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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163699/a-systematic-review-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activities-of-anti-toxoplasma-drugs-and-compounds-2006-2016
#1
REVIEW
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Ahmad Daryani
The currently available anti-Toxoplasma agents have serious limitations. This systematic review was performed to evaluate drugs and new compounds used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Data was systematically collected from published papers on the efficacy of drugs/compounds used against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) globally during 2006-2016. The searched databases were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus. One hundred and eighteen papers were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, which were both in vitro and in vivo studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100223/surface-attachment-promoted-by-the-actomyosin-system-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-efficient-gliding-motility-and-invasion
#2
Jamie A Whitelaw, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Simon Gras, Gurman S Pall, Jacqueline M Leung, Aoife Heaslip, Saskia Egarter, Nicole Andenmatten, Shane R Nelson, David M Warshaw, Gary E Ward, Markus Meissner
BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites employ a unique form of movement, termed gliding motility, in order to invade the host cell. This movement depends on the parasite's actomyosin system, which is thought to generate the force during gliding. However, recent evidence questions the exact molecular role of this system, since mutants for core components of the gliding machinery, such as parasite actin or subunits of the MyoA-motor complex (the glideosome), remain motile and invasive, albeit at significantly reduced efficiencies...
January 18, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068997/absence-of-in-vivo-selection-for-k13-mutations-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-in-uganda
#3
Betty Balikagala, Toshihiro Mita, Mie Ikeda, Miki Sakurai, Shouki Yatsushiro, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro Tachibana, Mary Auma, Edward H Ntege, Daisuke Ito, Eizo Takashima, Nirianne Marie Q Palacpac, Thomas G Egwang, Joseph Okello Onen, Masatoshi Kataoka, Eisaku Kimura, Toshihiro Horii, Takafumi Tsuboi
BACKGROUND: Individual drug treatment may select resistant parasites in the human body, a process termed in vivo selection. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) genes have been reportedly selected after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding in vivo selection of P. falciparum Kelch propeller domain (pfkelch13) polymorphisms, responsible for artemisinin-resistance in Asia, and six putative background mutations for artemisinin resistance; D193Y in ferredoxin, T484I in multiple resistance protein 2, V127M in apicoplast ribosomal protein S10, I356T in pfcrt, V1157L in protein phosphatase and C1484F in phosphoinositide-binding protein...
January 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062360/determination-of-glutathione-redox-potential-and-ph-value-in-subcellular-compartments-of-malaria-parasites
#4
Franziska Mohring, Mahsa Rahbari, Bernd Zechmann, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M Przyborski, Andreas J Meyer, Katja Becker
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to multiple sources of oxidative challenge during its complex life cycle in the Anopheles vector and its human host. In order to further elucidate redox-based parasite host cell interactions and mechanisms of drug action, we targeted the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor roGFP2 coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (roGFP2-hGrx1) as well as the ratiometric pH sensor pHluorin to the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of P. falciparum. Using live cell imaging, this allowed for the first time the determination of the pH values of the apicoplast (7...
January 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026138/towards-a-molecular-architecture-of-the-centrosome-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
REVIEW
Juliette Morlon-Guyot, Maria E Francia, Jean-François Dubremetz, Wassim Daher
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. The pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is tightly linked to its ability to efficiently proliferate within its host. Tachyzoites, the fast dividing form of the parasite, divide by endodyogeny. This process involves a single round of DNA replication, closed nuclear mitosis, and assembly of two daughter cells within a mother. The successful completion of endodyogeny relies on the temporal and spatial coordination of a plethora of simultaneous events...
