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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822936/influence-of-coupled-ocean-atmosphere-phenomena-on-the-greater-horn-of-africa-droughts-and-their-implications
#1
Freddie Mpelasoka, Joseph L Awange, Ayalsew Zerihun
Drought-like humanitarian crises in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) are increasing despite recent progress in drought monitoring and prediction efforts. Notwithstanding these efforts, there remain challenges stemming from uncertainty in drought prediction, and the inflexibility and limited buffering capacity of the recurrent impacted systems. The complexity of the interactions of ENSO, IOD, IPO and NAO, arguably remains the main source of uncertainty in drought prediction. To develop practical drought risk parameters that potentially can guide investment strategies and risk-informed planning, this study quantifies, drought characteristics that underpin drought impacts management...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822822/preventable-diagnostic-errors-in-fatal-cervical-spine-injuries-a-nationwide-register-based-study-from-1987-to-2010
#2
Tuomo Thesleff, Tero Niskakangas, Teemu Luoto, Grant L Iverson, Juha Öhman, Antti Ronkainen
BACKGROUND: Fall-induced injuries in patients are increasing in number and they often lead to serious consequences, such as cervical spine injuries (CSI). CSI diagnostics remain a challenge despite improved radiological services. PURPOSE: Our aim is to define the incidence and risk factors for diagnostic errors among patients who died following a CSI. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective death certificate-based study of the whole population of XXX...
August 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821271/high-speed-resistance-training-and-balance-training-for-people-with-knee-osteoarthritis-to-reduce-falls-risk-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Pazit Levinger, Jeremy Dunn, Nancy Bifera, Michael Butson, George Elias, Keith D Hill
BACKGROUND: The number of falls experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is almost double the number experienced by people with no OA. The neuromuscular elements required to arrest a fall are more impaired in people with knee OA compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. Therefore, these elements may need to be incorporated into an exercise intervention to reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study will be to examine the feasibility, safety and patient satisfaction of a high-speed resistance-training program, with and without balance exercises, in people with knee OA compared to a control group...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820524/patterns-of-hand-grip-strength-and-detection-of-strength-loss-in-patients-undergoing-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-feasibility-study
#4
Cindy A Sayre, Basia Belza, Kathleen Shannon Dorcy, Elizabeth Phelan, JoAnne D Whitney
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of measuring hand grip strength (HGS) daily in a population of recipients of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), to describe changes in strength measured by HGS, and to describe relationships between laboratory values (hematocrit, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count) and HGS.
. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, repeated measures, within subject.
. SETTING: Inpatient units at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820364/patterns-of-c-2-fracture-in-the-elderly-comparison-of-etiology-treatment-and-mortality-among-specific-fracture-types
#5
Ingrid Radovanovic, Jennifer C Urquhart, Parham Rasoulinejad, Kevin R Gurr, Fawaz Siddiqi, Christopher S Bailey
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have focused on Type II odontoid fractures and have failed to report on the effect of other C-2 fracture types on treatment and outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare patient characteristics, cause of injury, predisposing factors to fracture, treatments, and mortality rates among C-2 fracture types in a cohort of elderly patients 70 years of age and older. METHODS A retrospective cohort study design was used. Patients who sustained a C-2 fracture between 2002 and 2011 and who were admitted to the authors' Level 1 trauma center were identified using the Discharge Abstract Database and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) code S12...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#6
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818561/the-rise-and-fall-of-impulse-control-behavior-disorders
#7
Giovanni Cossu, Roberta Rinaldi, Carlo Colosimo
INTRODUCTION: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are psychiatric disorders characterized by the failure to resist an impulse or by the temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or to others. METHODS: ICDs, including pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating and shopping, can occur as a complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) together with other behavioral disorders, including dopamine dysregulation syndrome. This review is based on a literature search updated to May 2017, focusing on the epidemiology, clinical features, and therapeutic options of ICDs associated with PD...
August 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818466/sink-or-swim-vertical-movement-and-nutrient-storage-in-phytoplankton
#8
James P Grover
A simulation model of vertically migrating phytoplankton is presented, using a Lagrangian, individual-based computational approach. Algal cells acquire and store nutrient at the bottom of the habitat, using stored nutrient to grow while in shallower waters. Stored nutrient also governs movement: cells sink when their nutrient quota falls below a threshold; otherwise they rise (or at least sink more slowly). Although the bottom of the habitat provides the growth-limiting nutrient, it also entails a risk of mortality...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817825/muscle-strength-and-muscle-mass-in-older-patients-during-hospitalization-the-empower-study
#9
Jeanine M Van Ancum, Kira Scheerman, Vincent D Pierik, Siger T Numans, Sjors Verlaan, Hanne E Smeenk, Monique Slee-Valentijn, Roeliene C Kruizinga, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. METHODS: The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015...
August 18, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#10
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816091/mobile-three-dimensional-visualisation-technologies-for-clinician-led-fall-prevention-assessments
#11
Julian Hamm, Arthur G Money, Anita Atwal, Gheorghita Ghinea
The assistive equipment provision process is routinely carried out with patients to mitigate fall risk factors via the fitment of assistive equipment within the home. However, currently, over 50% of assistive equipment is abandoned by the patients due to poor fit between the patient and the assistive equipment. This paper explores clinician perceptions of an early stage three-dimensional measurement aid prototype, which provides enhanced assistive equipment provision process guidance to clinicians. Ten occupational therapists trialled the three-dimensional measurement aid prototype application; think-aloud and semi-structured interview data was collected...
