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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049279/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-at-the-end-of-a-national-epidemic-guinea-august-2015
#1
Mohamed F Jalloh, Susan J Robinson, Jamaica Corker, Wenshu Li, Kathleen Irwin, Alpha M Barry, Paulyne Ngalame Ntuba, Alpha A Diallo, Mohammad B Jalloh, James Nyuma, Musa Sellu, Amanda VanSteelandt, Megan Ramsden, LaRee Tracy, Pratima L Raghunathan, John T Redd, Lise Martel, Barbara Marston, Rebecca Bunnell
Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré)...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049017/legionnaires-disease-outbreaks-and-cooling-towers-new-york-city-new-york-usa
#2
Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Dan Cimini, Sharon Balter, Christopher Boyd, Lisa Alleyne, Renee Stewart, Natasha McIntosh, Andrea Econome, Ying Lin, Inessa Rubinstein, Teresa Passaretti, Anna Kidney, Pascal Lapierre, Daniel Kass, Jay K Varma
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease in the United States has been increasing since 2000. Outbreaks and clusters are associated with decorative, recreational, domestic, and industrial water systems, with the largest outbreaks being caused by cooling towers. Since 2006, 6 community-associated Legionnaires' disease outbreaks have occurred in New York City, resulting in 213 cases and 18 deaths. Three outbreaks occurred in 2015, including the largest on record (138 cases). Three outbreaks were linked to cooling towers by molecular comparison of human and environmental Legionella isolates, and the sources for the other 3 outbreaks were undetermined...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048988/developmental-strategy-for-a-new-group-a-meningococcalconjugate-vaccine-menafrivac-r
#3
Prasad S Kulkarni, Suresh S Jadhav, F Marc LaForce
Until recently, periodic Group A meningococcal meningitis outbreaks were a major public health problem in the sub-Saharan Africa. In 2001, the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO) and PATH, a Seattle-based NGO, and the Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd (SIIPL) initiated discussions aimed at establishing a collaborationto develop a Group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for this unmet medical need. Over the next 8 years the partnership made countless strategic decisions about product characteristics, raw materials, potential target populations, geographic prioritization and affordability of the vaccine to name a few...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048984/development-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-vaccines-advances-and-challenges
#4
Heeyoun Cho, Jean-Louis Excler, Jerome H Kim, In-Kyu Yoon
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen with the potential to pose a threat to global public health. Sporadic cases and outbreaks continue to be reported in the Middle East, and case fatality rates remain high at approximately 36% globally. No specific preventive or therapeutic countermeasures currently exist. A safe and effective vaccine could play an important role in protecting against the threat from MERS-CoV. This review discusses human vaccine candidates currently under development, and explores viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology and immunology relevant to MERS-CoV vaccine development...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048293/long-term-viruria-in-zika-virus-infected-pregnant-women-brazil-2016
#5
Ana Carolina B Terzian, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Rafael Alves da Silva, Denise Cristina Mós Vaz-Oliani, Antonio Hélio Oliani, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Paula Rahal, Maurício L Nogueira
During the 2016 Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, we detected Zika virus RNA in urine samples collected from Zika virus-positive pregnant women during different stages of pregnancy. Women had positive and negative intervals of viruria; 3 newborns had adverse outcomes. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between viruria and outcomes for newborns.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048289/outbreak-of-zika-virus-infections-dominica-2016
#6
Sadie J Ryan, Colin J Carlson, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Moory M Romero, Shelly-Ann Cox, Roché Mahon, Adrian Trotman, Sylvester St Ville, Shalauddin Ahmed
In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048286/paracoccidioidomycosis-after-highway-construction-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#7
Antonio C Francesconi do Valle, Priscila Marques de Macedo, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Anselmo R Romão, Marcia Dos Santos Lazéra, Bodo Wanke
