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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471372/a-multistate-outbreak-of-human-salmonella-agona-infections-associated-with-consumption-of-fresh-whole-papayas-imported-from-mexico-united-states-2011
#1
Adamma Mba-Jonas, Wright Culpepper, Thomas Hill, Venessa Cantu, Julie Loera, Julie Borders, Lori Saathoff-Huber, Johnson Nsubuga, Ingrid Zambrana, Shannon Dalton, Ian Williams, Karen P Neil
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes ~1 million food-borne infections annually in the United States. We began investigating a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Agona infections in April 2011. Methods: A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Agona occurring between 1 January and 25 August 2011. We developed hypotheses through iterative interviews. Product distribution analyses and traceback investigations were conducted...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470945/porcine-circovirus-2-in-the-north-eastern-region-of-india-disease-prevalence-and-genetic-variation-among-the-isolates-from-areas-of-intensive-pig-rearing
#2
Priyanka Mukherjee, Amarjit Karam, Luit Barkalita, Prabodh Borah, Amit Kr Chakraborty, Samir Das, Kekungo Puro, Rajkumari Sanjukta, Sandeep Ghatak, Ingudam Shakuntala, Ram Gopal Laha, Arnab Sen, Indu Sharma
Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) is considered as a major threat to the piggery sector in India. To ascertain the epidemiological status and infection level of PCV2, a pilot study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of PCV2 in swine population by ELISA and PCR in the interior and border areas of Meghalaya which includes the area where accessibility and medical aid is a rare phenomenon. A total of 249 serum samples were collected from October 2014 to February 2016 from three divisions of Meghalaya: Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills Divisions...
February 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470509/co-circulation-of-all-the-four-dengue-virus-serotypes-and-detection-of-a-novel-clade-of-denv-4-genotype-i-virus-in-pune-india-during-2016-season
#3
Shubham Shrivastava, Divya Tiraki, Arundhati Diwan, Sanjay K Lalwani, Meera Modak, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya A Arankalle
Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In recent years, India has reported increased incidences of concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV). In the present study, we have characterized DENV circulating during a single season of 2016 in Pune, India. A total of 64 serum samples from NS1 ELISA positive dengue patients were used for PCR amplification of CprM region of the viral genome and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis documented circulation of all the four DENV serotypes with predominance of DENV-2 (40...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470491/emergence-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-subspecies-pneumoniae-as-a-cause-of-septicaemia-in-pigs-in-england
#4
Cornelia A Bidewell, Susanna M Williamson, Jon Rogers, Yue Tang, Richard J Ellis, Liljana Petrovska, Manal AbuOun
Between 2011 and 2014 outbreaks of septicaemia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae (Kpp) were diagnosed on thirteen English pig farms. The most consistent features were rapid deaths of pigs from ten-days-old to weaning, seasonal occurrence (May to September), affected farms being outdoor breeding herds and the location of all but one of the outbreaks in the East Anglia region in Eastern England. Molecular characterisation of the outbreak Kpp isolates showed that by multilocus sequencing all were sequence type 25 (ST25) of K2 capsular type with a combination of a 4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470107/leptospira-genomospecies-and-sequence-type-prevalence-in-small-mammal-populations-in-germany
#5
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469801/undisturbed-characteristic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-outbreak
#6
Lainee S Goettsche, Karolyn A Wanat
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted disease that typically presents with focal erosions or small vesicles on an erythematous base.Herein, a case is described in which a 42-year old man experienced a genital HSV-2 outbreak after sustaining a spinal cord injury. No typical prodromal symptomswere experienced; therefore the vesicular lesions remained completely intact, granting an unusual opportunity to visualize herpetic infection in its most classic morphology.
