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Body water and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428662/antihypertensive-and-antioxidant-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-in-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-salt-hypertensive-rats
#1
Leila Safaeian, Reyhaneh Emami, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Zahra Haghighatian
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a natural antioxidant with beneficial cardiovascular properties. In this study, the effect of supplementation with PCA was investigated in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Male Wistar rats received DOCA (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly and 1% NaCl in drinking water and simultaneously treated with PCA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was detected using tail-cuff method. Electrolytes including Na+, K+ and chloride, catalase activity, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroperoxides concentration were measured in serum samples...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393223/mild-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-genetically-determined-low-nephron-number-is-associated-with-chloride-but-not-sodium-retention
#2
Kerstin Benz, Julia Schlote, Christoph Daniel, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Agnes Schröder, Nada Cordasic, Bernd Klanke, Karl Hilgers, Jens Titze, Kerstin Amann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: One potential pathomechanism how low nephron number leads to hypertension in later life is altered salt handling. We therefore evaluated changes in electrolyte and water content in wildtype (wt) and GDNF+/- mice with a 30% reduction of nephron number. METHODS: 32 GDNF+/- and 36 wt mice were fed with low salt (LSD, 0.03%, normal drinking water) or high salt (HSD, 4%, 0.9% drinking water) diet for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry in a subgroup...
January 23, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385934/a-case-of-prolonged-hyperemesis-resulting-in-hepatorenal-failure-foetal-distress-and-neonatal-mortality
#3
Cemile Dayangan Sayan
Hyperemesis gravidarum is defined as a condition emerging during pregnancy, is prominent with severe nausea and vomiting, a water-electrolyte imbalance and liver-kidney function disorder and causes more than 5% loss of body weight. In cases of severe hyperemesis gravidarum, maternal morbidities such as water-electrolyte imbalance, hepatorenal failure, Wernicke's encephalopathy, splenic avulsion, oesophageal rupture, pneumothorax have been reported. We present a case of hyperemesis gravidarum, which continued until the third trimester and developed secondary hepatorenal failure, a water-electrolyte imbalance, intrauterine growth restriction, anhydramnios, foetal distress and neonatal mortality...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377181/efficacy-of-glucose-or-amino-acid-based-commercial-beverages-in-meeting-oral-rehydration-therapy-goals-after-acute-hypertonic-and-isotonic-dehydration
#4
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, Nisha Charkoudian, Katherine M Mitchell, Adam J Luippold, Karleigh E Bradbury, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of different commercial beverage compositions for meeting oral rehydration therapy (ORT) goals in the treatment of acute dehydration in healthy humans has not been systematically tested. The objective of the study was to compare fluid retention, plasma volume (PV), and interstitial fluid (ISF) volume restoration when using 1 popular glucose-based and 1 novel amino acid-based (AA) commercial ORT beverage following experimental hypertonic or isotonic dehydration...
January 28, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357439/circadian-regulation-of-kidney-function-finding-a-role-for-bmal1
#5
Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock
Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357416/improved-protocols-for-the-study-of-urinary-electrolyte-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-rodents-use-of-gel-food-and-stepwise-changes-in-diet-composition
#6
Jonathan M Nizar, Nadine Bouby, Lise Bankir, Vivek Bhalla
Many experimental protocols in rodents require the comparison of groups that are fed different diets. Changes in dietary electrolyte and/or fat content can influence food intake, which can potentially introduce bias or confound the results. Unpalatable diets slow growth or cause weight loss, which is exacerbated by housing the animals in individual metabolic cages or by surgery. For balance studies in mice, small body weight and food intake, and low urinary flow can amplify these challenges. Powder food can be administered as a gel with the addition of a desired amount of water, electrolytes, drugs (if any), and a small amount of agar...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281773/fluid-and-electrolyte-management-across-the-age-continuum
#7
Tamara M Kear
Optional function of body systems depends upon fluid and electrolyte balance; however, across the lifespan, disorders of fluid and electrolytes offset this, and the causative factors are varied. Nurses play a major role in the management of fluid and electrolyte balance. This article focuses on the role total body water content, plasma proteins, kidney function, and drug metabolism have on the age-related physiology impacting fluid and electrolyte balance, and on nursing implications.
November 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#8
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198636/prolonged-diuretic-and-saluretic-effect-of-nothofagin-isolated-from-leandra-dasytricha-a-gray-cogn-leaves-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats-role-of-antioxidant-system-and-renal-protection
#9
Camila Leandra Bueno de Almeida, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Thaise Boeing, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Luísa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Priscila de Souza
Although the acute diuretic effect of nothofagin has been recently demonstrated, its effects after dose-repeated treatment have not yet been explored. For that, male Wistar normotensive (NTR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were orally treated, once a day, with vehicle (VEH: distilled water; 1 ml/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 10 mg/kg) or nothofagin (NOT; 1 mg/kg). The cumulative diuretic index and urinary electrolytes excretion were measured each 24 h. On the last day of the experiment (7th day), urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and molecular analyzes...
