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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453859/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-china-during-2004-to-2015
#1
Mingyue Liu, Qian Lu, Shuxia Zhang, Xiaolong Feng, Md Shakhawat Hossain
Identifying the temporal and spatial characteristics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks is very important for developing effective and appropriate countermeasures against HPAI and promoting sustainable development in the poultry industry. This study aimed to analyze four aspects of the temporal and spatial characteristics of HPAI outbreaks in China, including the frequency of HPAI outbreaks, numbers of dead animals (died or culled), types of HPAI viruses, and species of infected animals. Temporal characteristics showed that the frequency of HPAI outbreaks decreased and then increased, with some years deviating from the main trend in 2004 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015, while the largest number of dead animals due to HPAI outbreaks was in 2005...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453839/virucidal-activity-of-world-health-organization-recommended-formulations-against-enveloped-viruses-including-zika-ebola-and-emerging-coronaviruses
#2
Anindya Siddharta, Stephanie Pfaender, Nathalie Jane Vielle, Ronald Dijkman, Martina Friesland, Britta Becker, Jaewon Yang, Michael Engelmann, Daniel Todt, Marc P Windisch, Florian H Brill, Joerg Steinmann, Jochen Steinmann, Stephan Becker, Marco P Alves, Thomas Pietschmann, Markus Eickmann, Volker Thiel, Eike Steinmann
The World Health Organization (WHO) published 2 alcohol-based formulations to be used in healthcare settings and for outbreak-associated infections, but inactivation efficacies of these products have not been determined against (re-)emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal activity of these WHO products in a comparative analysis. Zika virus (ZIKV), Ebola virus (EBOV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as (re-)emerging viral pathogens and other enveloped viruses could be efficiently inactivated by both WHO formulations, implicating their use in healthcare systems and viral outbreak situations...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453719/civil-war-contested-sovereignty-and-the-limits-of-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-the-syrian-polio-outbreak-in-2013
#3
Jonathan Kennedy, Domna Michailidou
States and the World Health Organization (WHO), an international organization that is mandated to respect the sovereignty of its member states, are still the leading actors in global health. This paper explores how this discrepancy inhibits the ability of global health partnerships to implement programmes in conflict-affected areas that are under the de facto control of rebel organizations. We concentrate on a single crucial case, the polio outbreak in Syria in 2013, analysing a variety of qualitative data-twenty semi-structured interviews with key actors, official documents, and media reports-in order to investigate the events that preceded and followed this event...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449283/physiological-responses-of-reared-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-linnaeus-1758-to-an-amyloodinium-ocellatum-outbreak
#4
M Moreira, D Schrama, F Soares, T Wulff, P Pousão-Ferreira, P Rodrigues
Amyloodiniosis represents a major bottleneck for semi-intensive aquaculture production in Southern Europe, causing extremely high mortalities. Amyloodinium ocellatum is a parasitic dinoflagellate that can infest almost all fish, crustacean and bivalves that live within its ecological range. Fish mortalities are usually attributed to anoxia, associated with serious gill hyperplasia, inflammation, haemorrhage and necrosis in heavy infestations; or with osmoregulatory impairment and secondary microbial infections due to severe epithelial damage in mild infestation...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449278/seroepidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-swine-and-occupationally-exposed-workers-in-punjab-india
#5
M Bansal, S Kaur, D Deka, R Singh, J P S Gill
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as the occupational risk to exposed human population in Punjab state of north-western India. The occupational risk-exposed group comprised of swine farmers (organized - mixed feed feeders and unorganized - swill feeders), slaughterhouse workers, sewage workers and veterinary internes...
