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Body water and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198636/prolonged-diuretic-and-saluretic-effect-of-nothofagin-isolated-from-leandra-dasytricha-a-gray-cogn-leaves-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats-role-of-antioxidant-system-and-renal-protection
#1
Camila Leandra Bueno de Almeida, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Thaise Boeing, Luísa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Luísa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Priscila de Souza
Although the acute diuretic effect of nothofagin has been recently demonstrated, its effects after dose-repeated treatment have not yet been explored. For that, male Wistar normotensive (NTR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were orally treated, once a day, with vehicle (VEH: distilled water; 1 ml/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 10 mg/kg) or nothofagin (NOT; 1 mg/kg). The cumulative diuretic index and urinary electrolytes excretion were measured each 24 h. On the last day of the experiment (7th day), urine, blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and molecular analyzes...
November 30, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193764/the-interstitium-conducts-extrarenal-storage-of-sodium-and-represents-a-third-compartment-essential-for-extracellular-volume-and-blood-pressure-homeostasis
#2
REVIEW
Helge Wiig, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure regulation relies on classical studies linking blood pressure and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term blood pressure regulation. To maintain blood pressure homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ , and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182412/the-effect-of-water-loading-on-acute-weight-loss-following-fluid-restriction-in-combat-sports-athletes
#3
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Ian C Dunican, Gregory R Cox, Louise M Burke
Novel methods of acute weight loss practiced by combat sport athletes include 'water loading’; the consumption of large fluid volumes for several days prior to restriction. We examined claims this technique increases total body water losses, while also assessing the risk of hyponatremia. Male athletes were separated into control (CON, n=10) and water loading (WL, n=11) groups and fed a standardised energy-matched diet for 6 days. Day 1-3 fluid intake was 40 mL·kg-1 and 100 mL·kg-1 for CON and WL, respectively with both groups consuming 15 mL·kg-1on Day 4 and following the same rehydration protocol on Days 5-6...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#4
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127701/release-kinetics-of-somatostatin-from-self-assembled-nanostructured-hydrogels
#5
Uma Rai, Thilini R Thrimawithana, Durga Dharmadana, Celine Valery, Simon A Young
Somatostatin-14 is a native neuropeptide with widespread functions in the body. Self-assembly of somatostatin-14 into amyloid-like nanofibrils has been previously demonstrated in aqueous media. We here hypothesize that the somatostatin nanofibrils can form a stable depot that release monomers in a controlled manner. This study aims to investigate if somatostatin monomers are released from physical hydrogels formed in water and in the presence of electrolytes. The release kinetics of the somatostatin monomers is investigated for the first time...
November 11, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118340/the-liquid-glass-jamming-transition-in-disordered-ionic-nanoemulsions
#6
Marco Braibanti, Ha Seong Kim, Nesrin Şenbil, Matthew J Pagenkopp, Thomas G Mason, Frank Scheffold
In quenched disordered out-of-equilibrium many-body colloidal systems, there are important distinctions between the glass transition, which is related to the onset of nonergodicity and loss of low-frequency relaxations caused by crowding, and the jamming transition, which is related to the dramatic increase in elasticity of the system caused by the deformation of constituent objects. For softer repulsive interaction potentials, these two transitions become increasingly smeared together, so measuring a clear distinction between where the glass ends and where jamming begins becomes very difficult or even impossible...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111193/antioxidant-and-diuretic-activity-of-co-administration-of-capparis-spinosa-honey-and-propolis-in-comparison-to-furosemide
#7
Soukaina El-Guendouz, Noori Al-Waili, Smail Aazza, Youssef Elamine, Soumia Zizi, Thia Al-Waili, Ali Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
OBJECTIVE: To study the antioxidant properties of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) honey and propolis and the effect of combined honey and propolis administration on urine volume and electrolytes in rats. METHODS: C. spinosa honey [1000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)], propolis (100 mg/kg b.wt), honey/propolis mixture (C. spinosa honey 1000 mg/kg b.wt/ propolis extract 100 mg/kg b.wt ), distilled water (1 mL/kg b.wt) and furosemide (10 mg/kg b.wt) were orally administered to five groups of rats for 21 d...
October 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#8
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101853/electrochemical-carbamazepine-degradation-effect-of-the-generated-active-chlorine-transformation-pathways-and-toxicity
#9
Josué Daniel García-Espinoza, Petia Mijaylova-Nacheva, Martha Avilés-Flores
Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a biorecalcitrant pharmaceutical compound frequently detected in wastewater and water bodies which has numerous negative effects on living organisms. In this investigation the effect of electrocatalytically generated active chlorine on CBZ degradation was studied using Nb/BDD or Ti/IrO2 anodes. Subsequently, a response surface methodology based on a factorial plan and central composite design was carried out to determine the contribution of individual factors and to obtain the optimal experimental parameters for CBZ abatement...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076349/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-kir1-1-renal-outer-medullary-k-channel
#10
Birgit T Priest, Alexander Pasternak
Kir1.1 (renal outer medullary K(+)) channels are potassium channels expressed almost exclusively in the kidney and play a role in the body's electrolyte and water balance. Potassium efflux through Kir1.1 compliments the role of transporters and sodium channels that are the targets of known diuretics. Consequently, loss-of-function mutations in men and rodents are associated with salt wasting and low blood pressure. On this basis, Kir1.1 inhibitors may have value in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067456/effects-of-shu-gan-jian-pi-formula-on-rats-with-carbon-tetrachloride%C3%A2-induced-liver-fibrosis-using-serum-metabonomics-based-on-gas-chromatography%C3%A2-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#11
Hui Jiang, Xiu-Juan Qin, Wei-Ping Li, Rong Ma, Ting Wang, Zhu-Qing Li
Liver fibrosis is a common stage in the majority of chronic liver diseases, regardless of the etiology, and its progression may lead to hepatic cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolomics, a powerful approach in systems biology, is a discipline used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the small molecule metabolites of cells at specific times and under certain conditions. The present study aimed to investigate serum metabolic changes following Shu Gan Jian Pi formula (SGJPF) treatment of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)‑induced liver fibrosis in rats using gas chromatography‑time of flight mass spectrometry (GC‑TOFMS)...