December 27, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007455/characterization-of-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl-diphosphate-synthase-ispg-from-plasmodium-vivax-and-it-s-potential-as-an-antimalarial-drug-target
#6
Gagandeep Singh Saggu, Shilpi Garg, Zarna Rajeshkumar Pala, Sushil Kumar Yadav, Sanjay Kumar Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar Kochar, Vishal Saxena
The prokaryotic type Methyl Erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway functional in the apicoplast of Plasmodium is indispensable for the erythrocytic stages of the parasite. It is the sole process of isoprenoids biosynthesis in the parasite and is different from that in humans. Among the seven enzymes known to be functional in the MEP pathway in prokaryotes, most enzymes from Plasmodium are yet uncharacterized. The penultimate enzyme of this pathway 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase (IspG), has been shown to act as a key target molecule in prokaryotes, where its deletion results in impairment of many housekeeping functions...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916258/the-apicoplast-genomes-of-two-taxonomic-units-of-babesia-from-sheep
#7
Tao Wang, Guiquan Guan, Pasi K Korhonen, Anson V Koehler, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Hong Yin, Robin B Gasser
The apicoplast (ap) is a unique, non-photosynthetic organelle found in most apicomplexan parasites. Due to the essential roles that this organelle has, it has been widely considered as target for drugs against diseases caused by apicomplexans. Exploring the ap genomes of such parasites would provide a better understanding of their systematics and their basic molecular biology for therapeutics. However, there is limited information available on the ap genomes of apicomplexan parasites. In the present study, the ap genomes of two operational taxonomic units of Babesia (known as Babesia sp...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#8
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821055/babesia-microti-from-humans-and-ticks-hold-a-genomic-signature-of-strong-population-structure-in-the-united-states
#9
Giovanna Carpi, Katharine S Walter, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Peter J Krause, Andrew Kitchen, Timothy J Lepore, Ankit Dwivedi, Emmanuel Cornillot, Adalgisa Caccone, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Babesia microti is an emerging tick-borne apicomplexan parasite with increasing geographic range and incidence in the United States. The rapid expansion of B. microti into its current distribution in the northeastern USA has been due to the range expansion of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, upon which the causative agent is dependent for transmission to humans. RESULTS: To reconstruct the history of B. microti in the continental USA and clarify the evolutionary origin of human strains, we used multiplexed hybrid capture of 25 B...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793563/targeting-protein-translation-in-organelles-of-the-apicomplexa
#10
REVIEW
Christopher D Goodman, Charisse Flerida A Pasaje, Kit Kennedy, Geoffrey I McFadden, Stuart A Ralph
Antibiotics inhibiting protein translation have long been used to treat and prevent infections by apicomplexan parasites. These compounds kill parasites by inhibiting organellar translation, and most act specifically against the apicoplast, a relict plastid in apicomplexans. Drug resistance in Plasmodium and other apicomplexans dictates a need for development of novel targets. Some apicoplast inhibitors have a delayed onset of action, so they cannot replace fast-acting drugs, although they still fulfil important roles in treating and preventing infections...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773518/the-apicoplast-now-you-see-it-now-you-don-t
#11
REVIEW
Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Ellen Yeh
Parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma possess a vestigial plastid homologous to the chloroplasts of algae and plants. The plastid (known as the apicoplast; for apicomplexan plastid) is non-photosynthetic and very much reduced, but has clear endosymbiotic ancestry including a circular genome that encodes RNAs and proteins and a suite of bacterial biosynthetic pathways. Here we review the initial discovery of the apicoplast, and recount the major new insights into apicoplast origin, biogenesis and function...
February 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719626/metabolic-inhibitors-as-antiparasitic-drugs-pharmacological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspectives
#12
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679614/new-insight-into-isoprenoids-biosynthesis-process-and-future-prospects-for-drug-designing-in-plasmodium
#13
REVIEW
Gagandeep S Saggu, Zarna R Pala, Shilpi Garg, Vishal Saxena
The MEP (Methyl Erythritol Phosphate) isoprenoids biosynthesis pathway is an attractive drug target to combat malaria, due to its uniqueness and indispensability for the parasite. It is functional in the apicoplast of Plasmodium and its products get transported to the cytoplasm, where they participate in glycoprotein synthesis, electron transport chain, tRNA modification and several other biological processes. Several compounds have been tested against the enzymes involved in this pathway and amongst them Fosmidomycin, targeted against IspC (DXP reductoisomerase) enzyme and MMV008138 targeted against IspD enzyme have shown good anti-malarial activity in parasite cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649068/characterization-of-hsp90-isoforms-in-transformed-bovine-leukocytes-infected-with-theileria-annulata
#14
Jane H Kinnaird, Meetali Singh, Victoria Gillan, William Weir, Ewen D D Calder, Isabel Hostettler, Utpal Tatu, Eileen Devaney, Brian R Shiels
HSP90 chaperones are essential regulators of cellular function, as they ensure the appropriate conformation of multiple key client proteins. Four HSP90 isoforms were identified in the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Partial characterization was undertaken for three and localization confirmed for cytoplasmic (TA12105), endoplasmic reticulum (TA06470), and apicoplast (TA10720) forms. ATPase activity and binding to the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin were demonstrated for recombinant TA12105, and all three native forms could be isolated to varying extents by binding to geldanamycin beads...