April 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449075/new-viral-outbreaks-time-for-rheumatologists-to-get-involved
#6
Axel Finckh, Deshire Alpizar-Rodriguez, Ilias Lazarou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449047/what-s-buzzing-on-your-feed-health-authorities-use-of-facebook-to-combat-zika-in-singapore
#7
Santosh Vijaykumar, Rianne Wally Meurzec, Karthikayen Jayasundar, Claudia Pagliari, Yohan Fernandopulle
In 2016, Singapore grappled with one of the largest Zika outbreaks in Southeast Asia. This study examines the use of Facebook for Zika-related outreach by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the National Environmental Agency (NEA) from March 1, 2015, to September 1, 2016, and public response to this effort. Despite nearly equivalent outreach, MOH's Facebook posts received more likes (µ = 3.49) and shares (µ = 30.11), whereas NEA's posts received more comments (µ = 4.55), with NEA posting mostly on prevention (N = 30) and MOH on situational updates (N = 24)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448744/plant-signals-during-beetle-scolytus-multistriatus-feeding-in-american-elm-ulmus-americana-planch
#8
Brett M Saremba, Fiona J M Tymm, Kathy Baethke, Mark R Rheault, Sherif M Sherif, Praveen K Saxena, Susan J Murch
American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by a number of species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447193/ebola-and-marburg-virus-vaccines
#9
REVIEW
Pierce Reynolds, Andrea Marzi
The filoviruses, Ebola virus (EBOV), and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most pathogenic viruses known to man and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Africa with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Nearly 30,000 infections were observed in the latest EBOV epidemic in West Africa; previous outbreaks were much smaller, typically only affecting less than a few hundred people. Compared to other diseases such as AIDS or Malaria with millions of cases annually, filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) is one of the neglected infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447134/-poisonings-in-germany-poisons-centres-medical-management-and-national-monitoring
#10
REVIEW
Herbert Desel, Helmut Hentschel, Andreas Stürer
BACKGROUND: Illnesses caused by exposure to extracorporeal artificial substances play a major role in emergency medicine, family medicine, and environmental medicine. OBJECTIVE: The current situation of medical poisoning management and national reporting of poisonings in Germany are described. MATERIALS UND METHODS: The information and data presented here are derived from a literature review and from stakeholder interviews. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eight poison centres (PCs) offer consultation supporting the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases in Germany today...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446757/value-of-evidence-from-syndromic-surveillance-with-cumulative-evidence-from-multiple-data-streams-with-delayed-reporting
#11
R Struchen, F Vial, M G Andersson
Delayed reporting of health data may hamper the early detection of infectious diseases in surveillance systems. Furthermore, combining multiple data streams, e.g. aiming at improving a system's sensitivity, can be challenging. In this study, we used a Bayesian framework where the result is presented as the value of evidence, i.e. the likelihood ratio for the evidence under outbreak versus baseline conditions. Based on a historical data set of routinely collected cattle mortality events, we evaluated outbreak detection performance (sensitivity, time to detection, in-control run length) under the Bayesian approach among three scenarios: presence of delayed data reporting, but not accounting for it; presence of delayed data reporting accounted for; and absence of delayed data reporting (i...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446704/preservation-of-protein-expression-systems-at-elevated-temperatures-for-portable-therapeutic-production
#12
David K Karig, Seneca Bessling, Peter Thielen, Sherry Zhang, Joshua Wolfe
Many biotechnology capabilities are limited by stringent storage needs of reagents, largely prohibiting use outside of specialized laboratories. Focusing on a large class of protein-based biotechnology applications, we address this issue by developing a method for preserving cell-free protein expression systems for months above room temperature. Our approach realizes unprecedented long-term stability at elevated temperatures by leveraging the sugar alcohol trehalose, a simple, low-cost, open-air drying step, and strategic separation of reaction components during drying...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446703/efficient-use-of-sentinel-sites-detection-of-invasive-honeybee-pests-and-diseases-in-the-uk
#13
