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K J Stanger, H McGregor, Jwa Larsen
OBJECTIVE: Identify the cause of outbreaks of diarrhoea during winter that are not attributable to gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned Merino sheep in the high rainfall regions of south-eastern Australia and determine the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat this syndrome. METHODS: We investigated 45 outbreaks on 24 farms. Faecal samples from affected animals were cultured for Yersinia, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. Risk factors, including rainfall, temperature and worm egg count (WEC), were assessed...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Fengyi Guo, Timothy C Bonebrake, Luke Gibson
Land-use change has transformed most of the planet. Concurrently, recent outbreaks of various emerging infectious diseases have raised great attention to the health consequences of anthropogenic environmental degradation. Here, we assessed the global impacts of habitat conversion and other land-use changes on community structures of infectious disease hosts and vectors, using a meta-analysis of 37 studies. From 331 pairwise comparisons of disease hosts/vectors in pristine (undisturbed) and disturbed areas, we found a decrease in species diversity but an increase in body size associated with land-use changes, potentially suggesting higher risk of infectious disease transmission in disturbed habitats...
April 24, 2018: EcoHealth
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Mohammed M Feeroz, Scott Krauss, Peter Vogel, Pamela McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
Surveillance of wild aquatic birds and free-range domestic ducks in the Tanguar Haor wetlands in Bangladesh has identified influenza virus subtypes H3N6, H7N1, H7N5, H7N9, and H15N9. Molecular characterization of these viruses indicates their contribution to the genesis of new genotypes of H5N1 influenza viruses from clade that are dominant in poultry markets in Bangladesh as well as to the genesis of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus currently causing disease outbreaks in domestic poultry in Europe and the Middle East...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Alexis Criscuolo, Soo Chan Lee, Matthieu Legrand, Marc Chaouat, Blandine Denis, Matthieu Lafaurie, Martine Rouveau, Charles Soler, Jean-Vivien Schaal, Maurice Mimoun, Alexandre Mebazaa, Joseph Heitman, Françoise Dromer, Sylvain Brisse, Stéphane Bretagne, Alexandre Alanio
Mucorales are ubiquitous environmental molds responsible for mucormycosis in diabetic, immunocompromised, and severely burned patients. Small outbreaks of invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM) have already been reported in burn units without extensive microbiological investigations. We faced an outbreak of IWM in our center and investigated the clinical isolates with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. We analyzed M. circinelloides isolates from patients in our burn unit (BU1, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France) together with nonoutbreak isolates from Burn Unit 2 (BU2, Paris area) and from France over a 2-year period (2013 to 2015)...
April 24, 2018: MBio
Cornelia Betsch, Birte Bödeker, Philipp Schmid, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: The attitude towards vaccination is a major determinant of vaccination behavior; this also includes parents' attitudes towards the immunization of their child. Negative attitudes have been associated with vaccine hesitancy and outbreaks of infectious diseases throughout the globe. This study aimed to assess how and why attitudes become more pro-vaccine or vaccine-skeptical over time, and which sources are especially influential in this process. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with measurements at time of recruitment during pregnancy and at +3, +6 and +14 months after childbirth with cross-sectional control groups...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
Gayan P Withanage, Sameera D Viswakula, Y I Nilmini Silva Gunawardena, Menaka D Hapugoda
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major health problems in Sri Lanka causing an enormous social and economic burden to the country. An accurate early warning system can enhance the efficiency of preventive measures. The aim of the study was to develop and validate a simple accurate forecasting model for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Three time-series regression models were developed using monthly rainfall, rainy days, temperature, humidity, wind speed and retrospective dengue incidences over the period January 2012 to November 2015 for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka...
April 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Catherine A Lippi, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Ángel G Muñoz, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Raúl Mejía, Keytia Rivero, Katty Castillo, Washington B Cárdenas, Sadie J Ryan
Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, is a major public health concern in Ecuador. In this study, we aimed to describe the spatial distribution of dengue risk and identify local social-ecological factors associated with an outbreak of dengue fever in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. We examined georeferenced dengue cases ( n = 4248) and block-level census data variables to identify social-ecological risk factors associated with the presence/absence and burden of dengue in Guayaquil in 2012. Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), specifically Anselin’s Local Moran’s I, and Moran’s I tests were used to locate hotspots of dengue transmission, and multimodel selection was used to identify covariates associated with dengue presence and burden at the census block level...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hugo Costa Osório, Líbia Zé-Zé, Maria Neto, Sílvia Silva, Fátima Marques, Ana Sofia Silva, Maria João Alves
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE) is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
Foodborne disease (FBD) is a global public health concern, and foods from animal sources have been associated with outbreaks of food-related illness. In this study, animal carcasses from the two abattoirs (HT1 and HT2) in the formal meat sector (FMS) and slaughter points in the informal meat sector (INMS) were examined at two stages of slaughter (before washing and after washing) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and total viable count (TCC), as well as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus count. At each stage, carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank, and rump...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Roger A Burks, John M Heraty, Chrysalyn Dominguez, Jason L Mottern
Twenty-nine species are recognized in the Orasema stramineipes species group, including 22 new species in what is now the most diverse species group of the New World ant-parasitoid genus Orasema Cameron. Orasema aenea Gahan syn. n. is synonymized with O. freychei (Gemignani), the holotype of which has been rediscovered. Orasema smithi Howard syn. n. is synonymized with Orasema minutissima Howard. Orasema violacea Gemignani syn. n. and its replacement name Orasema gemignanii De Santis syn. n. are synonymized with O...
