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Body water and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078240/effect-of-methanol-leaf-extract-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-hook-f-fabaceae-on-renal-function
#1
Fatima Ismail Hassan, Zezi Abdulkadir Umar, Danmalam Umar Habib, Yaro Abdullahi Hamza
OBJECTIVE: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932937/effect-of-electrolyzed-high-ph-alkaline-water-on-blood-viscosity-in-healthy-adults
#2
Joseph Weidman, Ralph E Holsworth, Bradley Brossman, Daniel J Cho, John St Cyr, Gregory Fridman
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown fluid replacement beverages ingested after exercise can affect hydration biomarkers. No specific hydration marker is universally accepted as an ideal rehydration parameter following strenuous exercise. Currently, changes in body mass are used as a parameter during post-exercise hydration. Additional parameters are needed to fully appreciate and better understand rehydration following strenuous exercise. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial assessed the effect of high-pH water on four biomarkers after exercise-induced dehydration...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925707/natural-mineral-bottled-waters-available-on-the-polish-market-as-a-source-of-minerals-for-the-consumers-part-2-the-intake-of-sodium-and-potassium
#3
Anna Gątarska, Joanna Ciborska, Elżbieta Tońska
Background: Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#4
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854090/effective-and-cheap-behavioral-modification-therapy-to-manage-complicated-polydipsia-and-seizures-in-a-chronic-mental-health-institute
#5
Yen-Wen Chen, Weilun Chung, Ching-Kuan Wu, Shih-Pin Hsu, Ping-Tao Tseng
PURPOSE: Polydipsia is one of the most serious and complicated problems causing morbidity and mortality in chronic mental health institutes. The pathophysiology of polydipsia in chronic schizophrenia remains unclear; as a result, no effective methods exist to deal with this serious problem. This report describes a patient with schizophrenia with polydipsia and seizures who benefitted from a behavioral modification program at a chronic mental health institute. CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old schizophrenic man did not have a history of physical illnesses or seizures and developed seizures following polydipsia...
June 15, 2016: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845866/a-canola-oil-supplemented-diet-prevents-type-i-diabetes-caused-lipotoxicity-and-renal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model
#6
Edgar Cano-Europa, Rocio Ortiz-Butron, Estela Melendez Camargo, María Miriam Esteves-Carmona, Rosa Maria Oliart-Ros, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Margarita Franco-Colin
We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#7
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#8
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702914/tanshinone-iia-protects-against-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-broilers
#10
Guoliang Hu, Yalu Song, Shanlin Ke, Huabin Cao, Caiying Zhang, Guangfu Deng, Fei Yang, Sihui Zhou, Pei Liu, Xiaoquan Guo, Ping Liu
This investigation was conducted to study the effects of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in broilers. Two-hundred newly hatched Arbor Acre commercial broilers were randomly divided into 3 groups. All groups, with the exception of the control group (tap water), were given NaCl water (0.3%) starting on the d 15, and broilers in the protected group were fed a diet supplemented with TIIA (2.5 g/kg) starting on the d 15. On d 28, 35, 42, and 49, the ratio of the right ventricular weight to the total ventricular weight (RV: TV) and the values of other biochemical indicators for each group chickens were determined...
October 4, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677366/changes-in-body-composition-following-haemodialysis-as-assessed-by-bioimpedance-spectroscopy
#11
K Tangvoraphonkchai, A Davenport
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic kidney disease treated by haemodialysis (HD) are at increased risk of sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) can be used to determine body composition, and is one of the several potential screening tools for sarcopenia. The newer generation of portable hand-held devices can be readily used in dialysis centres. The results from BIS devices using a two-compartmental model of body composition can be affected by hydration status and so ideally measurements should be made when patients are not overhydrated...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643287/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#12
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627089/-the-difference-and-ratio-between-serum-concentrations-of-natrium-and%C3%A2-chlorides-in-patients-with-hyponatremia
#14
Otto Schück, Miroslava Horáčková
UNLABELLED: The differential diagnosis of hyponatremia is often difficult. This most frequently occurring disorder of the water and electrolyte metabolism is frequently connected with deviations relating to the acid-base balance (ABB). This survey analyzes the relationship between the changes of the volume of body fluids and ABB and infers to what extent the analysis of combinations of the two disorders can support the differential diagnosis of different forms of hyponatremia (differentiation between the dilution vs...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614833/evaluation-of-serum-protein-based-arrival-formula-and-serum-protein-supplement-gammulin-on-growth-morbidity-and-mortality-of-stressed-transport-and-cold-male-dairy-calves
#15
A Pineda, M A Ballou, J M Campbell, F C Cardoso, J K Drackley
Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n = 93) <1 wk old were stratified by arrival body weight (BW) and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of one-time administration of fluid support [either control electrolyte solution (E) or the serum protein-containing arrival formula (AF)] and 14 d of either no supplementation (NG) or supplementation with Gammulin (G; APC Inc...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#16
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568020/measurement-of-lean-body-mass-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-a-consideration-of-the-pros-and-cons
#17
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato
The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions...
August 27, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562014/electrokinetic-properties-of-tio2-nanotubular-surfaces
#18
Martina Lorenzetti, Ekaterina Gongadze, Mukta Kulkarni, Ita Junkar, Aleš Iglič
Surface charge is one of the most significant properties for the characterisation of a biomaterial, being a key parameter in the interaction of the body implant with the surrounding living tissues. The present study concerns the systematic assessment of the surface charge of electrochemically anodized TiO2 nanotubular surfaces, proposed as coating material for Ti body implants. Biologically relevant electrolytes (NaCl, PBS, cell medium) were chosen to simulate the physiological conditions. The measurements were accomplished as titration curves at low electrolytic concentration (10(-3) M) and as single points at fixed pH but at various electrolytic concentrations (up to 0...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479891/mechanical-properties-of-anodic-titanium-films-containing-ions-of-ca-and-p-submitted-to-heat-and-hydrothermal-treatment
#19
Gabriel G de Lima, Gelson B de Souza, Carlos M Lepienski, Neide K Kuromoto
Anodic oxidation is a technique widely used to improve the bioactivity of Ti surface. In this study, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used to obtain an anodic film incorporating Ca and P ions to evaluate the effect of heat and hydrothermal treatment on the mechanical and in vitro bioactivity properties of these new layers. The MAO process was carried out using (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O and NaH2PO4·2H2O electrolytes under galvanostatic mode (150mA/cm(2)). The thermal treatments were made at 400°C and 600°C in air atmosphere while hydrothermal treatment was made in an alkaline water solution at 130°C...
December 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478590/formulas-for-fixing-serum-sodium-curb-your-enthusiasm
#20
Richard H Sterns
A variety of formulas have been proposed to predict changes in serum sodium concentration. All are based on an experiment done over 50 years ago by Edelman, who derived a formula relating the plasma sodium concentration to isotopically measured body sodium, potassium, and water. Some of these formulas fail because they do not include urinary losses of electrolytes and water. Even those that include these essential variables are not accurate enough for clinical use because it is impractical to adjust calculations to rapid changes in urinary composition, and because the formulas do not account for changes in serum sodium caused by internal exchanges between soluble and bound sodium stores or shifts of water into or out of cells resulting from changes in intracellular organic osmolytes...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
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