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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#1
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087016/familial-outbreak-of-eruptive-pseudoangiomatosis-with-dermoscopic-and-histopathologic-correlation
#2
Carlos Gustavo Wambier, Mark Aaron Cappel, Tayza Katelline Danilau Ostroski, Mário Rodrigues Montemor Netto, Sarah Perillo de Farias Wambier, Bruna Lais Santos de Jesus, Eurico Arruda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086751/quantifying-predictors-for-the-spatial-diffusion-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#3
Lu Lu, Andrew J Leigh Brown, Samantha J Lycett
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes both severe outbreaks and endemic disease among poultry and has caused sporadic human infections in Asia, furthermore the routes of transmission in avian species between geographic regions can be numerous and complex. Using nucleotide sequences from the internal protein coding segments of AIV, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic study to uncover regional routes of transmission and factors predictive of the rate of viral diffusion within China...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081120/epidemiology-of-chikungunya-virus-outbreaks-in-guadeloupe-and-martinique-2014-an-observational-study-in-volunteer-blood-donors
#4
Pierre Gallian, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pascale Richard, Françoise Maire, Olivier Flusin, Rachid Djoudi, Jacques Chiaroni, Remi Charrel, Pierre Tiberghien, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: During Dec-2013, a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak was first detected in the French-West Indies. Subsequently, the virus dispersed to other Caribbean islands, continental America and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. Previous estimates of the attack rate were based on declaration of clinically suspected cases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual testing for CHIKV RNA of all (n = 16,386) blood donations between Feb-24th 2014 and Jan-31st 2015 identified 0·36% and 0·42% of positives in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080984/modelling-coffee-leaf-rust-risk-in-colombia-with-climate-reanalysis-data
#5
Daniel P Bebber, Ángela Delgado Castillo, Sarah J Gurr
Many fungal plant diseases are strongly controlled by weather, and global climate change is thus likely to have affected fungal pathogen distributions and impacts. Modelling the response of plant diseases to climate change is hampered by the difficulty of estimating pathogen-relevant microclimatic variables from standard meteorological data. The availability of increasingly sophisticated high-resolution climate reanalyses may help overcome this challenge. We illustrate the use of climate reanalyses by testing the hypothesis that climate change increased the likelihood of the 2008-2011 outbreak of Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR, Hemileia vastatrix) in Colombia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#6
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080959/sentinel-surveillance-of-imported-dengue-via-travellers-to-europe-2012-to-2014-tropnet-data-from-the-denguetools-research-initiative
#7
Andreas Neumayr, Jose Muñoz, Mirjam Schunk, Emmanuel Bottieau, Jakob Cramer, Guido Calleri, Rogelio López-Vélez, Andrea Angheben, Thomas Zoller, Leo Visser, Núria Serre-Delcor, Blaise Genton, Francesco Castelli, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Alberto Matteelli, Laurence Rochat, Elena Sulleiro, Florian Kurth, Federico Gobbi, Francesca Norman, Ilaria Torta, Jan Clerinx, David Poluda, Miguel Martinez, Antonia Calvo-Cano, Maria Paz Sanchez-Seco, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Christoph Hatz, Leticia Franco
We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014)...
January 5, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079520/genetic-characterisation-of-novel-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n6-viruses-isolated-in-birds-south-korea-november-2016
#8
Young-Jae Si, In Won Lee, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Se Mi Kim, Jin-Jung Kwon, Won-Suk Choi, Yun Hee Beak, Min-Suk Song, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Young-Ki Choi
A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1).
January 5, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079476/mimiviruses-and-the-human-interferon-system-viral-evasion-of-classical-antiviral-activities-but-inhibition-by-a-novel-interferon-%C3%AE-regulated-immunomodulatory-pathway
#9
Gabriel Magno de Freitas Almeida, Lorena C Ferreira Silva, Philippe Colson, Jonatas Santos Abrahao
In this review we discuss the role of mimiviruses as potential human pathogens focusing on clinical and evolutionary evidence. We also propose a novel antiviral immunomodulatory pathway controlled by interferon-β (IFN-β) and mediated by immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) and itaconic acid, its product. Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV) was isolated from amoebae in a hospital while investigating a pneumonia outbreak. Mimivirus ubiquity and role as protist pathogens are well understood, and its putative status as a human pathogen has been gaining strength as more evidence is being found...
January 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079280/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-at-an-academic-animal-research-laboratory-colorado-2014
#10
Jessica Hancock-Allen, Nisha B Alden, Alicia B Cronquist
BACKGROUND: After cryptosporidiosis was reported in three workers caring for preweaned calves at an academic research laboratory, we sought to identify cases, determine risk factors, and implement control measures. METHODS: A cryptosporidiosis case was defined as diarrhea duration ≥72 hr, abdominal cramps, or vomiting in an animal research laboratory worker during July 14-July 31. A confirmed case had laboratory evidence of Cryptosporidium infection. Staff were interviewed regarding illness, potential exposures, training, and personal protective equipment (PPE) standard operating procedures (SOPs)...
