Susan Wong, Emma E Hamilton-Williams, Raymond J Steptoe
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Effector T-cell responses emerge early in disease development and expand as disease progresses. Following β cell destruction, a long-lived T-cell memory is generated that represents a barrier to islet transplantation and other cellular insulin-replacement therapies. Development of effective immunotherapies that control or ablate β cell destructive effector and memory T cell responses has the potential to prevent disease progression and recurrence...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598410/pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a "two-hit process", it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596416/a-kidney-graft-survival-calculator-that-accounts-for-mismatches-in-age-sex-hla-and-body-size
#7
Valarie B Ashby, Alan B Leichtman, Michael A Rees, Peter X-K Song, Mathieu Bray, Wen Wang, John D Kalbfleisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcomes for transplants from living unrelated donors are of particular interest in kidney paired donation (KPD) programs where exchanges can be arranged between incompatible donor-recipient pairs or chains created from nondirected/altruistic donors. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we analyzed 232,705 recipients of kidney-alone transplants from 1998 to 2012. Graft failure rates were estimated using Cox models for recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated, living related, and deceased donors...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594903/the-role-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derivatives-in-skin-wound-healing-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Tomas de Mayo, Paulette Conget, Silvia Becerra-Bayona, Claudia L Sossa, Virgilio Galvis, Martha L Arango-Rodríguez
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown to be a promising tool in cell therapies to treat different conditions. Several pre-clinical and clinical studies have proved that the transplantation of MSCs improves wound healing. Here, we compare the beneficial effects of mouse bone marrow-derived allogeneic MSCs (allo-mBM-MSCs) and their acelullar derivatives (allo-acd-mMSCs) on skin wound healing in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. One dose of allo-mBM-MSCs (1×106 cells) or one dose of allo-acd-mMSCs (1X) were intradermally injected around wounds in 8-10 week old female NOD mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583522/effect-of-changes-in-body-mass-index-on-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
K Y Kim, J-H Cho, H-Y Jung, J-Y Choi, S-H Park, C-D Kim, Y-L Kim, H Ro, S Lee, S-Y Han, C W Jung, J B Park, M S Kim, J Yang, C Ahn
BACKGROUND: A higher body mass index (BMI) before kidney transplantation (KT) is associated with increased mortality and allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the effect of changes in BMI after KT on these outcomes remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baseline BMI and changes in BMI on clinical outcomes in KTRs. METHODS: A total of 869 KTRs were enrolled from a multicenter observational cohort study from 2012 to 2015...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577736/-post-transplantation-diabetes-mellitus-in-kidney-recipients
#11
Danièle Dubois-Laforgue
Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes that is diagnosed in grafted patients. It affects 20 to 30 % of kidney transplant recipients, with a high incidence in the first year. The increasing age at transplantation and the rising incidence of obesity may increase its prevalence in the next years. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is associated with poor outcomes, such as mortality, cardiovascular events or graft dysfunction. Its occurrence is mainly related to immunosuppressive agents, affecting both insulin secretion and sensibility...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577653/nutritional-status-and-hyperglycemia-in-the-peritransplant-period-a-review-of-associations-with-parenteral-nutrition-and-clinical-outcomes
#12
Marina Verdi Schumacher, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira Faulhaber
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established treatment option for various hematological diseases. This therapy involves complex procedures and is associated with several systemic complications. Due to the toxic effects of the conditioning regimen used in allogeneic transplantations, patients frequently suffer from severe gastrointestinal complications and are unable to feed themselves properly. This complex clinical scenario often requires specialized nutritional support, and despite the increasing number of studies available, many questions remain regarding the best way to feed these patients...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#13
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560633/simultaneous-living-donor-liver-transplant-with-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-nash-related-esld-first-report-from-india
#14
Suneed Kumar, Nidhi Khandelwal, Abhaya Kumar, Kapildev Yadav, Swapnil Sharma, Shailesh Sable, Ashutosh Chauhan, Sorabh Kapoor, Vibha Varma, Jaydeep Palep, Vinay Kumaran
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome is now a common cause of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). These patients are high-risk candidates for liver transplant, and require bariatric surgery to prevent recurrent disease in the new liver. Data reports bariatric surgery after transplant, which maybe difficult because of adhesions between the stomach and liver in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipient. We report the first case of combined LDLT with sleeve gastrectomy (SG) from India...
May 31, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557140/diet-quality-of-children-post-liver-transplantation-does-not-differ-from-healthy-children
#16
Abeer S Alzaben, Krista MacDonald, Cheri Robert, Andrea Haqq, Susan M Gilmour, Jason Yap, Diana R Mager
Little has been studied regarding the diets of children following LTX. The study aim was to assess and compare dietary intake and DQ of healthy children and children post-LTX. Children and adolescents (2-18 years) post-LTX (n=27) and healthy children (n=28) were studied. Anthropometric and demographic data and two 24-hour recalls (one weekend; one weekday) were collected. Intake of added sugar, HFCS, fructose, GI, and GL was calculated. DQ was measured using three validated DQ indices: the HEI-C, the DGI-CA, and the DQI-I...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553631/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-pediatric-hypertension-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Robert P Woroniecki, Andrew Kahnauth, Laurie E Panesar, Katarina Supe-Markovina
Adults with arterial hypertension (HTN) have stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or die at higher rates than those without. In children, HTN leads to target organ damage, which includes kidney, brain, eye, blood vessels, and heart, which precedes "hard outcomes" observed in adults. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or an anatomic and pathologic increase in left ventricular mass (LVM) in response to the HTN is a pediatric surrogate marker for HTN-induced morbidity and mortality in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545248/ephedra-treated-donor-derived-gut-microbiota-transplantation-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#18
Jing-Hua Wang, Bong-Soo Kim, Kyungsun Han, Hojun Kim
Changes in gut microbiota (GM) are closely associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and so on. Several medicinal herbs, including Ephedra sinica (Es), have anti-obesity effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. GM was isolated from cecal contents of Es treated and untreated rats following repeated transplants into obese rats via oral gavage over three weeks...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539844/bariatric-surgery-and-liver-transplantation
#19
Duminda Suraweera, Elena G Saab, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
Obesity is an important public health and medical concern in the United States. The rate of obesity has steadily risen for the past several decades. Obesity is associated with the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. After liver transplantation, recipients tend to gain weight and develop recurrent fatty liver. Over time, recurrent fatty liver may impact patient and graft survival. A bariatric surgical approach may be beneficial in select patients...
March 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#20
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
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