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Body water and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#1
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924484/diabetic-ketoacidosis-producing-extreme-hyperkalemia-in-a-patient-with-type-1-diabetes-on-hemodialysis
#2
Hodaka Yamada, Shunsuke Funazaki, Masafumi Kakei, Kazuo Hara, San-E Ishikawa
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a critical complication of type 1 diabetes associated with water and electrolyte disorders. Here, we report a case of DKA with extreme hyperkalemia (9.0 mEq/L) in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis. He had a left frontal cerebral infarction resulting in inability to manage his continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Electrocardiography showed typical changes of hyperkalemia, including absent P waves, prolonged QRS interval and tented T waves. There was no evidence of total body water deficit...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889231/favorable-effects-of-early-tolvaptan-administration-in-very-elderly-patients-after-repeat-hospitalizations-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#3
Masaki Kinoshita, Hideki Okayama, Tetsuya Kosaki, Saki Hosokawa, Go Kawamura, Tatsuya Shigematsu, Tatsunori Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kawada, Go Hiasa, Tadakatsu Yamada, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yukio Kazatani
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin 2 receptor antagonist that acts on the distal nephrons, causing a loss of electrolyte-free water. To date, its early administration in very elderly patients after repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) despite receiving optimal medical therapy has not been evaluated. Fifty-six ADHF patients who were >80 years old and had been repeatedly hospitalized were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients (14 men; mean age 86...
September 9, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868290/coffee-with-high-but-not-low-caffeine-content-augments-fluid-and-electrolyte-excretion-at-rest
#4
Adam D Seal, Costas N Bardis, Anna Gavrieli, Petros Grigorakis, J D Adams, Giannis Arnaoutis, Mary Yannakoulia, Stavros A Kavouras
BACKGROUND: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, via coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest. METHODS: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89.5 ± 14.8 kg, height: 1...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856009/the-chronic-kidney-disease-water-intake-trial-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
William F Clark, Shih-Han Huang, Amit X Garg, Kerri Gallo, Andrew A House, Louise Moist, Matthew A Weir, Jessica M Sontrop
BACKGROUND: In observational studies, drinking more water associates with a slower rate of kidney function decline; whether the same is true in a randomized controlled trial is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the 1-year effect of a higher vs usual water intake on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nine centers in Ontario, Canada...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770221/impact-of-carbohydrate-electrolyte-beverage-ingestion-on-heart-rate-response-while-climbing-mountain-fuji-at-3000%C3%A2-m
#6
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Koichi Kondo, Tadashi Uno, Mayuko Morikawa, Hiroshi Nose
We sought to investigate whether carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage ingestion reduced heart rate (HR) in twenty-three healthy young adults while climbing Mount Fuji at a given exercise intensity. Twenty-three healthy adults were randomly divided into two groups: the tap water (11 males [M] and 1 female [F]) and the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (10 M and 1 F). HR and activity energy expenditure (AEE) were recorded every min. The HRs for the first 30 minutes of climbing were not significantly different between the groups [121 ± 2 beats per min (bpm) in the tap water and 116 ± 3 bpm in the carbohydrate-electrolyte]; however, HR significantly increased with climbing in the tap water group (129 ± 2 bpm) but showed no significant increase in the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (121 ± 3 bpm)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684591/corp-improving-the-status-quo-for-measuring-whole-body-sweat-losses-wbsl
#8
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick
The measurement of whole body sweat losses (WBSL) is important to the study of body heat balance, body water balance, establishing guidelines for water and electrolyte consumption, and the study of metabolism and health. In principal, WBSL is measured by an acute change in body mass (ΔBM) in response to a thermoregulatory sweating stimulus. In this CORP review, we re-visit several basic, but rarely discussed assumptions important to WBSL research, including the common equivalences: mass = weight = water = sweat...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675827/hyperglycemia-induced-hyponatremia-reevaluation-of-the-na-correction-factor
#9
Matthew B Wolf
This study addresses the clinically important relationship between the decreases in plasma Na(+) and the increases in plasma glucose concentrations seen in diabetes and other hyperglycemic syndromes. This plasma 'Na(+) correction factor', is generally accepted as 1.6mM Na(+) per 100mg% glucose (0.29mM/mM in SI units) assuming osmotic equilibrium, although much larger numbers have been measured in experiments on normal humans. To resolve this controversy, a mathematical model of whole-body fluid-electrolyte balance was used to perform the experiment wherein plasma glucose concentration was increased to diabetic levels and the plasma Na(+) concentration changes assessed, without the complications seen in human experiments...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648603/effects-of-brn2-overexpression-on-eccrine-sweat-gland-development-in-the-mouse-paw
#10
