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Bin Wang, Ting Li, Yan Niu, Jie Xiang, Junjie Cheng, Bo Liu, Hui Zhang, Tianyi Yan, Susumu Kanazawa, Jinglong Wu
Category-selective brain areas exhibit varying levels of neural activity to ipsilaterally presented stimuli. However, in face- and house-selective areas, the neural responses evoked by ipsilateral stimuli in the peripheral visual field remain unclear. In this study, we displayed face and house images using a wide-view visual presentation system while performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The face-selective areas (fusiform face area (FFA) and occipital face area (OFA)) exhibited intense neural responses to ipsilaterally presented images, whereas the house-selective areas (parahippocampal place area (PPA) and transverse occipital sulcus (TOS)) exhibited substantially smaller and even negative neural responses to the ipsilaterally presented images...
2018: PloS One
Keith A Josephs, Peter R Martin, Hugo Botha, Christopher G Schwarz, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Stephen D Weigand, Matthew L Senjem, Rene L Utianski, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Jennifer L Whitwell
OBJECTIVES: To assess [ 18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET uptake patterns across the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants (logopenic, semantic and agrammatic), examine regional uptake patterns of [ 18 F]AV-1451 independent of clinical diagnosis, and compare the diagnostic utility of [ 18 F]AV-1451, [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxygluclose (FDG)-PET and MRI to differentiate the PPA variants. METHODS: We performed statistical parametric mapping of [ 18 F]AV-1451 across 40 PPA patients (logopenic-PPA=14, semantic-PPA=13 and agrammatic-PPA=13) compared to 80 cognitively normal, PiB-negative controls, age and gender matched 2:1...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Jeonghyun Choi, Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Yunkyung Hong, Tai-Young Hur, Joo-Heon Kim, Sang-Rae Lee, Yonggeun Hong
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is induced by complex hereditary and environmental factors. However, the mechanisms of ASD development are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify standard indicators of this condition by comparing clinical, pathophysiological, and neurobehavioral features in an autism-like animal model. A total of 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and 500 mg/kg propionic acid (PPA)-treated groups. Rats were subjected to behavioral tests, gene expression analyses, and histological analyses to detect pathophysiological and neurobehavioral alterations...
2018: PloS One
Aline Mendes, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Olivier Colliot, Alexandre Routier, Olivier Godefroy, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Olivier Moreaud, Florence Pasquier, Philippe Couratier, Karim Bennys, Martine Vercelletto, Olivier Martinaud, Bernard Laurent, Jérémie Pariente, Michèle Puel, Stéphane Epelbaum, Serge Belliard, Takoua Kaaouana, Ludovic Fillon, Marie Chupin, Bruno Dubois, Marc Teichmann
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the prevalence and localization of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in the 3 main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (logopenic, semantic, and nonfluent/agrammatic), to identify the relationship with underlying Alzheimer pathology, and to explore whether CMBs contribute to language breakdown. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design in a multicenter cohort of 82 patients with PPA and 19 similarly aged healthy controls. MRI allowed for rating CMBs (2-dimensional gradient recalled echo T2*, susceptibility weighted imaging sequences) and white matter hyperintensities...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
Toshiki Yamaji, Takeshi Saito
The keto-enol tautomerism of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) has been studied by temperature-variable 9.4 T nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It was found that PPA favored its existence in the enol form in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, 93.5% of the enol and 6.5% of the keto tautomer was present in DMSO at room temperature. Increasing the temperature increased the percentage of the keto form. The experimental thermodynamic parameters for the tautomerism were successfully obtained from the spectral data...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Jennifer M Harris, Jennifer A Saxon, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, Jennifer C Thompson
The differentiation of subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) remains challenging. We aimed to identify optimum neuropsychological measures for characterizing PPA, to examine the relationship between behavioural change and subtypes of PPA and to determine whether characteristic profiles of language, working memory, and behavioural changes occur in PPA. Forty-seven patients with PPA and multi-domain Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with 19 age-matched controls underwent a large battery of working memory and language tests...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Peter Bede, Taha Omer, Eoin Finegan, Rangariroyashe H Chipika, Parameswaran M Iyer, Mark A Doherty, Alice Vajda, Niall Pender, Russell L McLaughlin, Siobhan Hutchinson, Orla Hardiman
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) phenotypes have distinctive and well-established cortical signatures, but their subcortical grey matter profiles are poorly characterised. The comprehensive characterisation of striatal and thalamic pathology along the ALS-FTD spectrum is particularly timely, as dysfunction of frontostriatal and cortico-thalamic networks contribute to phenotype-defining cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Ten patients with behavioral-variant FTD, 11 patients with non-fluent-variant primary progressive aphasia, 5 patients with semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia, 14 ALS-FTD patients with C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions, 12 ALS-FTD patients without hexanucleotide repeats, 36 ALS patients without cognitive impairment and 50 healthy controls were included in a prospective neuroimaging study...