Transmission of Paracoccidioides spp. fungi to humans is usually related to manipulation of soil. Rural workers are the most affected group. We report an outbreak of paracoccidioidomycosis after deforestation and massive earth removal during construction of a highway in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Extensive environmental disturbances might be involved in fungal transmission.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048201/hygienic-shortcomings-of-frozen-dessert-freezing-equipment-and-fate-of-listeria-monocytogenes-on-ice-cream-soiled-stainless-steel
#8
A Inuwa, A Lunt, C Czuprynski, G Miller, S A Rankin
Although frozen dairy desserts have a strong record of safety, recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to ice creams have brought new attention to this industry. There is concern that small-scale frozen dessert equipment may not comply with or be reviewed against published comprehensive design and construction sanitation specifications (National Sanitation Foundation or 3-A sanitary standards). Equipment sanitary design issues may result in reduced efficacy of cleaning and sanitation, thus increasing the likelihood of postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047425/legionnaires-disease-outbreak-caused-by-endemic-strain-of-legionella-pneumophila-new-york-new-york-usa-2015
#9
Pascal Lapierre, Elizabeth Nazarian, Yan Zhu, Danielle Wroblewski, Amy Saylors, Teresa Passaretti, Scott Hughes, Anthony Tran, Ying Lin, John Kornblum, Shatavia S Morrison, Jeffrey W Mercante, Robert Fitzhenry, Don Weiss, Brian H Raphael, Jay K Varma, Howard A Zucker, Jennifer L Rakeman, Kimberlee A Musser
During the summer of 2015, New York, New York, USA, had one of the largest and deadliest outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the history of the United States. A total of 138 cases and 16 deaths were linked to a single cooling tower in the South Bronx. Analysis of environmental samples and clinical isolates showed that sporadic cases of legionellosis before, during, and after the outbreak could be traced to a slowly evolving, single-ancestor strain. Detection of an ostensibly virulent Legionella strain endemic to the Bronx community suggests potential risk for future cases of legionellosis in the area...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047412/wetland-characteristics-linked-to-broad-scale-patterns-in-culiseta-melanura-abundance-and-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#10
Nicholas K Skaff, Philip M Armstrong, Theodore G Andreadis, Kendra S Cheruvelil
BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an expanding mosquito-borne threat to humans and domestic animal populations in the northeastern United States. Outbreaks of EEEV are challenging to predict due to spatial and temporal uncertainty in the abundance and viral infection of Cs. melanura, the principal enzootic vector. EEEV activity may be closely linked to wetlands because they provide essential habitat for mosquito vectors and avian reservoir hosts. However, wetlands are not homogeneous and can vary by vegetation, connectivity, size, and inundation patterns...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047373/correction-to-a-large-and-persistent-outbreak-of-typhoid-fever-caused-by-consuming-contaminated-water-and-street-vended-beverages-kampala-uganda-january-june-2015
#11
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Lilian Bulage, Fred Nsubuga, Gerald Pande, David Were Oguttu, Richardson Mafigiri, Christine Kihembo, Benon Kwesiga, Ben Masiira, Allen Eva Okullo, Henry Kajumbula, Joseph Kb Matovu, Issa Makumbi, Milton Wetaka, Sam Kasozi, Simon Kyazze, Melissa Dahlke, Peter Hughes, Juliet Nsimire Sendagala, Monica Musenero, Immaculate Nabukenya, Vincent R Hill, Eric Mintz, Janell Routh, Gerardo Gómez, Amelia Bicknese, Bao-Ping Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047019/challenges-for-nationwide-vaccine-delivery-in-african-countries
#12
Mario Songane
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046249/humoral-immunity-to-mumps-in-a-highly-vaccinated-population-in-taiwan
#13
Yu-Huai Ho, Chen-Chi Tsai, Ya-Wen Tsai, Yu-Chiang Wang, Tzou-Yien Lin, De-Jen Lee, Chih-Jung Chen
BACKGROUND: A resurgence of mumps was noted recently and outbreaks were increasingly reported in populations with high vaccine coverage. We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence to mumps in Taiwan, where a two-dose childhood mumps-containing vaccine program, with a high coverage rate, had been implemented for >20 years. METHODS: The anti-mumps IgG was determined in 3552 participants of all ages in Taiwan. The age-specific seropositivity rates were calculated and the sociodemographic variables associated with the seronegative sera were analyzed with a logistic regression method...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045705/outbreak-and-eradication-of-tropical-rat-mite-acari-macronyssidae-in-a-european-animal-facility
#14
Yeray Brito-Casillas, Mercedes Díaz-Sarmiento, Moisés García-Arencibia, Cristina Carranza, Antonio Castrillo, Leandro Fernández-Pérez, Manuel Zumbado-Peña, Jorge F González, Ana M Wägner, David Florin
