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Hospital infection and prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145465/hospital-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-risk-factors-in-south-african-tertiary-public-hospitals
#1
Liliwe L Shuping, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Samantha Iyaloo, Olga Perovic
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a study to determine risk factors for HA-MRSA in order to inform control strategies in South Africa. METHODS: We used surveillance data collected from five tertiary hospitals in Gauteng and Western Cape provinces during 2014 for analysis. A case of HA-MRSA was defined as isolation of MRSA from a blood culture 48 hours after admission and/or if the patient was hospitalised in the six months prior to the current culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144958/isolation-of-blandm-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-public-hospital-in-salvador-bahia-brazil
#2
Maria Goreth Barberino, Silvia de Araujo Cruvinel, Célio Faria, Marco Aurélio Salvino, Márcio Oliveira
Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase (NDM), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of NDM described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143687/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-canine-and-feline-heartworm-infection-in-taiwan
#3
Ta-Li Lu, Jun-Yue Wong, Ta-Lun Tan, Yong-Wei Hung
BACKGROUND: Heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, has long been recognized in Taiwanese dogs but feline heartworm infection has been largely overlooked by veterinarians and pet owners. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of canine and feline heartworm infection in Taiwan. METHODS: Household dogs and cats were selected from 103 veterinary hospitals in 13 cities throughout Taiwan. All animals were at least 1 year old, had received no heartworm prevention for more than 1 year, and had lived in the same city for at least 1 year...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142785/role-of-cord-blood-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-recent-deep-burn-a-case-control-prospective-study
#4
Wael Abo-Elkheir, Fawzy Hamza, Ahmed M Elmofty, Atef Emam, Magdy Abdl-Moktader, Sameh Elsherefy, Hala Gabr
RATIONALE: Burn injuries represent one of the major worldwide public health problems causing more severe physiological stress than other traumas. Effective treatment of burn injuries is mandatory to prevent the numerous life-threatening complications and possible disabilities. Stem cells, a population of multipotent cells retaining the properties of self-renewal and differentiation, are the main player in tissue regeneration after major trauma. Thus, they are thought to play a key role in wound healing inducing efficient and physiological skin regeneration...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141983/are-parents-who-feel-the-need-to-watch-over-their-children-s-care-better-patient-safety-partners
#5
Elizabeth D Cox, Kristofer Hansen, Victoria P Rajamanickam, Roger L Brown, Paul J Rathouz, Pascale Carayon, Lori L DuBenske, Linda A Buel, Michelle M Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Many parents report needing to watch over their child's hospital care to prevent mistakes. In this study, we assessed whether needing to watch over care predicts parent performance of recommended safety behaviors to reduce medication errors and health care-associated infections. METHODS: At admission, we surveyed 170 parents about their need to watch over care, demographics, and hospitalization factors. At discharge, parents were surveyed about medication awareness and hand hygiene behaviors...
November 15, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141767/acute-q-fever-case-detection-among-acute-febrile-illness-patients-thailand-2002-2005
#6
Ashley L Greiner, Saithip Bhengsri, Matthieu Million, Sophie Edouard, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Kevin Clarke, Gilbert J Kersh, Christopher J Gregory, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
Acute Q fever cases were identified from a hospital-based acute febrile illness study conducted in six community hospitals in rural north and northeast Thailand from 2002 to 2005. Of 1,784 participants that underwent Coxiella burnetii testing, nine (0.5%) participants were identified in this case-series as acute Q fever cases. Eight case-patients were located in one province. Four case-patients were hospitalized. Median age was 13 years (range: 7-69); five were male. The proportion of children with acute Q fever infection was similar to adults (P = 0...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#7
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138182/disparities-in-the-quality-of-cardiovascular-care-between-hiv-infected-versus-hiv-uninfected-adults-in-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Joseph A Ladapo, Adam K Richards, Cassandra M DeWitt, Nina T Harawa, Steven Shoptaw, William E Cunningham, John N Mafi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. We compared use of national guideline-recommended cardiovascular care during office visits among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients aged 40 to 79 years in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2006 to 2013...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137595/study-of-bacterial-infections-among-patients-receiving-kidney-transplant-in-mashhad-iran
#10
Davood Mansury, Azad Khaledi, Kiarash Ghazvini, Mahin Ghorban Sabbagh, Hosna Zare, Mohammad Hossein Rokni-Hosseini, Hossein Vazini
OBJECTIVES: Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran)...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135819/prophylactic-rtpa-in-the-prevention-of-line-associated-thrombosis-and-infection-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#11
Lynn M Malec, James Cooper, Jeffrey Rudolph, Marian G Michaels, Margaret V Ragni