August 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815160/the-burden-of-spine-fractures-in-india-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#12
Ilyas S Aleem, Dylan DeMarco, Brian Drew, Parag Sancheti, Vijay Shetty, Mandeep Dhillon, Clary J Foote, Mohit Bhandari
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the characteristics of patients sustaining spinal trauma in India and (2) to explore the association between patient or injury characteristics and outcomes after spinal trauma. METHODS: In affiliation with the ongoing INternational ORthopaedic MUlticentre Study (INORMUS), 192 patients with spinal injuries were recruited during an 8-week period (November 2011 to June 2012) from 14 hospitals in India and followed for 30-days...
June 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814114/cross-cultural-validation-of-the-falls-efficacy-scale-international-to-assess-concerns-about-falls-among-hungarian-community-living-older-people
#13
Éva Kovács, Franciska Rozs, Anna Petridisz, Réka Erdős, Eszter Majercsik
PURPOSE: The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a reliable and valid tool for assessing concerns about falling. Our aims were to translate, culturally adapt, and evaluate the main psychometric characteristics (internal consistency, reproducibility, and convergent construct validity) of the Hungarian version of the FES-I on a sample of community-living older adults. METHODS: After translating and culturally adapting the original scale, 165 community-living older adults (aged 60 years or over) participated in the measurements and filled in the questionnaire...
August 17, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814042/portable-haptic-device-for-lower-limb-amputee-gait-feedback-assessing-static-and-dynamic-perceptibility
#14
M A B Husman, H F Maqbool, M I Awad, A A Dehghani-Sanij
Loss of joints and severed sensory pathway cause reduced mobility capabilities in lower limb amputees. Although prosthetic devices attempt to restore normal mobility functions, lack of awareness and control of limb placement increase the risk of falling and causing amputee to have high level of visual dependency. Haptic feedback can serve as a cue for gait events during ambulation thus providing sense of awareness of the limb position. This paper presents a wireless wearable skin stretch haptic device to be fitted around the thigh region...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813866/a-single-session-of-perturbation-based-gait-training-with-the-a-tpad-improves-dynamic-stability-in-healthy-young-subjects
#15
Dario Martelli, Jiyeon Kang, Sunil K Agrawal
Gait and balance disorders are among the most common causes of falls in older adults. Most falls occur as a result of unexpected hazards while walking. In order to improve the effectiveness of current fall-prevention programs, new balance training paradigms aim to strengthen the control of the compensatory responses required after external perturbations. The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptions of reactive and proactive strategies to control stability after repeated exposures to waist-pull perturbations delivered while walking...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813845/an-assistance-device-to-help-people-with-trunk-impairment-maintain-posture
#16
Tomoka Ogura, Taku Itami, Ken'ichi Yano, Ichidai Mori, Kazuhiro Kameda
People with trunk impairment cannot lean forward because of the dysfunction of the trunk resulting from events such as cervical cord injury (CCI). It is therefore difficult for such people to work at a table because they may easily fall from their wheelchair, and it is also hard for them to return to their original position. This limits the activities of daily living (ADLs) of people with trunk impairment. These problems can be solved to some extent with equipment such as a wheelchair belt or a spinal orthosis that can help the person to maintain his or her posture...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#17
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812707/the-rise-and-fall-of-malaria-under-land-use-change-in-frontier-regions
#18
Andres Baeza, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Andrew P Dobson, Mercedes Pascual
Land-use change is the main force behind ecological and social change in many countries around the globe; it is primarily driven by resource needs and external economic incentives. Concomitantly, transformations of the land are the main drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of malaria. An understanding of malaria population dynamics in transforming landscapes is lacking, despite its relevance for developmental and public health policies. We develop a mathematical model that couples malaria epidemiology with the socio-economic and demographic processes that occur in a landscape undergoing land-use change...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812286/occupational-exposures-and-health-outcomes-among-immigrants-in-the-usa
#19
REVIEW
Sally C Moyce, Marc Schenker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immigrants experience higher rates of occupational injury and fatality than their native-born counterparts. This review summarizes the current data related to occupational/environmental exposures and explores potential reasons for the disparities. RECENT FINDINGS: Immigrant workers are employed in sectors that expose them to dangerous working conditions. They experience increased risk for exposure to heat, pesticides, hazardous chemicals, and cleaning agents, as well as physical hazards such as falls...
August 15, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811910/falls-in-scottish-homicide-lessons-for-homicide-reduction-in-mental-health-patients
#20
EDITORIAL
John H M Crichton
The sustained fall in Scottish homicide rates follows crime reduction measures informed by the epidemiology of suicide. The violence reduction unit targeted young men carrying knives in public. The restriction of weapons immediately to hand appears to have caused an absolute fall in homicide just as suicide reduction was observed following changes to domestic gas supply. Further homicide reduction may be accomplished in the domestic setting with targeted changes in kitchen knife design in home safety planning for high-risk households...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
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