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Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Soo Ji Jeon, Chan Kee Park
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) was used to investigate the features of choroidal microcirculation within the β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA) and its association with visual field (VF) defects in myopic patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants: Eighty-four myopic patients with a unilateral glaucomatous VF defect. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Comparison was performed between VF-affected eyes and contralateral normal eyes...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Martina Bocchetta, Elizabeth Gordon, M Jorge Cardoso, Marc Modat, Sebastien Ourselin, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer
Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder associated with frontal and temporal atrophy. Subcortical involvement has been described as well, with early thalamic atrophy most commonly associated with the C9orf72 expansion. However thalamic involvement has not been comprehensively investigated across the FTD spectrum. Methods: We investigated thalamic volumes in a sample of 341 FTD patients (age: mean(standard deviation) 64...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Binrui Cao, Hong Xu, Mingying Yang, Chuanbin Mao
Cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the absorption of light by photosensitizers (PSs) to generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen for killing cancer cells. The success of this method is usually limited by the lack of selective accumulation of the PS at cancer cells. Bioengineered viruses with cancer cell-targeting peptides fused on their surfaces are great drug carriers that can guide the PS to cancer cells for targeted cancer treatment. Here, we use cell-targeting fd bacteriophages (phages) as an example to describe how to chemically conjugate PSs (e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
George L Malcolm, Edward H Silson, Jennifer R Henry, Chris I Baker
We can understand viewed scenes and extract task-relevant information within a few hundred milliseconds. This process is generally supported by three cortical regions that show selectivity for scene images: parahippocampal place area (PPA), medial place area (MPA) and occipital place area (OPA). Prior studies have focused on the visual information each region is responsive to, usually within the context of recognition or navigation. Here, we move beyond these tasks to investigate gaze allocation during scene viewing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mi Sun Sung, Hwan Heo, Sang Woo Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of β-PPA in myopic eyes and determine whether the microstructure of β-PPA is associated with parapapillary microvasculature by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: This study included 80 subjects with myopia with β-PPA. Spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error, axial length, horizontal tilt angle, and the width of β-PPA were evaluated. The microstructure of β-PPA and subfoveal choroidal thickness were evaluated using enhanced-depth imaging OCT and eyes were classified into 3 groups based on the presence of Bruch's membrane (BM), a PPA+BM only group, a PPA+BM and PPA-BM group, and a PPA-BM only group...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Murray Grossman, David J Irwin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the clinical and anatomic features of the three named variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): semantic variant PPA, nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, and logopenic variant PPA. Three stroke aphasia syndromes that resemble the PPA variants (Broca aphasia, Wernicke aphasia, and conduction aphasia) are also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Semantic variant PPA and Wernicke aphasia are characterized by fluent speech with naming and comprehension difficulty; these syndromes are associated with disease in different portions of the left temporal lobe...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Stefan Washausen, Wolfgang Knabe
Placodes are focal thickenings of the surface ectoderm which, together with neural crest, generate the peripheral nervous system of the vertebrate head. Here we examine how, in embryonic mice, apoptosis contributes to the remodelling of the primordial posterior placodal area (PPA) into physically separated otic and epibranchial placodes. Using pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis-associated caspases, we find evidence that apoptosis eliminates hitherto undiscovered rudiments of the lateral line sensory system which, in fish and aquatic amphibia, serves to detect movements, pressure changes or electric fields in the surrounding water...
May 30, 2018: Biology Open
A Kielar, T Deschamps, R Jokel, J A Meltzer
Patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) may react to linguistic stimuli differently than healthy controls, reflecting degeneration of language networks and engagement of compensatory mechanisms. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to evaluate oscillatory neural responses in sentence comprehension, in patients with PPA and age-matched controls. Participants viewed sentences containing semantically and syntactically anomalous words that evoke distinct oscillatory responses. For age-matched controls, semantic anomalies elicited left-lateralized 8-30 Hz power decreases distributed along ventral brain regions, whereas syntactic anomalies elicited bilateral power decreases in both ventral and dorsal regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Grażyna Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Jan Szczegielniak, Dawid Bączkowicz
Background: The spinal column possesses shock absorption properties, mainly provided by the intervertebral discs. However, with the process of senescence, all structures of the spine, including the discs, undergo degenerative changes. It may lead to alteration of the mechanical properties of the spinal motion segment and diminished capacity for vibration attenuation. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in shock absorption properties of the spine...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Marilena Aiello, Miriam Vignando, Francesco Foroni, Giulio Pergola, Paola Rossi, Maria Caterina Silveri, Raffaella I Rumiati
It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments...
May 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Robert S Hurley, M-Marsel Mesulam, Jaiashre Sridhar, Emily J Rogalski, Cynthia K Thompson
The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is diagnosed based on impaired single-word comprehension, but nonverbal impairments in face and object recognition can also be present, particularly in later disease stages. PPA-S is associated with focal atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), often accompanied by a lesser degree of atrophy in the right ATL. According to a dual-route account, the left ATL is critical for verbal access to conceptual knowledge while nonverbal access to conceptual knowledge depends upon the integrity of right ATL...
