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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847737/kolaviron-attenuates-diclofenac-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-male-wistar-rats
#1
Quadri Kunle Alabi, Rufus Ojo Akomolafe, Modinat Adebukola Adefisayo, Olaoluwa Sesan Olukiran, Aliyat Olajumoke Nafiu, Micheal K Fasanya, Ayodele Oladele
The beneficial effects of kolaviron, a natural biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola, have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of kolaviron in rat model of diclofenac (DFC)-induced acute renal failure. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each as follows: a control group that received propylene glycol orally and treatment groups that received diclofenac, diclofenac followed by kolaviron at three different doses and kolaviron only...
May 30, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789983/principles-of-fluid-management-and-stewardship-in-septic-shock-it-is-time-to-consider-the-four-d-s-and-the-four-phases-of-fluid-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Manu L N G Malbrain, Niels Van Regenmortel, Bernd Saugel, Brecht De Tavernier, Pieter-Jan Van Gaal, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Jean-Louis Teboul, Todd W Rice, Monty Mythen, Xavier Monnet
In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771707/electrolytes-and-biochemical-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-drowning-experimental-rabbit-model
#3
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752415/a-pathogenic-skin-fungus-and-sloughing-exacerbate-cutaneous-water-loss-in-amphibians
#4
Catherine J M Russo, Michel E B Ohmer, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) is a pathogenic fungus that causes the cutaneous, infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated in population declines of numerous anuran species worldwide. Proximate cause of death by chytridiomycosis is asystolic cardiac arrest as a consequence of severe disruption to electrolyte balance. Animals heavily infected with Bd also experience a disruption to their skin sloughing regime, indicating that core functions of the skin, such as water retention, may be severely impacted...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623308/novel-supercapacitor-based-force-sensor-insensitive-to-parasitic-noise
#5
Ye Zhang, Rajesh Rajamani, Serdar Sezen
Traditional capacitive sensors suffer from significant parasitic noise when used in liquid environments or inside the human body. The parasitic noise overwhelms the force response of the sensor and makes it impossible to calculate the absolute force experienced by the sensor. This article focuses on the development of a supercapacitor based force sensor that is immune to parasitic noise. The supercapacitor consists of co-planar electrodes and a solid state ionic gel electrolyte on a deformable membrane. Force exertion causes deformation of the electrolyte membrane, increases its area of contact with the electrodes, resulting in a change of capacitance...
December 2017: IEEE Sensors Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602756/tolvaptan-for-heart-failure-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Sen, Erin Chung, Darryl McGill
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is frequently associated with renal impairment. Tolvaptan is reported to be effective in treating congestion in HF without significant electrolyte loss compared to conventional diuretics. However, the safety and efficacy of its use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety outcomes of tolvaptan for HF management in patients with CKD, with a focus at a physiologic basis related to safety...
February 13, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520564/fluid-intake-restores-retinal-blood-flow-early-after-exhaustive-exercise-in-healthy-subjects
#7
Tsukasa Ikemura, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Nobuhiro Nakamura, Koichi Yada, Naoyuki Hayashi
PURPOSE: It remains unclear whether rehydration restores retinal blood flow reduced by exhaustive exercise. We investigated the effect of fluid intake on retinal blood flow after exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Blood flow in the inferior (ITRA) and superior temporal retinal arterioles (STRA) was measured before and after incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion in 13 healthy males. After the exercise, the subjects rested without drinking (control condition: CON) or with drinking an electrolyte containing water (rehydrate condition: REH) and were followed up for a period of 120 min...
May 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511980/principles-of-quantitative-water-and-electrolyte-replacement-of-losses-from-osmotic-diuresis
#8
REVIEW
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479433/blood-analytes-of-oceanic-juvenile-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-azorean-waters-reference-intervals-size-relevant-correlations-and-comparisons-to-neritic-loggerheads-from-western-atlantic-coastal-waters
#9
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428662/antihypertensive-and-antioxidant-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-in-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-salt-hypertensive-rats
#10
Leila Safaeian, Reyhaneh Emami, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Zahra Haghighatian
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a natural antioxidant with beneficial cardiovascular properties. In this study, the effect of supplementation with PCA was investigated in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Male Wistar rats received DOCA (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly and 1% NaCl in drinking water and simultaneously treated with PCA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was detected using tail-cuff method. Electrolytes including Na+ , K+ and chloride, catalase activity, glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroperoxides concentration were measured in serum samples...
April 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393223/mild-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-genetically-determined-low-nephron-number-is-associated-with-chloride-but-not-sodium-retention
#11
Kerstin Benz, Julia Schlote, Christoph Daniel, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Agnes Schröder, Nada Cordasic, Bernd Klanke, Karl Hilgers, Jens Titze, Kerstin Amann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: One potential pathomechanism how low nephron number leads to hypertension in later life is altered salt handling. We therefore evaluated changes in electrolyte and water content in wildtype (wt) and GDNF+/- mice with a 30% reduction of nephron number. METHODS: 32 GDNF+/- and 36 wt mice were fed with low salt (LSD, 0.03%, normal drinking water) or high salt (HSD, 4%, 0.9% drinking water) diet for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry in a subgroup...