February 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Min Kyung Song, Kyung Rim Sung, Joong Won Shin, Junki Kwon, Ji Yun Lee, Ji Min Park
AIM: To evaluate the progressive change in peripapillary atrophy (PPA) according to its shape and to explore the relationship between PPA progression and glaucoma worsening in myopic eyes. METHODS: A total of 159 eyes of 159 patients with myopic (axial length (AXL) >24 mm) glaucoma (mean follow-up 4.4 years, 35 eyes with minimal PPA, 40 concentric-type PPA eyes (>270° around the optic disc) and 84 eccentric-type PPA eyes (<270°)) were included. Sequential stereoscopic colour optic disc photographs were evaluated to qualitatively determine PPA progression...
February 2, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Laurence R Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth A Archie, Susan C Alberts
OBJECTIVES: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of female reproductive success; understanding how they are regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors can provide insight into sources of variance in female fitness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 36 years of reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons, we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA), sexual cycling, and pregnancy...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Taotao Dai, Jun Chen, Qian Li, Panying Li, Peng Hu, Chengmei Liu, Ti Li
Procyanidins were reported to have an inhibitory effect on α-amylase, but the interaction mechanism between procyanidins and α-amylase was rarely reported. Spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques were utilized to explore the interaction between porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and B-type procyanidin dimer (PB2). PB2 decreased the intrinsic fluorescence and surface hydrophobicity of PPA, indicating that an interaction occurred and complex formed. The binding process of complex was spontaneous and the main interaction was hydrophobic force...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
J D Turner, S W Dobson, R S Weller, G B Russell, D S Henshaw
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have concluded that i.v. dexamethasone can prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blockade. We hypothesized that a 4 mg dose would equally prolong the duration of psoas compartment blocks (PCBs) when compared with 8 mg, and that both doses would prolong the duration when compared with placebo. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-dependent, equivalency trial with 115 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Felix Freire, Berta Fernández, Antonio Rizzo, Ricardo Riguera, Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá
The calculated ECD spectrum (time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT) for small oligomers of poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPAs) show a very good match with the experimental spectra of the PPA polymers, particularly with the first Cotton band associated to the helical sense of the internal polyenic backbone. This has been proven with a series of PPAs representative of cis-cisoidal, cis-transoidal, compressed and stretched polyene backbones, with identical or opposite internal/external rotational senses and allows the prediction of the helical sense of the internal helix of a PPA directly from its CD spectra...
February 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Khaled Mohammad Cheha, Sawsan Omar Ali Dib, Marouf Mohammad Alhalabi
Context: Goals: To compare the efficacy of standard triple therapy with clarithromycin versus triple therapy with levofloxacin for treatment of Helicobacter pylori-positive infection in a referral hospital in Damascus, Syria. Design: pilot prospective open-label randomized controlled trial. Subjects and Methods: Eighty treatment-naive patients who tested positive for H. pylori gastric infection were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups with randomization ratio of 50/50...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
M Elashiry, M M Meghil, S Kalathingal, A Buchanan, R Elrefai, S Looney, M Rajendran, M Ochieng, N Young, A Elawady, R M Arce, K H Sandhage, C W Cutler
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is an infectious/inflammatory disease most often diagnosed by deepening of the gingival sulcus, which leads to periodontal pockets (PPs) conventional manual periodontal probing does not provide detailed information on the three-dimensional (3-D) nature of PPs. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether accurate 3-D analyses of the depths and volumes of calibrated PP analogues (PPAs) can be obtained by conventional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) coupled with novel radiopaque micro-particle fillers (described in the companion paper) injected into the PPAs...
