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Garam Kim, Kabriya Bolbolan, Tamar Gefen, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen H Bigio, Emily Rogalski, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively determine the density and distribution of activated microglia across cortical regions and hemispheres in the brains of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) participants with pathologic diagnoses of FTLD-TDP, and to examine the relationships between microglial densities, patterns of focal atrophy, TDP-43 inclusions, and clinical phenotype. METHODS: Activated microglia and TDP-43 inclusions were visualized in whole-hemisphere brain sections using immunohistochemical methods from 5 participants with PPA-TDP...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Lijun Sun, Michael J Gidley, Fredrick J Warren
The effects of tea polyphenols on binding of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) with normal maize starch granules were studied through solution depletion assays, fluorescence spectroscopy and initial rate kinetics. Only polyphenols which have inhibitory activity against PPA increased the binding of PPA with starch. The results are consistent with a binding equilibrium between polyphenols, starch and PPA. The dissociation constant (Kd ) for PPA binding was decreased by tea polyphenols, with the effects greater for theaflavins than catechins and for galloylated than non-galloylated polyphenols...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lize C Jiskoot, Jessica L Panman, Lauren van Asseldonk, Sanne Franzen, Lieke H H Meeter, Laura Donker Kaat, Emma L van der Ende, Elise G P Dopper, Reinier Timman, Rick van Minkelen, John C van Swieten, Esther van den Berg, Janne M Papma
INTRODUCTION: We performed 4-year follow-up neuropsychological assessment to investigate cognitive decline and the prognostic abilities from presymptomatic to symptomatic familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: Presymptomatic MAPT (n = 15) and GRN mutation carriers (n = 31), and healthy controls (n = 39) underwent neuropsychological assessment every 2 years. Eight mutation carriers (5 MAPT, 3 GRN) became symptomatic. We investigated cognitive decline with multilevel regression modeling; the prognostic performance was assessed with ROC analyses and stepwise logistic regression...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Rosalía López-Ruiz, Roberto Romero-González, José Luis Martínez Vidal, Antonia Garrido Frenich
A degradation study of quizalofop-p and its commercial products (quizalofop-p-ethyl, quizalofop-p-tefuryl and propaquizafop) in water samples has been performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). CHHQ (dihydroxychloroquinoxalin), CHQ (6-chloroquinoxalin-2-ol) and PPA ((R)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propionicacid) were the main metabolites of this active substance (quizalofop-p) in water. The degradation of the parent compound has been monitored in distilled water...
April 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
K T Shalumon, Chialin Sheu, Chih-Hao Chen, Shih-Heng Chen, Gils Jose, Chang-Yi Kuo, Jyh-Ping Chen
The possibility of endowing an electrospun anti-adhesive barrier membrane with multi-functionality, such as lubrication, prevention of fibroblast attachment and anti-infection and anti-inflammation properties, is highly desirable for the management of post-surgical tendon adhesion. To this end, we fabricated core-shell nanofibrous membranes (CSNMs) with embedded silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/poly(caprolactone) (PCL) shell and hyaluronic acid (HA)/ibuprofen in the core. HA imparted a lubrication effect for smooth tendon gliding and reduced fibroblast attachment, while Ag NPs and ibuprofen functioned as anti-infection and anti-inflammation agents, respectively...
April 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Xin Zhang, Qi Yan, Di Naer Mulatihan, Jundong Zhu, Aiping Fan, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
The efficacy of nanoparticulate photodynamic therapy is often compromised by the short life time and limited diffusion radius as well as uncontrolled intracellular distribution of photosensitizer. It was hypothesized that rapid photosensitizer release upon nanoparticle internalization and its preferred accumulation in mitochondria would address the above problems. Hence, the aim of this study was to engineer a multifunctional micellar nanosystem featured with singlet oxygen-responsive cargo release and mitochondria targeting...
April 5, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yi-Bo Zhu, Yan Xu, Li-Mei Wang, Bin Qi
(R)-2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (PLA) is an ideal antimicrobial compound with broad-spectrum activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, some Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. We studied the bioconversion of phenylpyruvate (PPA) to PLA using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells in a series of buffer/organic solvent systems. Octane was found to be the best organic solvent. The optimum volume ratio of the water phase to the n-octane phase, conversion temperature, substrate concentration, and cell concentration were 6:4, 40 °C, 12...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Urszula Klekotka, Ewelina Wińska, Elżbieta Zambrzycka-Szelewa, Dariusz Satuła, Beata Kalska-Szostko
In this work, we analyze artificial heavy-metal solutions with ferrite nanoparticles. Measurements of adsorption effectiveness of different kinds of particles, pure magnetite or magnetite doped with calcium, cobalt, manganese, or nickel ions, were carried out. A dependence of the adsorption efficiency on the composition of the inorganic core has been observed. Ferrites surfaces were modified by phthalic anhydride (PA), succinic anhydride (SA), acetic anhydride (AA), 3-phosphonopropionic acid (3-PPA), or 16-phosphohexadecanoic acid (16-PHDA) to compare the adsorption capability of the heavy metals Cd, Cu and Pb...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Manuel R Alfonso, Ricardo L Armentano, Leandro J Cymberknop, Arthur R Ghigo, Franco M Pessana, Walter E Legnani
Arterial pressure waves have been described in one dimension using several approaches, such as lumped (Windkessel) or distributed (using Navier-Stokes equations) models. An alternative approach consists of modeling blood pressure waves using a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and representing pressure waves as combinations of solitons. This model captures many key features of wave propagation in the systemic network and, in particular, pulse pressure amplification (PPA), which is a mechanical biomarker of cardiovascular risk...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Kunliang Qiu, Geng Wang, Riping Zhang, Xuehui Lu, Mingzhi Zhang, Nomdo M Jansonius
Assessment of macular thickness is important in the evaluation of various eye diseases. This study aimed to determine the influence of the optic disc-fovea distance (DFD) on macular thickness in myopic eyes. We determined the DFD and the macular thickness in 138 eyes from 138 healthy myopic subjects using the Cirrus HD-OCT. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were performed to determine the influence of DFD, axial length, disc area, and β-PPA on macular thickness. To further remove the confounding effect of ocular magnification on the DFD and OCT scan area, a subgroup analysis was performed in eyes with a limited axial length range (24-25 mm)...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoliang Duan, Qiling Hou, Guoyu Liu, Xiaomeng Pang, Zhenli Niu, Xiao Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Baoyun Li, Rongqi Liang
Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin ( ppa ), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin ( pta ). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene ( rbcs ) promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104) by particle bombardment transformation...