March 26, 2018: Zootaxa
Sohee Son, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Jennifer Perera, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Po-Ren Hsueh, Chun-Yi Lu, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Yumiko Nakashima, Min Lu, Yonghong Yang, Kaihu Yao, So Hyun Kim, Jae Hoon Song, Seonwoo Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Ulrich Heininger, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Yae-Jean Kim
OBJECTIVE: Bordetella pertussis continues to cause outbreaks worldwide. To assess the role of children and adolescent in transmission of pertussis in Asia, we performed a multinational serosurveillance study. METHODS: From July 2013 to June 2016, individuals aged 10-18 years who had not received any pertussis-containing vaccine within the prior year were recruited in 10 centers in Asia. Serum anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG was measured by ELISA. Demographic data and medical histories were obtained...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jehangir Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is suffering from dengue fever since 1994. In the country, major dengue outbreaks have been documented in 2010, 2011 and 2013 in Punjab (Lahore) and Sindh (Karachi) Provinces. District Swat was hit for the first time by dengue virus in 2013, claiming 57 deaths and 8000 morbidities. The molecular and entomological aspects along with the ecological and social context of the dengue outbreaks were investigated in this study. METHOD: In addition to entomological survey, the data collected from patients' files (Saidu Sharif Teaching Hospital, Swat) and by directly questioning the patients (field data) was analyzed for epidemiological trends, molecular identification (RT-PCR based serotyping of DENV), clinical profile, socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic features...
2018: PloS One
Gaia Scavia, Alessandra Gianviti, Vincenzo Labriola, Paola Chiani, Antonella Maugliani, Valeria Michelacci, Fabio Minelli, Rosangela Tozzoli, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
PURPOSE: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represents a major issue for public health because of the severity of the associated illnesses, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). In 2015, investigation of a case of HUS revealed an outbreak of Shiga toxin-2-producing E. coli O26 : H11 infection in a nursery in Italy. The investigation showed that the infection was transmitted to cases' contacts via person to person. METHODS: The case finding was performed by testing for STEC stool samples of the HUS case's contacts within the family and the nursery...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
A C Kinsley, K VanderWaal, M E Craft, R B Morrison, A M Perez
Compartmental models have often been used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of alternative control strategies to mitigate the spread of infectious animal diseases. A fundamental principle of epidemiological modelling is that models should start as simple as possible and become as complex as needed. The simplest version of a compartmental model assumes that the population is closed, void of births and deaths and that this closed population mixes homogeneously, meaning that each infected individual has an equal probability of coming into contact with each susceptible individual in the population...
April 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Natalie G Exum, Elin Betanzo, Kellogg J Schwab, Thomas Y J Chen, Seth Guikema, David P E Harvey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the effectiveness of drinking water regulations to inform public health during extreme precipitation events. This paper estimates the vulnerability of specific populations to flooding in their public water system, reviews the literature linking precipitation to waterborne outbreaks, examines the role that Safe Drinking Water Act and Public Notification (PN) Rule have in public health emergencies, and reviews the effectiveness of the PN Rule during the 2017 Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico...
April 23, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Marc K Kouam, Manjeli Jacouba, Inouss N Nsangou, Alexis Teguia
The recent outbreak of avian influenza in the poultry sector of Cameroon has raised a concern about the level of implementation of biosecurity measures (BM) on poultry farms. Therefore, a study using a questionnaire on 102 randomly selected poultry farms was undertaken. Some measures with high adoption levels (> 90%) included "protection of airing openings of poultry barns by a wire mesh," "no external animal allowed to enter the farm," "respect of all-in all-out principle," "functional footbath," "rodent control," and "feedstuff protection from access to rodents...
April 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Saad B Almasaudi
The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii , is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A . baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ainagul K Ospanova, Ainagul B Kaliyeva, Lyailya E Anuarova, Aliya A Bazargaliyeva, Gulzira I Yernazarova, Aliya A Ramazanova, Imankul E Sekenov
Purpose: Vegetation plays a very important role in industrial regions in terms of not only air purification, but also oxygen enrichment, air humidity, and city aesthetics. The paper presents the authors' study of oleaster mildew during 2012-2013 in the cities of Pavlodar, Ekibastuz, and Aksu. Method: The species composition of mildew, patterns of its growth and reproduction, seasonal dynamics, and the level of trees infection according to a six-score scale were determined. Result: Three cultivars of mildew from three genera were registered...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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