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469689/genomic-and-structural-features-of-the-yellow-fever-virus-from-the-2016-2017-brazilian-outbreak
#7
Mariela Martínez Gómez, Filipe Vieira Santos de Abreu, Alexandre Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Iasmim Silva de Mello, Marta Pereira Santos, Ieda Pereira Ribeiro, Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito, Rafaella Moraes de Miranda, Marcia Gonçalves de Castro, Mario Sergio Ribeiro, Roberto da Costa Laterrière Junior, Shirlei Ferreira Aguiar, Guilherme Louzada Silva Meira, Deborah Antunes, Pedro Henrique Monteiro Torres, Daiana Mir, Ana Carolina Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina Ramos Guimarães, Ernesto Raul Caffarena, Gonzalo Bello, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Myrna Cristina Bonaldo
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469352/-survey-of-epidemic-status-of-paragonimiasis-in-western-mountainous-areas-in-hubei-province
#8
Dong Xiao-Rong, Zhang Hua-Xun, Cao Mu-Min, Wu Dong-Ni, Xia Jing
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of paragonimiasis epidemic in western mountain areas in Hubei Province. METHODS: Four counties (cities) of Western Hubei Province (Xingshan, Enshi, Yunxi, Baokang) were selected as the investigation sites for active surveillance. Crabs were captured and the metacercariae of Paragonimus were detected. Meanwhile, the blood samples were collected from the residents in the surveillance sites and the unique IgG and IgM antibodies against Paragonimus in the sera were detected by ELISA...
July 5, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468650/hepatitis-e-virus-key-points-for-the-clinical-haematologist
#9
REVIEW
Joanne O'Gorman, Áine Burke, Niamh O'Flaherty
In recent years there has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Once classically described as an acute hepatitis associated with waterborne outbreaks in areas of poor sanitation, HEV is now recognised to be endemic in Europe and is probably zoonotic in origin. Evidence for transfusion-transmitted HEV has prompted the introduction of blood donor screening in a number of countries, but the risk to the haematology patient from food sources remains...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468165/a-review-of-african-swine-fever-and-the-potential-for-introduction-into-the-united-states-and-the-possibility-of-subsequent-establishment-in-feral-swine-and-native-ticks
#10
REVIEW
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468143/metagenomic-characterization-of-the-human-intestinal-microbiota-in-fecal-samples-from-stec-infected-patients
#11
Federica Gigliucci, F A Bastiaan von Meijenfeldt, Arnold Knijn, Valeria Michelacci, Gaia Scavia, Fabio Minelli, Bas E Dutilh, Hamideh M Ahmad, Gerwin C Raangs, Alex W Friedrich, John W A Rossen, Stefano Morabito
The human intestinal microbiota is a homeostatic ecosystem with a remarkable impact on human health and the disruption of this equilibrium leads to an increased susceptibility to infection by numerous pathogens. In this study, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and two different bioinformatic approaches, based on mapping of the reads onto databases and on the reconstruction of putative draft genomes, to investigate possible changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in samples from patients with Shiga Toxin-producing E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468080/an-outbreak-of-classical-swine-fever-in-pigs-in-bangladesh-2015
#12
Shamim Sarkar, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Emily S Gurley, Rashedul Hasan, Mohammed Z Rahman
In a group of 22 healthy pigs aged between 4 and 6 months, 2 pigs became ill with high fever, complete anorexia, cough and abnormal swaying movements on 22 June 2015. One of them died on June 24 and the second died on July 3. Shortly after, the remaining pigs also fell ill and died from the same illness by 10 August 2015. We investigated the aetiology, epidemiological and clinical features of the outbreak. We recorded the clinical signs and symptoms for each pig with the date of onset of illness. Veterinarians conducted post-mortem examinations on the 12 dead pigs, they collected tissue samples from the dead pigs and placed them in a tube containing 1 mL of nucleic acid extraction buffer (lysis buffer)...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467996/strategic-approaches-towards-pertussis-control-in-oman
#13
Salah T Al Awaidy
Objectives: Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that causes severe and serious symptoms among infants and young children with fatalities observed in early infancy. The disease is milder among adolescents and adults. In this paper, we describe the progress made towards pertussis control in Oman and the challenges ahead to achieve control and maintain it. Methods: Pertussis data were collected between 1981 and 2015 from various sources including Annual Health Reports, annual Ministry of Health progress reports, and Community Health and Diseases Surveillance Newsletter, which provided information for the calculation of different pertussis indicators...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467743/genotypic-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-cryptococcus-gattii-vgii-clinical-isolates-and-its-impact-on-virulence