Matt J Keeling, Samik Datta, Daniel N Franklin, Ivor Flatman, Andy Wattam, Mike Brown, Giles E Budge
Sentinel sites, where problems can be identified early or investigated in detail, form an important part of planning for exotic disease outbreaks in humans, livestock and plants. Key questions are: how many sentinels are required, where should they be positioned and how effective are they at rapidly identifying new invasions? The sentinel apiary system for invasive honeybee pests and diseases illustrates the costs and benefits of such approaches. Here, we address these issues with two mathematical modelling approaches...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#14
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446571/a-core-genome-multi-locus-sequence-typing-scheme-for-stable-comparative-analyses-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-c-coli-human-disease-isolates
#15
Alison J Cody, James E Bray, Keith A Jolley, Noel D McCarthy, C J Maiden Martin
Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterisation methods. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) data enables the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multi locus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446379/group-a-rotavirus-genotypes-in-hospital-acquired-gastroenteritis-in-italy-2012-14
#16
G Ianiro, R Delogu, L Fiore, M Monini, F M Ruggeri
BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young (aged <5 years) children, causing ∼250,000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. Differences on nucleotide sequences of VP7 (G-type) and VP4 (P-type) genes are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 32 G-types and 47 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446368/ebola-related-stigma-in-ghana-individual-and-community-level-determinants
#17
Eric Y Tenkorang
RATIONALE: Although Ebola-related stigmatization continues to undermine efforts to re-integrate survivors, few studies have examined what influences such stigmatizing attitudes. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the effects of both individual- and community-level factors on Ebola-related stigma in Ghana. METHODS: Data were collected from a cross-section of 800 respondents, nested within 40 communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Multi-level modelling was employed for analysis...
April 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446261/epidemiological-characteristics-of-breakthrough-varicella-infection-during-varicella-outbreaks-in-shanghai-2008-2014
#18
Y F Zhu, Y F Li, Y DU, M Zeng
The outbreaks of varicella occurring in kindergartens and schools are increasingly notified in Shanghai despite the implementation of one-dose varicella vaccination. We analyzed surveillance data on the notified outbreaks of varicella in Minhang District of Shanghai during 2008-2014. A total of 13 511 varicella cases and 154 outbreaks involving 1558 (11·5%) cases were reported. Annual attack rates of outbreak-associated varicella in outbreak classes were 5·5%-12%. The mean age of the outbreak-associated cases was 8·6 ± 3·1 years...
April 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446214/epidemiological-role-of-dogs-since-the-human-leishmaniosis-outbreak-in-madrid
#19
Guadalupe Miró, Aurora Müller, Ana Montoya, Rocía Checa, Valentina Marino, Eloy Marino, Fernando Fuster, Cristina Escacena, Miguel Angel Descalzo, Rosa Gálvez
BACKGROUND: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) has been in the spotlight since the 2009 outbreak of human leishmaniosis in Madrid. In the framework of the Leishmaniosis Surveillance Programme set up in Madrid, this study examines Leishmania-specific seroprevalences in stray dogs for the outbreak area and rest of the Madrid region over the period spanning from the outbreak to the present (2009-2016). These data are of interest because stray dogs could be sentinels for disease surveillance in endemic areas...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446173/impact-of-the-ebola-outbreak-on-routine-immunization-in-western-area-sierra-leone-a-field-survey-from-an-ebola-epidemic-area
#20
Xiaojin Sun, T T Samba, Jianyi Yao, Wenwu Yin, Lin Xiao, Fuqiang Liu, Xiaoqiang Liu, Jikun Zhou, Zengqiang Kou, Hongwei Fan, Hao Zhang, Aqnes Williams, Paul M Lansana, Zundong Yin
BACKGROUND: Since March 2014, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa disrupted health care systems - especially in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - with a consequential stress on the area's routine immunization programs. To address perceived decreased vaccination coverage, Sierra Leone conducted a catch-up vaccination campaign during 24-27 April 2015. We conducted a vaccination coverage survey and report coverage estimates surrounding the time of the EVD outbreak and the catch-up campaign...
April 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
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