September 20, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574540/repurposing-of-conserved-autophagy-related-protein-atg8-in-a-divergent-eukaryote
#15
Maude F Lévêque, Hoa Mai Nguyen, Sébastien Besteiro
Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites contain a peculiar non-photosynthetic plastid called the apicoplast, which is essential for their survival. The localization of autophagy-related protein ATG8 to the apicoplast in several apicomplexan species and life stages has recently been described, and we have shown this protein is essential for proper inheritance of this complex plastid into daughter cells during cell division. Although the mechanism behind ATG8 association to the apicoplast in T. gondii is related to the canonical conjugation system leading to autophagosome formation, its singular role seems independent from the initial catabolic purpose of autophagy...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548067/correction-targeting-of-a-transporter-to-the-outer-apicoplast-membrane-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159603.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527393/translation-in-organelles-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#17
Saman Habib, Suniti Vaishya, Kirti Gupta
The protein translation machineries of the apicoplast and mitochondrion-the two actively translating organelles of apicomplexan parasites-have potential sites for drug intervention against diseases caused by these organisms. Work in the past few years, particularly on Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, has shown that a reduced machinery of enzymes and factors is sufficient for organellar translation, which is also supported by components shared with the cytosolic translation system. This interplay between eukaryotic and prokaryotic-like components for mRNA translation in organelles is reviewed here...
August 12, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490259/apicoplast-localized-lysophosphatidic-acid-precursor-assembly-is-required-for-bulk-phospholipid-synthesis-in-toxoplasma-gondii-and-relies-on-an-algal-plant-like-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase
#18
Souad Amiar, James I MacRae, Damien L Callahan, David Dubois, Giel G van Dooren, Melanie J Shears, Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw, Eric Maréchal, Malcolm J McConville, Geoffrey I McFadden, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté, Cyrille Y Botté
Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487482/crystal-structure-of-the-apicoplast-dna-polymerase-from-plasmodium-falciparum-the-first-look-at-a-plastidic-a-family-dna-polymerase
#19
Morgan E Milton, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B Honzatko, Scott W Nelson
Plasmodium falciparum, the primary cause of malaria, contains a non-photosynthetic plastid called the apicoplast. The apicoplast exists in most members of the phylum Apicomplexa and has its own genome along with organelle-specific enzymes for its replication. The only DNA polymerase found in the apicoplast (apPOL) was putatively acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a bacteriophage and is classified as an atypical A-family polymerase. Here, we present its crystal structure at a resolution of 2.9Å...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485555/transcription-of-the-apicoplast-genome
#20
R E R Nisbet, J L McKenzie
Many members of the Apicomplexa contain a remnant chloroplast, known as an apicoplast. The apicoplast encodes numerous genes, and loss of the organelle is lethal. Here, we present a summary of what is known about apicoplast transcription. Unlike plant chloroplasts, there is a single RNA polymerase, and initial transcription is polycistronic. RNA is then cleaved into tRNA, mRNA and rRNA molecules. Significant levels of antisense transcription have been reported, together with a single case of RNA editing. Polycistronic transcription is also observed in the related algae Chromera and Vitrella, which retain a photosynthetic chloroplast...
July 30, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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