#14
Vanessa A Barcellos, Liline M S Martins, Alide C L Fontes, Julia C V Reuwsaat, Eamim D Squizani, Glauber R de Sousa Araújo, Susana Frases, Charley C Staats, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein
The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467312/fibronectin-facilitates-ev71-infection-by-mediating-its-entry
#15
Qiao-Qiao He, Sheng Ren, Zhang-Chuan Xia, Zhi-Kui Cheng, Nan-Fang Peng, Ying Zhu
Fibronectin (FN) is a high molecular weight extracellular matrix protein that contains RGDS motif, which is required to bind to integrins. Synthetic RGDS peptides have been reported to compete with FN to bind to the cell surface and inhibit the function of FN. Here, we identified that synthetic RGDS peptides significantly inhibit human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in cell cultures. In addition, mice treated with RGDS peptides and infected with EV71 had a significantly higher survival rate and a lower viral load than the control group...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467193/adaptation-of-the-amoebae-plate-test-to-recover-legionella-strains-from-clinical-samples
#16
G Descours, H Hannetel, J V Reynaud, A G Ranc, L Beraud, C Kolenda, C Campese, G Lina, C Ginevra, S Jarraud
The isolation of Legionella from respiratory samples is the gold standard for Legionnaires' disease (LD) diagnosis and enables epidemiological studies and outbreak investigations. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate the performance of an amoebic coculture procedure (the amoebae plate test, APT) to the recovery of Legionella strains from respiratory samples, in comparison with axenic culture and a liquid-based amoebic coculture (LAC). Axenic culture, LAC, and APT were prospectively performed on 133 respiratory samples from patients with LD...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467055/molecular-serogrouping-of-escherichia-coli
#17
Chitrita DebRoy, Pina M Fratamico, Elisabeth Roberts
O-antigens present on the surface of Escherichia coli provide antigenic specificity for the strain and are the main components for O-serogroup designation. Serotyping using O-group-specific antisera for the identification of E. coli O-serogroups has been traditionally the gold-standard for distinguishing E. coli strains. Knowledge of the O-group is important for determining pathogenic lineage, classifying E. coli for epidemiological studies, for determining virulence, and for tracing outbreaks of diseases and sources of infection...
February 22, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466953/the-association-between-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-disease-a-meta-analysis
#18
Marina W Kim, Ben K Greenfield, Robert E Snyder, Craig M Steinmaus, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is a well-defined risk factor for disease in hospitals, which can range from minor skin infections to severe, systemic diseases. However, the generalizability of this finding has not been thoroughly investigated outside of the hospital environment. We aimed to assess the role of S. aureus colonization as a risk factor for disease in the community. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies and searched PubMed for articles published between December 1979 and May 23, 2016...
February 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465708/integration-of-contact-tracing-and-phylogenetics-in-an-investigation-of-acute-hiv-infection
#19
Ann M Dennis, Dana K Pasquale, Rachael Billock, Steve Beagle, Victoria Mobley, Anna Cope, JoAnn Kuruc, Joseph Sebastian, Charles Walworth, Peter A Leone
BACKGROUND: The integration of traditional contact tracing with HIV sequence analyses offers opportunities to mitigate some of barriers to effective network construction. We utilized combined analyses during an outbreak investigation of spatiotemporally clustered acute HIV infections to evaluate if the observed clustering was the product of a single outbreak. METHODS: We investigated acute and recent HIV index cases reported in North Carolina from 2013-2014 and their reported contacts...
September 22, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465687/molecular-characterization-of-markers-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-identified-from-residual-clinical-samples
#20
Johan H Melendez, Justin Hardick, Mathilda Barnes, Perry Barnes, Christopher D Geddes, Charlotte A Gaydos
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is a major public health concern. In the era of nucleic acid amplifications tests (NAATs), rapid and accurate molecular approaches are needed to help increase surveillance, guide antimicrobial stewardship, and prevent outbreaks. METHODS: Residual urethral swabs, collected prospectively in the Baltimore City Health Department during a six-month period, were analyzed by real-time PCR assays for NG DNA and AMR determinants to fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs)...
November 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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