October 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955251/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-mediated-regulation-of-bk-channels
#12
REVIEW
Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Ling Qian, Ru-Xing Wang
Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) belong to a family of Ca(2+)-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channels and play a vital role in various physiological activities in the human body. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is acknowledged as being vital in the body's hormone system and plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation. There is growing evidence that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has profound influences on the expression and bioactivity of BK channels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924484/diabetic-ketoacidosis-producing-extreme-hyperkalemia-in-a-patient-with-type-1-diabetes-on-hemodialysis
#13
Hodaka Yamada, Shunsuke Funazaki, Masafumi Kakei, Kazuo Hara, San-E Ishikawa
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a critical complication of type 1 diabetes associated with water and electrolyte disorders. Here, we report a case of DKA with extreme hyperkalemia (9.0 mEq/L) in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis. He had a left frontal cerebral infarction resulting in inability to manage his continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Electrocardiography showed typical changes of hyperkalemia, including absent P waves, prolonged QRS interval and tented T waves. There was no evidence of total body water deficit...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889231/favorable-effects-of-early-tolvaptan-administration-in-very-elderly-patients-after-repeat-hospitalizations-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#14
Masaki Kinoshita, Hideki Okayama, Tetsuya Kosaki, Saki Hosokawa, Go Kawamura, Tatsuya Shigematsu, Tatsunori Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kawada, Go Hiasa, Tadakatsu Yamada, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yukio Kazatani
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin 2 receptor antagonist that acts on the distal nephrons, causing a loss of electrolyte-free water. To date, its early administration in very elderly patients after repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) despite receiving optimal medical therapy has not been evaluated. Fifty-six ADHF patients who were >80 years old and had been repeatedly hospitalized were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients (14 men; mean age 86...
September 9, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868290/coffee-with-high-but-not-low-caffeine-content-augments-fluid-and-electrolyte-excretion-at-rest
#15
Adam D Seal, Costas N Bardis, Anna Gavrieli, Petros Grigorakis, J D Adams, Giannis Arnaoutis, Mary Yannakoulia, Stavros A Kavouras
BACKGROUND: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, via coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest. METHODS: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89.5 ± 14.8 kg, height: 1...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856009/the-chronic-kidney-disease-water-intake-trial-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
William F Clark, Shih-Han Huang, Amit X Garg, Kerri Gallo, Andrew A House, Louise Moist, Matthew A Weir, Jessica M Sontrop
BACKGROUND: In observational studies, drinking more water associates with a slower rate of kidney function decline; whether the same is true in a randomized controlled trial is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the 1-year effect of a higher vs usual water intake on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease. DESIGN: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Nine centers in Ontario, Canada...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770221/impact-of-carbohydrate-electrolyte-beverage-ingestion-on-heart-rate-response-while-climbing-mountain-fuji-at-3000%C3%A2-m
#17
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Koichi Kondo, Tadashi Uno, Mayuko Morikawa, Hiroshi Nose
We sought to investigate whether carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage ingestion reduced heart rate (HR) in twenty-three healthy young adults while climbing Mount Fuji at a given exercise intensity. Twenty-three healthy adults were randomly divided into two groups: the tap water (11 males [M] and 1 female [F]) and the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (10 M and 1 F). HR and activity energy expenditure (AEE) were recorded every min. The HRs for the first 30 minutes of climbing were not significantly different between the groups [121 ± 2 beats per min (bpm) in the tap water and 116 ± 3 bpm in the carbohydrate-electrolyte]; however, HR significantly increased with climbing in the tap water group (129 ± 2 bpm) but showed no significant increase in the carbohydrate-electrolyte group (121 ± 3 bpm)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684591/corp-improving-the-status-quo-for-measuring-whole-body-sweat-losses-wbsl
#19
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick
The measurement of whole body sweat losses (WBSL) is important to the study of body heat balance, body water balance, establishing guidelines for water and electrolyte consumption, and the study of metabolism and health. In principal, WBSL is measured by an acute change in body mass (ΔBM) in response to a thermoregulatory sweating stimulus. In this CORP review, we re-visit several basic, but rarely discussed assumptions important to WBSL research, including the common equivalences: mass = weight = water = sweat...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675827/hyperglycemia-induced-hyponatremia-reevaluation-of-the-na-correction-factor
#20
Matthew B Wolf
This study addresses the clinically important relationship between the decreases in plasma Na(+) and the increases in plasma glucose concentrations seen in diabetes and other hyperglycemic syndromes. This plasma 'Na(+) correction factor', is generally accepted as 1.6mM Na(+) per 100mg% glucose (0.29mM/mM in SI units) assuming osmotic equilibrium, although much larger numbers have been measured in experiments on normal humans. To resolve this controversy, a mathematical model of whole-body fluid-electrolyte balance was used to perform the experiment wherein plasma glucose concentration was increased to diabetic levels and the plasma Na(+) concentration changes assessed, without the complications seen in human experiments...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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