Min Keun Chee, Seong Kyeong Jo, Kyung Cheol Sohn, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Ho Lee
Eccrine sweat glands regulate body temperature by secreting water and electrolytes. In humans, eccrine sweat glands are ubiquitous in the skin, except in the lips and external genitalia. In mice, eccrine sweat glands are present only in the paw pad. Brn2 is a protein belonging to a large family of transcription factors. A few studies have examined Brn2 in melanoma cells and epidermal keratinocytes. This study investigated changes in the skin in the K5-Brn2 transgenic mouse, which overexpresses Brn2 and contains the keratin 5 promotor...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577072/regulation-of-renal-na-k-cl-cotransporters-by-vasopressin
#11
REVIEW
Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig
Vasopressin (AVP) induces antidiuresis, thus playing an essential role in body water and electrolyte homeostasis. Its antidiuretic effects are mediated chiefly by V2 vasopressin receptors (V2R) expressed along the distal nephron and collecting duct epithelia. NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron, which includes the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT), largely depends on the activity of two structurally related Na-(K)-Cl cotransporters, NKCC2 in TAL and NCC in DCT. AVP-induced activation of these transporters contributes to urine concentration and renal electrolyte reabsorption...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551805/mitochondria-damage-and-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin
The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544847/theoretical-determination-of-band-edge-alignments-at-the-water-cuins2-112-semiconductor-interface
#13
Thomas P Senftle, Emily A Carter
Knowledge of a semiconductor electrode's band edge alignment is essential for optimizing processes that occur at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Photocatalytic processes are particularly sensitive to such alignments, as they govern the transfer of photoexcited electrons or holes from the surface to reactants in the electrolyte solution. Reconstructions of a semiconductor surface during operation, as well as its interaction with the electrolyte solution, must be considered when determining band edge alignment...
June 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544484/neglected-issues-concerning-teaching-human-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-popular-biochemistry-textbooks
#14
Zhiyong Han, Mark S Elliott
In the human body, the adrenal steroids collectively regulate a plethora of fundamental functions, including electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure, stress response, intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Therefore, adrenal steroidogenesis is an important biochemistry topic for students to learn in order for them to understand health consequences caused by deficiencies of enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenic pathways. However, popular biochemistry textbooks contain insufficient information and may sometimes give students a misimpression about certain aspects of human adrenal steroidogenesis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524071/flexible-low-cost-sensor-based-on-electrolyte-gated-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistor-for-organo-phosphate-detection
#15
Vijay Deep Bhatt, Saumya Joshi, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493993/mechanism-of-down-regulation-of-na-h-exchanger-2-in-experimental-colitis
#16
Amal Ali Soleiman, Farook Thameem, Islam Khan
BACKGROUND: The Na-H exchanger [NHE] performs an electroneutral uptake of NaCl and water from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several distinct NHE isoforms, some of which show an altered expression in the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this study, we examined a role of NHE-2 in experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intra-rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). On day 6 post-TNBS, the animals were sacrificed, colonic and ileal segments were taken out, cleaned with phosphate buffered saline and used in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405139/regulation-of-intestinal-permeability-the-role-of-proteases
#18
REVIEW
Hanne Van Spaendonk, Hannah Ceuleers, Leonie Witters, Eveline Patteet, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester, Joris G De Man, Benedicte Y De Winter
The gastrointestinal barrier is - with approximately 400 m(2) - the human body's largest surface separating the external environment from the internal milieu. This barrier serves a dual function: permitting the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes on the one hand, while limiting host contact with noxious luminal antigens on the other hand. To maintain this selective barrier, junction protein complexes seal the intercellular space between adjacent epithelial cells and regulate the paracellular transport...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#19
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373609/nutritional-counseling-regulates-interdialytic-weight-gain-and-blood-pressure-in-outpatients-receiving-maintenance-hemodialysis
#20
Atsuko Sakai, Hisayo Hamada, Keiko Hara, Kyoko Mori, Takayuki Uchida, Takashi Mizuguchi, Jun Minaguchi, Kenji Shima, Shu Kawashima, Yasuhiro Hamada, Takeshi Nikawa
Maintenance hemodialysis outpatients must limit salt and water intake to maintain electrolyte balance and blood pressure. In Kawashima Hospital, nationally registered dietitians provide hemodialysis patients with monthly nutritional counseling. We investigated whether nutritional counseling affects interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure. We investigated 48 hemodialysis patients whose monthly average IDWG ratio to dry weight exceeded 5.1% and who had not had a long-term hospital admittance of > 1 month...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
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