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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734191/evolutionary-dynamics-of-recent-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-epidemic-in-china-during-2013-2014
#1
Jingyue Bao, Qinghua Wang, Lin Li, Chunju Liu, Zhicheng Zhang, Jinming Li, Shujuan Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Zhiliang Wang
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), in sheep and goats which has been considered as a serious threat to the local economy in Africa and Asia. However, the in-depth evolutionary dynamics of PPRV during an epidemic is not well understood. We conducted phylogenetic analysis on genomic sequences of 25 PPRV strains from China 2013-2014 outbreaks. All these strains clustered into a novel clade in lineage 4. An evolutionary rate of 2.61 × 10(-6) nucleotide substitutions per site per day was estimated, dating the most recent common ancestor of PPRV China 2013-2014 strains to early August 2013...
July 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732304/outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-pt14b-gastroenteritis-at-a-restaurant-in-england-the-use-of-molecular-typing-to-achieve-a-successful-prosecution
#2
C Chatt, D Nicholds-Trainor, A Scrivener, S Suleman, M Harvey, T Dallman, J Hawker, B Sibal
OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b in people who had eaten at a restaurant, and the investigation and subsequent prosecution of the food business operator (FBO). STUDY DESIGN: The local health protection team and environmental health department formed an outbreak control team to investigate the outbreak. METHODS: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken...
July 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732070/characterization-of-human-enterovirus71-virus-like-particles-used-for-vaccine-antigens
#3
Dandan Zhao, Bo Sun, Shiyang Sun, Bin Fu, Chuntian Liu, Dawei Liu, Yanfei Chu, Youlei Ma, Lu Bai, Yongge Wu, Yan Zhou, Weiheng Su, Ali Hou, Linjun Cai, Fei Xu, Wei Kong, Chunlai Jiang
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative pathogen of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and has caused outbreaks with significant mortality among young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Towards developing a vaccine for this disease, we have expressed and purified EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), which resemble the authentic virus in appearance, capsid structure and protein sequence, from insect cells (Sf9) using a multistep chromatography process. We demonstrated intracellular localization of the VLPs in host cells by in situ immunogold detection, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732038/analysis-of-patient-data-from-laboratories-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-liberia-april-2014-to-march-2015
#4
Yuki Furuse, Mosoka Fallah, Hitoshi Oshitani, Ling Kituyi, Nuha Mahmoud, Emmanuel Musa, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert Nyenswah, Bernice Dahn, Luke Bawo
An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia began in March 2014 and ended in January 2016. Epidemiological information on the EVD cases was collected and managed nationally; however, collection and management of the data were challenging at the time because surveillance and reporting systems malfunctioned during the outbreak. EVD diagnostic laboratories, however, were able to register basic demographic and clinical information of patients more systematically. Here we present data on 16,370 laboratory samples that were tested between April 4, 2014 and March 29, 2015...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731729/surveillance-snapshot-norovirus-outbreaks-among-military-forces-2008-2016
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731728/brief-report-laboratory-characterization-of-noroviruses-identified-in-specimens-from-military-health-system-beneficiaries-during-an-outbreak-in-germany-2016-2017
#6
Nellie D Darling, Daniela E Poss, Krista M Brooks, Jennifer A Steele, Koya C Allen, Paul Cf Graf, Rodney L Coldren, Daniel B Pederson, Alexander K Kayatani, Stic Harris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731409/assessment-of-the-probability-of-autochthonous-transmission-of-chikungunya-virus-in-canada-under-recent-and-projected-climate-change
#7
Victoria Ng, Aamir Fazil, Philippe Gachon, Guillaume Deuymes, Milka Radojević, Mariola Mascarenhas, Sophiya Garasia, Michael A Johansson, Nicholas H Ogden
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging pathogen transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The ongoing Caribbean outbreak is of concern due to the potential for infected travelers to spread the virus to countries where vectors are present and the population is susceptible. Although there has been no autochthonous transmission of CHIKV in Canada, there is concern that both Ae. albopictus and CHIKV will become established, particularly under projected climate change...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730555/intermittent-versus-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-acute-methanol-poisoning-comparison-of-clinical-effectiveness-in-mass-poisoning-outbreaks