BACKGROUND: Central venous access devices (CVADs) are essential for total parenteral nutrition administration in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, they are fraught with complications including infection and venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases associated morbidity and mortality in this population. There is evidence linking the development of CVAD-associated thrombosis and line-related infection. Thus, it has been postulated that prevention of catheter-related clot formation could minimize the risk of infection originating from the catheter...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135348/development-of-a-surgical-infection-surveillance-program-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia-lessons-learned-from-two-surveillance-strategies
#12
Jared A Forrester, Luca Koritsanszky, Benjamin D Parsons, Menbere Hailu, Demisew Amenu, Seifu Alemu, Fekadu Jiru, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We developed Clean Cut, a surgical infection prevention program, with two goals: (1) Increase adherence to evidence-based peri-operative infection prevention standards and (2) establish sustainable surgical infection surveillance. Here we describe our infection surveillance strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clean Cut was piloted and evaluated at a 523 bed tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
November 14, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135343/effects-of-influenza-immunization-on-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#13
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#14
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
November 10, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132441/early-screening-for-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-young-women-for-primary-prevention-of-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-i-predict-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Jeanne Tamarelle, Anne C M Thiébaut, Bénédicte Sabin, Cécile Bébéar, Philippe Judlin, Arnaud Fauconnier, Delphine Rahib, Layidé Méaude-Roufai, Jacques Ravel, Servaas A Morré, Bertille de Barbeyrac, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
BACKGROUND: Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months...
November 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131754/perioperative-local-and-systemic-warming-in-surgical-site-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
K Ousey, K-L Edward, S Lui, J Stephenson, K Walker, J Duff, D Leaper
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common cause of postoperative morbidity. Perioperative hypothermia may contribute to surgical complications including increased risk of SSI. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness of active and passive perioperative warming interventions to prevent SSI was compared with standard (non-warming) care. METHOD: Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL Plus; The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, with no restrictions on language, publication date or study setting for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131746/topical-oxygen-therapy-promotes-the-healing-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-pilot-study
#17
P D Hayes, N Alzuhir, G Curran, I M Loftus
OBJECTIVE: Interventions that can heal or reduce diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) size may reduce the incidence of infection and amputation, and reduce associated social and economic costs. Many chronic wounds exhibit a degree of hypoxia and this leads to a reduction in healing processes including cell division and differentiation, angiogenesis, infection prevention, and collagen production. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effects of a device supplying continuous oxygen ambulatory therapy on healing in chronic DFUs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128346/mortality-risk-factors-among-non-icu-patients-with-nosocomial-vascular-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Dolors García, Fe Tubau, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are highly preventable hospital-acquired infections and a major threat to patient safety. While there is significant information regarding CRBSI outcome among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, data regarding non-ICU patients are scarce. AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality among non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of non-ICU patients with nosocomial CRBSIs in a tertiary-care centre, between January 2004 and December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126916/how-well-are-u-s-primary-care-providers-assessing-whether-their-male-patients-have-male-sex-partners
#19
Pollyanna R G Chávez, Laura G Wesolowski, Philip J Peters, Christopher H Johnson, Muazzam Nasrullah, Emeka Oraka, Euna M August, Elizabeth DiNenno
Identifying patients at-risk for HIV infection, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), is an important step in providing HIV testing and prevention interventions. It is unknown how primary care providers (PCPs) assess MSM status and related HIV-risk factors. We analyzed data from a panel-derived web-based survey for healthcare providers conducted in 2014 to describe how PCPs in the U.S. determined their patients' MSM status. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe PCP characteristics associated with systematically determining MSM status (i...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126595/burn-patients-with-infection-related-ventilator-associated-complications-have-worse-outcomes-compared-to-those-without-ventilator-associated-events
#20
Duraid Younan, Russell Griffin, Ahmed Zaky, Jean-Francois Pittet, Bernard Camins
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) replaced its definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in 2013. The aim of the current study is to compare the outcome of burn patients with ventilator associated events (VAEs). METHODS: Burn patients with at least two days of ventilator support were identified from the registry between 2013 and 2016. Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's exact tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
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