January 29, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Vahid Rahimi, Jalil Hajizadeh, Arash Zibaee, Jalal Jalali Sendi
Plant lectins could reduce insect populations by imposing imbalances in biology and physiology. Here, an agglutinin was extracted from Polygonum persicaria L. (PPA; Polygonales: Polygonaceae) and its effects were investigated on life table parameters and antioxidant system of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PPA significantly changed demographic parameters showing adverse effects on age-stage survival rate (Sxj), age-specific survival rate (lx), age-specific fecundity rate (mx), age stage specific fecundity (fxj), and life expectancy (exj)...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Aaron M Meyer, Donna C Tippett, R Scott Turner, Rhonda B Friedman
This study examined the maintenance of anomia treatment effects in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Following baseline testing, a phonological treatment and an orthographic treatment were administered over the course of six months. The treatment stimuli consisted of nouns that were consistently named correctly at baseline (Prophylaxis items) and/or nouns that were consistently named incorrectly at baseline (Remediation items). Naming accuracy was measured at baseline, and it was measured at 1 month, 8 months, and 15 months post-treatment...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Yuxin Fang, Tae Yokoi, Natsuko Nagaoka, Kosei Shinohara, Yuka Onishi, Tomoka Ishida, Takeshi Yoshida, Xian Xu, Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To examine the progression pattern of myopic maculopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Highly myopic patients who had been followed up for 10 years or more. METHODS: Using fundus photographs, myopic features were differentiated according to Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) Study Group recommendations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Progression pattern of maculopathy...
January 19, 2018: Ophthalmology
Michael S Amato, George D Papandonatos, Sarah Cha, Xi Wang, Kang Zhao, Amy M Cohn, Jennifer L Pearson, Amanda L Graham
Introduction: User generated content (UGC) is a valuable but underutilized source of information about individuals who participate in online cessation interventions. This study represents a first effort to passively detect smoking status among members of an online cessation program using UGC. Methods: Secondary data analysis was performed on data from 826 participants in a web-based smoking cessation randomized trial that included an online community. Domain experts from the online community reviewed each post and comment written by participants and attempted to infer the author's smoking status at the time it was written...
January 22, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Thomas K Ni, Jessica S Elman, Dexter X Jin, Piyush B Gupta, Charlotte Kuperwasser
In cancer, tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are frequently truncated, causing their encoded products to be non-functional or dominant-negative. We previously showed that premature polyadenylation (pPA) of MAGI3 truncates the gene, switching its functional role from a TSG to a dominant-negative oncogene. Here we report that MAGI3 undergoes pPA at the intron immediately downstream of its large internal exon, which is normally highly modified by N6-methyladenosine (m6A). In breast cancer cells that upregulate MAGI3 pPA , m6A levels in the large internal exon of MAGI3 are significantly reduced compared to cells that do not express MAGI3 pPA ...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rajesh Kumar Jain, Shagun Goyal, Sushma N Bhat, Srinath Rao, Vivek Sakthidharan, Prasanna Kumar, Kannanaikal Rappayi Sajan, Sameer Kumar Jindal, Ghanshyam D Jindal
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of homeopathic medicines (in higher potencies) in normal subjects, Peripheral Pulse Analyzer (PPA) has been used to record physiologic variability parameters before and after administration of the medicine/placebo in 210 normal subjects. METHODS: Data have been acquired in seven rounds; placebo was administered in rounds 1 and 2 and medicine in potencies 6, 30, 200, 1 M, and 10 M was administered in rounds 3 to 7, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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