#8
Sergey Zakharov, Jan Rulisek, Olga Nurieva, Katerina Kotikova, Tomas Navratil, Martin Komarc, Daniela Pelclova, Knut Erik Hovda
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) is the modality of choice in the extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) of acute methanol poisoning. However, the comparative clinical effectiveness of intermittent versus continuous modalities (CRRT) is unknown. During an outbreak of mass methanol poisoning, we therefore studied the effect of IHD versus CRRT on mortality and the prevalence of visual/central nervous system (CNS) sequelae in survivors. METHODS: The study was designed as prospective observational cohort study...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729922/meningococcal-disease-outbreak-related-to-the-world-scout-jamboree-in-japan-2015
#9
Mizue Kanai, Hajime Kamiya, Alison Smith-Palmer, Hideyuki Takahashi, Yushi Hachisu, Munehisa Fukusumi, Takehito Saitoh, Makoto Ohnishi, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Kazunori Oishi
PROBLEM: Six invasive meningococcal disease cases occurred among Scottish and Swedish nationals associated with the World Scout Jamboree (WSJ), an international mass gathering, held in Japan. The index case developed symptoms while returning home. The strains from all six cases were identical and seldom seen in Japan. CONTEXT: Over 33 000 participants from 155 countries attended WSJ. At the Jamboree site, participants of the North of Scotland's and Sweden's units camped within the same subcamp and kept the same schedule of events...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729921/an-outbreak-of-foodborne-norovirus-gastroenteritis-linked-to-a-restaurant-in-melbourne-australia-2014
#10
Shaun P Coutts, Kaye Sturge, Karin Lalor, John A Marshall, Leesa D Bruggink, Nela Subasinghe, Marion Easton
INTRODUCTION: In May 2014 an outbreak of norovirus occurred among patrons of a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia. Investigations were conducted to identify the infectious agent, mode of transmission and source of illness, and to implement controls to prevent further transmission. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that food served at the restaurant between 9 and 15 May 2014 was the vehicle for infection. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, illness and food exposure data from study participants...
April 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729865/a-novel-and-validated-protocol-for-performing-mic-tests-to-determine-the-susceptibility-of-piscirickettsia-salmonis-isolates-to-florfenicol-and-oxytetracycline
#11
Sergio Contreras-Lynch, Peter Smith, Paola Olmos, María E Loy, William Finnegan, Claudio D Miranda
This paper presents a validated protocol, using a novel, specifically formulated medium, to perform broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility assays of the salmonid bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for florfenicol and oxytetracycline against 58 P. salmonis isolates recovered from various outbreaks occurred in Chilean salmonid farms were determined using this protocol. Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) analysis was applied to these data to calculate appropriate protocol-specific epidemiological cut-off values...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729711/an-ecological-and-digital-epidemiology-analysis-on-the-role-of-human-behavior-on-the-2014-chikungunya-outbreak-in-martinique
#12
Benjamin Roche, Béatrice Gaillard, Lucas Léger, Renélise Pélagie-Moutenda, Thomas Sochacki, Bernard Cazelles, Martine Ledrans, Alain Blateau, Didier Fontenille, Manuel Etienne, Frédéric Simard, Marcel Salathé, André Yébakima
Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic infections is of critical importance for a deeper understanding of pathogen transmission, and for the design of more efficient public health strategies. However, very few studies in this domain have focused on emerging infections, generating a gap of knowledge that hampers epidemiological response planning. Here, we analyze the case of a Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Martinique in 2014. Using time series estimates from a network of sentinel practitioners covering the entire island, we first analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics and show that the largest city has served as the epicenter of this epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729687/canopy-physiology-vine-performance-and-host-pathogen-interaction-in-a-fungi-resistant-cv-sangiovese-x-bianca-accession-vs-a-susceptible-clone
#13
S Poni, G Chiari, T Caffi, F Bove, S Tombesi, A Moncalvo, M Gatti