A zoonotic, opportunistic out-break of tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti [Acari: Macronyssidae; Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)] in an animal facility, is described. Immunocompetent mice [Mus musculus (Linnaeus)] and rat [Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout)] strains in a conventional health status facility suffered from scratching and allopecia and staff members suffered from pruritic, erythemato-papular lesions, presumed to be allergic in origin. O. bacoti was identified and treatment with a 0.1% ivermectin solution led to its complete erradication...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045595/performance-of-apanteles-hemara-hymenoptera-braconidae-on-two-amaranth-leaf-webbers-spoladea-recurvalis-and-udea-ferrugalis-lepidoptera-crambidae
#15
S T O Othim, K M Agbodzavu, R Kahuthia-Gathu, K S Akutse, S Muchemi, S Ekesi, K K M Fiaboe
Amaranth is an African indigenous vegetable that is gaining popularity due to its nutritional, medicinal, and economic values. In East Africa, frequent outbreaks of Lepidopteran leaf-webbers, Spoladea recurvalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Udea ferrugalis Hübner (1976) are reported on this crop, causing up to 100% foliage loss. The larval endoparasitoid Apanteles hemara Nixon is also frequently found associated with these pests during the outbreaks, however, its performance on both pests has never been documented...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044371/nosocomial-amplification-of-mers-coronavirus-in-south-korea-2015
#16
Maimuna S Majumder, John S Brownstein, Stan N Finkelstein, Richard C Larson, Lydia Bourouiba
Background: Nosocomial amplification resulted in nearly 200 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) during the 2015 South Korean MERS-coronavirus outbreak. It remains unclear whether certain types of cases were more likely to cause secondary infections than others, and if so, why. Methods: Publicly available demographic and transmission network data for all cases were collected from the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between demographic characteristics and the likelihood of human-to-human transmission...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044149/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-test-for-zika-virus-infection-by-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#17
Yohei Kurosaki, Danyelly Bruneska Gondim Martins, Mayuko Kimura, Andriu Dos Santos Catena, Maria Amélia Carlos Souto Maior Borba, Sandra da Silva Mattos, Haruka Abe, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Jiro Yasuda
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection aroused global concern. Here, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using a portable device for the detection of ZIKV. The assay specifically detected ZIKV strains of both Asian and African genotypes without cross-reactivity with other arboviruses, including Dengue and Chikungunya viruses...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044045/emergence-of-carp-edema-virus-cev-and-its-significance-to-european-common-carp-and-koi-cyprinus-carpio
#18
REVIEW
K Way, O Haenen, D Stone, M Adamek, S M Bergmann, L Bigarré, N Diserens, M El-Matbouli, M C Gjessing, V Jung-Schroers, E Leguay, M Matras, N J Olesen, V Panzarin, V Piačková, A Toffan, N Vendramin, T Vesel, T Waltzek
Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043960/surveillance-of-zika-virus-infection-in-the-eu-eea-june-2015-to-january-2017
#19
G Spiteri, B Sudre, A Septfons, J Beauté, On Behalf Of The European Zika Surveillance Network
Surveillance of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) was implemented in 2016 in response to the large outbreak reported in the Americas in 2015 associated with an increased number of infants born with microcephaly. Between June 2015 and January 2017, 21 EU/EEA countries reported 2,133 confirmed cases of ZIKV infection, of whom 106 were pregnant women. Cases infected in the Caribbean constituted 71% of reported cases. Almost all cases (99%) were most probably infected by mosquito bite during travel outside continental Europe, while only 1% were transmitted sexually...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043944/courting-apocalypse-creating-a-zombie-themed-evidence-based-medicine-game
#20
Amy E Blevins, Elizabeth Kiscaden, Jason Bengtson
In 2015, two librarians at the Hardin Library for the Health Sciences at the University of Iowa turned their dreams into a reality and secured funding to build a zombie-themed evidence-based medicine game. The game features a "choose your own adventure" style that takes students through a scenario where a disease outbreak is taking place and a resident is asked to use evidence-based medicine skills to select a screening and diagnostic tool to use on potentially infected patients. Feedback on the game has been positive, and future plans include building additional modules on therapy, harm, and prognosis...
October 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
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