May 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jian-Fang Li, Xue-Qing Li, Yan Liu, Feng-Jiao Yuan, Ting Zhang, Min-Chen Wu, Ji-Ru Zhang
To improve the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of L-LcLDH1, an NADH-dependent allosteric L-lactate dehydrogenase from L. casei, towards phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), its directed modification was conducted based on the semi-rational design. The three variant genes, Lcldh1Q88R , Lcldh1I229A and Lcldh1T235G , were constructed by whole-plasmid PCR as designed theoretically, and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), respectively. The purified mutant, L-LcLDH1Q88R or L-LcLDH1I229A , displayed the specific activity of 451...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Morag E Taylor, Sirinun Boripuntakul, Barbara Toson, Jacqueline C T Close, Stephen R Lord, Nicole A Kochan, Perminder S Sachdev, Henry Brodaty, Kim Delbaere
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate physical decline over 1-year in a cohort of older people across the cognitive spectrum. METHODS: Physical function was assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) in 593 participants (cognitively normal [CN]: n = 342, mild cognitive impairment [MCI]: n = 77, dementia: n = 174) at baseline and in 490 participants available for reassessment 1-year later. Neuropsychological performance and physical activity (PA) were assessed at baseline...
May 25, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Soya S Sam, Angela M Caliendo, Jessica Ingersoll, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Charles E Hill, Colleen S Kraft
Accurate and rapid diagnosis is needed for timely intervention and clinical management of acute respiratory infections. This study evaluated performance characteristics of the Fusion assay for the detection of influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza 1-3 (Para 1-3), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus (RV) and adenovirus (Adeno) targets in comparison to the eSensor and Lyra assays using 395 nasopharyngeal (NP) and 104 lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, George C Drosos, Anastasios Tentolouris, Konstantonis George, Petros P Sfikakis, Athanasios D Protogerou, Nikolaos Tentolouris
The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between pulse pressure amplification (PPA) and cardiac autonomic activity (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV)) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, we examined the association between cardiac autonomic activity and central hemodynamic parameters that may affect PPA such as augmentation index (AIx), aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)), and common carotid artery stiffness distensibility coefficient (DC)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Juan Zheng, Cuiming Lu, Junlong Huang, Luyi Chen, Chuyi Ni, Xintong Xie, Fang Zhu, Dingcai Wu, Gangfeng Ouyang
Novel powdery polymer aerogel (PPA) prepared via the (micro)emulsion polymerization and the following hyper crosslinking reaction was fabricated as stationary phase of capillary column for the first time. Due to its powdery morphology, unique 3D nano-network structure, high surface area and good thermostability, the PPA-coated capillary column demonstrated high-resolution chromatographic separation towards nonpolar and weakly polar organic compounds, including benzene series, n-alkanes, ketone mixtures and trichlorobenzenes...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Jan M Falcke, Neelanjan Bose, Alexander B Artyukhin, Christian Rödelsperger, Gabriel V Markov, Joshua J Yim, Dominik Grimm, Marc H Claassen, Oishika Panda, Joshua A Baccile, Ying K Zhang, Henry H Le, Dino Jolic, Frank C Schroeder, Ralf J Sommer
In the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus, a modular library of small molecules control behavior, lifespan, and development. However, little is known about the final steps of their biosynthesis, in which diverse building blocks from primary metabolism are attached to glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose, the ascarosides. We combine metabolomic analysis of natural isolates of P. pacificus with genome-wide association mapping to identify a putative carboxylesterase, Ppa-uar-1, that is required for attachment of a pyrimidine-derived moiety in the biosynthesis of ubas#1, a major dauer pheromone component...
May 14, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Valentina Sulpizio, Maddalena Boccia, Cecilia Guariglia, Gaspare Galati
Humans, like animals, rely on an accurate knowledge of one's spatial position and facing direction to keep orientated in the surrounding space. Although previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that scene-selective regions (the parahippocampal place area or PPA, the occipital place area or OPA and the retrosplenial complex or RSC), and the hippocampus (HC) are implicated in coding position and facing direction within small-(room-sized) and large-scale navigational environments, little is known about how these regions represent these spatial quantities in a large open-field environment...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aikaterini Papagianni, Gabriela Siedler, Claudia Sommer, Nurcan Üçeyler
Introduction: The capsaicin 8% patch is a treatment option in patients with localized peripheral neuropathic pain. Better understanding of its mechanisms of action and knowledge on predictive biomarkers for a treatment response is warranted. Objectives: To use electrically evoked pain-related potentials for investigation of A-delta fiber conduction after capsaicin 8% patch treatment. Methods: We studied 11 healthy controls at the dorsal hand and the foot and 12 patients with neuropathic pain at the area affected by neuropathic pain before and 2 hours after application of a capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza)...
March 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Andreia V Faria, David Race, Kevin Kim, Argye E Hillis
At least three distinct variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been described, but they are difficult to distinguish early in the course, when individuals experience primarily anomia. People with svPPA are often the hardest to care for, because they have impaired comprehension of words and objects and often have negative changes in comportment. We sought to identify an early marker of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and to enhance the understanding of the semantic deficit in svPPA...
April 3, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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