The present study compares the physiological and cropping response of the new fungi-resistant grapevine Accession 72-096 ('Sangiovese' x 'Bianca' hybrid) against a susceptible 'Sangiovese' clone which was either fully (FS-SG) or partially sprayed (PS-SG). Data logged on Accession 72-096 indicate that while two early season sprays were enough to avoid major downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) outbreaks, Accession 72-096 also showed concurrent desirable features such as moderate cropping, loose clusters, fast sugar accumulation coupled with sufficient acidity even at peak total soluble solids (TSS) concentration (around 24 °Brix), good color and higher flavonols prompting co-pigmentation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729167/protection-against-cholera-from-killed-whole-cell-oral-cholera-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Qifang Bi, Eva Ferreras, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Dominique Legros, Louise C Ivers, Kashmira Date, Firdausi Qadri, Laura Digilio, David A Sack, Mohammad Ali, Justin Lessler, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines (kOCVs) are becoming a standard cholera control and prevention tool. However, vaccine efficacy and direct effectiveness estimates have varied, with differences in study design, location, follow-up duration, and vaccine composition posing challenges for public health decision making. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to generate average estimates of kOCV efficacy and direct effectiveness from the available literature. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Review Library on July 9, 2016, and ISI Web of Science on July 11, 2016, for randomised controlled trials and observational studies that reported estimates of direct protection against medically attended confirmed cholera conferred by kOCVs...
July 17, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728470/influence-of-infectious-disease-seasonality-on-the-performance-of-the-outbreak-detection-algorithm-in-the-china-infectious-disease-automated-alert-and-response-system
#15
Ruiping Wang, Yonggen Jiang, Xiaoqin Guo, Yiling Wu, Genming Zhao
Objective The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention developed the China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2008. The CIDARS can detect outbreak signals in a timely manner but generates many false-positive signals, especially for diseases with seasonality. We assessed the influence of seasonality on infectious disease outbreak detection performance. Methods Chickenpox surveillance data in Songjiang District, Shanghai were used. The optimized early alert thresholds for chickenpox were selected according to three algorithm evaluation indexes: sensitivity (Se), false alarm rate (FAR), and time to detection (TTD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728010/advances-in-point-of-care-technologies-for-molecular-diagnostics
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Zarei
Advances in miniaturization, nanotechnology, and microfluidics, along with developments in cloud-connected point-of-care (POC) diagnostics technologies are pushing the frontiers of POC devices toward low-cost, user-friendly, and enhanced sensitivity molecular-level diagnostics. The combination of various bio-sensing platforms within smartphone-integrated electronic readers provides accurate on-site and on-time diagnostics based on various types of chemical and biological targets. Further, 3D printing technology shows a huge potential toward fabrication and improving the performance of POC devices...
July 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727803/role-of-fomites-in-sars-transmission-during-the-largest-hospital-outbreak-in-hong-kong
#17
Shenglan Xiao, Yuguo Li, Tze-Wai Wong, David S C Hui
The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had a significant effect on global society in the early 2000s and the potential of its resurgence exists. Studies on the modes of transmission of SARS are limited though a number of outbreak studies have revealed the possible airborne route. To develop more specific and effective control strategies, we conducted a detailed mechanism-based investigation that explored the role of fomite transmission in the well-known Ward 8A outbreak. We considered three hypothetical transmission routes, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727726/a-cross-sectional-seroepidemiological-survey-of-typhoid-fever-in-fiji
#18
Conall H Watson, Stephen Baker, Colleen L Lau, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Niel Hens, John Lowry, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Jorge Cano, Kylie Jenkins, E Kim Mulholland, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#19
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726617/scrub-typhus-as-a-cause-of-acute-encephalitis-syndrome-gorakhpur-uttar-pradesh-india
#20
Mahima Mittal, Jeromie Wesley Vivian Thangaraj, Winsley Rose, Valsan Philip Verghese, C P Girish Kumar, Mahim Mittal, R Sabarinathan, Vijay Bondre, Nivedita Gupta, Manoj V Murhekar
Outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been occurring in Gorakhpur Division, Uttar Pradesh, India, for several years. In 2016, we conducted a case-control study. Our findings revealed a high proportion of AES cases with Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG, indicating that scrub typhus is a cause of AES.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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