March 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Afaf El-Ansary, Abir Ben Bacha, Geir Bjørklund, Nora Al-Orf, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Nadine Moubayed, Kawther Abed
Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), and alterations of the gut microbiota composition due to environmental factors can contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal modeling may help to identify drugs that can normalize the altered gut microbiota and thereby ameliorate abnormal brain signaling pathways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potency of probiotics such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli on glutamate excitotoxicity as a neurotoxic effect induced by clindamycin and propionic acid (PPA) in juvenile hamsters...
March 27, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Li-Ju Wang, Nicole Naudé, Misganaw Demissie, Anne Crivaro, Malek Kamoun, Ping Wang, Lei Li
Most mobile health (mHealth) diagnostic devices for laboratory tests only analyze one sample at a time, which is not suitable for large volume serology testing, especially in low-resource settings with shortage of health professionals. In this study, we developed an ultra-low-cost clinically-accurate mobile phone microplate reader (mReader), and clinically validated this optical device for 12 infectious disease tests. The mReader optically reads 96 samples on a microplate at one time. 771 de-identified patient samples were tested for 12 serology assays for bacterial/viral infections...
March 23, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Naomi Mataki, Atsuo Tomidokoro, Makoto Araie, Aiko Iwase
PURPOSES: To assess β-zone of peripapillary atrophy (β-PPA) and its relationship between systemic and ocular factors, especially glaucoma, in a Japanese population. METHODS: Fundus photographs obtained from 2129 normal, 84 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 10 primary angle closure glaucoma subjects from 3021 participants aged 40 years or older in the Tajimi Study were analysed planimetrically. If both eyes of a subject met inclusion criteria, one eye was randomly chosen...
March 25, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Jinfei Dai, Jun Xi, Lu Li, Jingfeng Zhao, Yifei Shi, Wenwen Zhang, Chenxin Ran, Bo Jiao, Xun Hou, Xinhua Duan, Zhaoxin Wu
Long alkyl-chain capping ligands, such as n-octylamine (OA), are always indispensable for preparing stable colloidal quantum dots. However, its insulating feature blocks efficient carrier transport among QDs, leading to inferior performance of light-emitting diode (LED).To date, several methods are adopted to increase the film conductivity of QDs, but still didn't break the dilemma of the trade-off between the conductivity and colloidal stability of QDs. For the first time, we overcome this dilemma, successfully prepare methylamine lead bromide (MAPbBr3) QDs with a conjugated alkyl-amine, 3-Phenyl-2-propen-1-amine (PPA), as ligands...
March 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Martha Kim, Ho-Kyung Choung, Kyoung Min Lee, Sohee Oh, Seok Hwan Kim
PURPOSE: To delineate longitudinal changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary structure during myopia progression in childhood using spectral-domain (SD) OCT and to explore the factors associated with myopic ONH and peripapillary changes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three healthy children with myopia (46 eyes). METHODS: The participants underwent fundus photography, SD OCT, and axial length (AXL) measurements every 6 months for 2 years...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmology
Ellyn A Riley, Elena Barbieri, Sandra Weintraub, M Marsel Mesulam, Cynthia K Thompson
Prototypical items within a semantic category are processed faster than atypical items within the same category. This typicality effect reflects normal representation and processing of semantic categories and when absent may be reflective of lexical-semantic deficits. We examined typicality effects in individuals with semantic and nonsemantic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA; semantic-PPA-S, agrammatic-PPA-G), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by specific decline in language function, and age-matched controls...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Romano Endrighi, Elizabeth L McQuaid, Yvonne Kiera Bartlett, Ashley H Clawson, Belinda Borrelli
Background: Depressive symptoms are elevated in parents of asthmatic children compared with parents of healthy children. The role of depression in smoking cessation and pediatric asthma outcomes in this population is unclear. Purpose: To prospectively examine the effect of parent depression on smoking cessation and child asthma outcomes. Methods: Secondary analysis from a cessation induction trial involving Motivational Interviewing (MI) and biomarker feedback on secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe)...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Bin Bai, Jiadela Teliewubai, Yuyan Lu, Shikai Yu, Jing Xiong, Chen Chi, Yiwu Zhou, Hongwei Ji, Ximin Fan, Jacques Blacher, Jue Li, Yi Zhang, Yawei Xu
This study aimed to investigate the discrepancy between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) in association with hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) in the elderly. From June 2014 to August 2015, 1599 participants aged >65 years old from communities located in northern Shanghai were recruited. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), peripheral blood pressure (BP), central BP and other TOD indicators, including the ratio of the early ventricular filling velocity (E) to the peak velocity of the tissue Doppler velocity of septal mitral annulus (E/Ea), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), carotid intima-medium thickness (CIMT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), were determined for each participant...
March 13, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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