February 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#11
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078082/core-components-for-effective-infection-prevention-and-control-programmes-new-who-evidence-based-recommendations
#12
Julie Storr, Anthony Twyman, Walter Zingg, Nizam Damani, Claire Kilpatrick, Jacqui Reilly, Lesley Price, Matthias Egger, M Lindsay Grayson, Edward Kelley, Benedetta Allegranzi
Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#13
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077583/a-live-attenuated-chimeric-west-nile-virus-vaccine-rwn-den4%C3%AE-30-is-well-tolerated-and-immunogenic-in-flavivirus-naive-older-adult-volunteers
#14
Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Palmtama L Grier, Adrienne Jarvis, Heather Kenney, Marya P Carmolli, Cynthia Reynolds, Cecilia M Tibery, Janece Lovchik, Anna Janiak, Catherine J Luke, Anna P Durbin, Alexander G Pletnev
West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077517/two-phase-hospital-associated-outbreak-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-investigation-and-mitigation
#15
Arthur W Baker, Sarah S Lewis, Barbara D Alexander, Luke F Chen, Richard J Wallace, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Pamela J Isaacs, Lisa C Pickett, Chetan B Patel, Peter K Smith, John M Reynolds, Jill Engel, Cameron R Wolfe, Carmelo A Milano, Jacob N Schroder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig, Jason E Stout, Nancy Strittholt, Eileen K Maziarz, Jennifer Horan Saullo, Kevin C Hazen, Richard J Walczak, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Celeste M McKnight, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) commonly colonize municipal water and cause healthcare-associated outbreaks. We investigated a biphasic outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Case patients had recent hospital exposure and laboratory-confirmed colonization or infection with M. abscessus from January 2013 through December 2015. We conducted a multidisciplinary epidemiologic, field, and laboratory investigation. RESULTS: The incidence rate of M...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077242/outbreak-of-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-sepsis-with-meningitis-in-a-well-baby-nursery
#16
I-C Tai, T-P Liu, Y-J Chen, R-I Lien, C-Y Lee, Y-C Huang
Between March and May 2012, three neonates born at a regional maternity hospital developed Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (previously Chryseobacterium meningosepticum) sepsis with meningitis aged <10 days, and were treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin plus vancomycin or piperacillin-tazobactam for three to six weeks. Four (16.6%) of 24 environmental specimens obtained from the nursery and delivery room were positive for this organism. All of the clinical isolates and two isolates from storage boxes for pacifiers and pacifier covers were genetically identical...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077023/hiv-associated-sub-acute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-an-emerging-threat
#17
Abi Manesh, Mahesh Moorthy, Rini Bandopadhyay, Priscilla Rupali
Earlier age of measles virus infection predisposes to development of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and this risk is heightened in HIV-infected children. We describe a HIV-infected young adult on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with a non-classical, fulminant form of SSPE to highlight the unpredictable nature of measles presentation. The recent spate of measles outbreaks due to virus introduction in populations with sub-optimal vaccine coverage or waning immunity and co-existing paediatric HIV cohorts is a cause for concern...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076993/evaluation-of-clinical-and-serological-findings-for-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-anthrax-infection-after-an-outbreak
#18
Duygu Gulseren, Serap Süzük-Yıldız, Bekir Çelebi, Selçuk Kılıç
PURPOSE: Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans.We aimed to evaluate clinical findings and risk factors of patients with cutaneous anthrax infection and report anti-lethal factor (LF) IgG and anti-protective antigene (PA) IgG titers in the serologic diagnosis of disease. METHODS: In this study, serum samples of 18 cutaneous anthrax patients were collected and anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 11, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076420/chaperone-mediated-autophagy-protein-bag3-negatively-regulates-ebola-and-marburg-vp40-mediated-egress
#19
Jingjing Liang, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Sachdev S Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ziying Han, Ronald N Harty
Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses are members of the Filoviridae family which cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever. The filovirus VP40 matrix protein is essential for virus assembly and budding, and its PPxY L-domain motif interacts with WW-domains of specific host proteins, such as Nedd4 and ITCH, to facilitate the late stage of virus-cell separation. To identify additional WW-domain-bearing host proteins that interact with VP40, we used an EBOV PPxY-containing peptide to screen an array of 115 mammalian WW-domain-bearing proteins...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076405/development-and-validation-of-a-new-reliable-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-avian-botulism
#20
Caroline Le Maréchal, Sandra Rouxel, Valentine Ballan, Emmanuelle Houard, Typhaine Poezevara, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Rozenn Souillard, Hervé Morvan, Marie-Agnès Baudouard, Cédric Woudstra, Christelle Mazuet, Sophie Le Bouquin, Patrick Fach, Michel Popoff, Marianne Chemaly
Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C...
2017: PloS One
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