2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385934/a-case-of-prolonged-hyperemesis-resulting-in-hepatorenal-failure-foetal-distress-and-neonatal-mortality
#12
Cemile Dayangan Sayan
Hyperemesis gravidarum is defined as a condition emerging during pregnancy, is prominent with severe nausea and vomiting, a water-electrolyte imbalance and liver-kidney function disorder and causes more than 5% loss of body weight. In cases of severe hyperemesis gravidarum, maternal morbidities such as water-electrolyte imbalance, hepatorenal failure, Wernicke's encephalopathy, splenic avulsion, oesophageal rupture, pneumothorax have been reported. We present a case of hyperemesis gravidarum, which continued until the third trimester and developed secondary hepatorenal failure, a water-electrolyte imbalance, intrauterine growth restriction, anhydramnios, foetal distress and neonatal mortality...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377181/efficacy-of-glucose-or-amino-acid-based-commercial-beverages-in-meeting-oral-rehydration-therapy-goals-after-acute-hypertonic-and-isotonic-dehydration
#13
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, Nisha Charkoudian, Katherine M Mitchell, Adam J Luippold, Karleigh E Bradbury, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of different commercial beverage compositions for meeting oral rehydration therapy (ORT) goals in the treatment of acute dehydration in healthy humans has not been systematically tested. The objective of the study was to compare fluid retention, plasma volume (PV), and interstitial fluid (ISF) volume restoration when using 1 popular glucose-based and 1 novel amino acid-based (AA) commercial ORT beverage following experimental hypertonic or isotonic dehydration...
January 28, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357439/circadian-regulation-of-kidney-function-finding-a-role-for-bmal1
#14
Dingguo Zhang, David M Pollock
Mounting evidence suggests that there is an internal molecular "clock" within the kidney to help maintain normal renal function. Disturbance of the kidney circadian rhythm may pose a threat to water and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation, amongst many other problems. The identification of circadian genes facilitated a more comprehensive appreciation of the importance of "keeping the body on time"; however, our knowledge is very limited with regard to how circadian genes regulate kidney function...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357416/improved-protocols-for-the-study-of-urinary-electrolyte-excretion-and-blood-pressure-in-rodents-use-of-gel-food-and-stepwise-changes-in-diet-composition
#15
Jonathan M Nizar, Nadine Bouby, Lise Bankir, Vivek Bhalla
Many experimental protocols in rodents require the comparison of groups that are fed different diets. Changes in dietary electrolyte and/or fat content can influence food intake, which can potentially introduce bias or confound the results. Unpalatable diets slow growth or cause weight loss, which is exacerbated by housing the animals in individual metabolic cages or by surgery. For balance studies in mice, small body weight and food intake, and low urinary flow can amplify these challenges. Powder food can be administered as a gel with the addition of a desired amount of water, electrolytes, drugs (if any), and a small amount of agar...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281773/fluid-and-electrolyte-management-across-the-age-continuum
#16
Tamara M Kear
Optional function of body systems depends upon fluid and electrolyte balance; however, across the lifespan, disorders of fluid and electrolytes offset this, and the causative factors are varied. Nurses play a major role in the management of fluid and electrolyte balance. This article focuses on the role total body water content, plasma proteins, kidney function, and drug metabolism have on the age-related physiology impacting fluid and electrolyte balance, and on nursing implications.
November 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#17
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t 1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198636/prolonged-diuretic-and-saluretic-effect-of-nothofagin-isolated-from-leandra-dasytricha-a-gray-cogn-leaves-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats-role-of-antioxidant-system-and-renal-protection
#18
Camila Leandra Bueno de Almeida, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Thaise Boeing, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Luísa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Priscila de Souza
Although the acute diuretic effect of nothofagin has been recently demonstrated, its effects after dose-repeated treatment have not yet been explored. For that, male Wistar normotensive (NTR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were orally treated, once a day, with vehicle (VEH: distilled water; 1 ml/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 10 mg/kg) or nothofagin (NOT; 1 mg/kg). The cumulative diuretic index and urinary electrolytes excretion were measured each 24 h. On the last day of the experiment (7th day), urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and molecular analyzes...
January 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193764/the-interstitium-conducts-extrarenal-storage-of-sodium-and-represents-a-third-compartment-essential-for-extracellular-volume-and-blood-pressure-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182412/the-effect-of-water-loading-on-acute-weight-loss-following-fluid-restriction-in-combat-sports-athletes
#20
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R Cox, Ian C Dunican, Louise M Burke
Novel methods of acute weight loss practiced by combat sport athletes include "water loading," the consumption of large fluid volumes for several days prior to restriction. We examined claims that this technique increases total body water losses, while also assessing the risk of hyponatremia. Male athletes were separated into control (n = 10) and water loading (n = 11) groups and fed a standardized energy-matched diet for 6 days. Days 1-3 fluid intake was 40 and 100 ml/kg for control and water loading groups, respectively, with both groups consuming 15 ml/kg on Day 4 and following the same rehydration protocol on Days 5 and 6...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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