November 30, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193764/the-interstitium-conducts-extrarenal-storage-of-sodium-and-represents-a-third-compartment-essential-for-extracellular-volume-and-blood-pressure-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182412/the-effect-of-water-loading-on-acute-weight-loss-following-fluid-restriction-in-combat-sports-athletes
#11
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Ian C Dunican, Gregory R Cox, Louise M Burke
Novel methods of acute weight loss practiced by combat sport athletes include 'water loading’; the consumption of large fluid volumes for several days prior to restriction. We examined claims this technique increases total body water losses, while also assessing the risk of hyponatremia. Male athletes were separated into control (CON, n=10) and water loading (WL, n=11) groups and fed a standardised energy-matched diet for 6 days. Day 1-3 fluid intake was 40 mL·kg-1 and 100 mL·kg-1 for CON and WL, respectively with both groups consuming 15 mL·kg-1on Day 4 and following the same rehydration protocol on Days 5-6...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#12
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127701/release-kinetics-of-somatostatin-from-self-assembled-nanostructured-hydrogels
#13
Uma Rai, Thilini R Thrimawithana, Durga Dharmadana, Celine Valery, Simon A Young
Somatostatin-14 is a native neuropeptide with widespread functions in the body. Self-assembly of somatostatin-14 into amyloid-like nanofibrils has been previously demonstrated in aqueous media. We here hypothesize that the somatostatin nanofibrils can form a stable depot that release monomers in a controlled manner. This study aims to investigate if somatostatin monomers are released from physical hydrogels formed in water and in the presence of electrolytes. The release kinetics of the somatostatin monomers is investigated for the first time...
November 11, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118340/the-liquid-glass-jamming-transition-in-disordered-ionic-nanoemulsions
#14
Marco Braibanti, Ha Seong Kim, Nesrin Şenbil, Matthew J Pagenkopp, Thomas G Mason, Frank Scheffold
In quenched disordered out-of-equilibrium many-body colloidal systems, there are important distinctions between the glass transition, which is related to the onset of nonergodicity and loss of low-frequency relaxations caused by crowding, and the jamming transition, which is related to the dramatic increase in elasticity of the system caused by the deformation of constituent objects. For softer repulsive interaction potentials, these two transitions become increasingly smeared together, so measuring a clear distinction between where the glass ends and where jamming begins becomes very difficult or even impossible...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111193/antioxidant-and-diuretic-activity-of-co-administration-of-capparis-spinosa-honey-and-propolis-in-comparison-to-furosemide
#15
Soukaina El-Guendouz, Noori Al-Waili, Smail Aazza, Youssef Elamine, Soumia Zizi, Thia Al-Waili, Ali Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
OBJECTIVE: To study the antioxidant properties of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) honey and propolis and the effect of combined honey and propolis administration on urine volume and electrolytes in rats. METHODS: C. spinosa honey [1000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)], propolis (100 mg/kg b.wt), honey/propolis mixture (C. spinosa honey 1000 mg/kg b.wt/ propolis extract 100 mg/kg b.wt ), distilled water (1 mL/kg b.wt) and furosemide (10 mg/kg b.wt) were orally administered to five groups of rats for 21 d...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#16
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101853/electrochemical-carbamazepine-degradation-effect-of-the-generated-active-chlorine-transformation-pathways-and-toxicity
#17
Josué Daniel García-Espinoza, Petia Mijaylova-Nacheva, Martha Avilés-Flores
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a biorecalcitrant pharmaceutical compound frequently detected in wastewater and water bodies which has numerous negative effects on living organisms. In this investigation the effect of electrocatalytically generated active chlorine on CBZ degradation was studied using Nb/BDD or Ti/IrO2 anodes. Subsequently, a response surface methodology based on a factorial plan and central composite design was carried out to determine the contribution of individual factors and to obtain the optimal experimental parameters for CBZ abatement...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-kir1-1-renal-outer-medullary-k-channel
#18
Birgit T Priest, Alexander Pasternak
Kir1.1 (renal outer medullary K(+)) channels are potassium channels expressed almost exclusively in the kidney and play a role in the body's electrolyte and water balance. Potassium efflux through Kir1.1 compliments the role of transporters and sodium channels that are the targets of known diuretics. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in men and rodents are associated with salt wasting and low blood pressure. On this basis, Kir1.1 inhibitors may have value in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067456/effects-of-shu-gan-jian-pi-formula-on-rats-with-carbon-tetrachloride%C3%A2-induced-liver-fibrosis-using-serum-metabonomics-based-on-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#19
Hui Jiang, Xiu-Juan Qin, Wei-Ping Li, Rong Ma, Ting Wang, Zhu-Qing Li
Liver fibrosis is a common stage in the majority of chronic liver diseases, regardless of the etiology, and its progression may lead to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolomics, a powerful approach in systems biology, is a discipline used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the small molecule metabolites of cells at specific times and under certain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate serum metabolic changes following Shu Gan Jian Pi formula (SGJPF) treatment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced liver fibrosis in rats using gas chromatography‑time of flight mass spectrometry (GC‑TOFMS)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#20
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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