Read by QxMD icon Read


Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Jin-Na Wang, Feng Ling
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to the Dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses. Since the explosive outbreaks of ZIKV in Latin America in 2015, a sudden increase in the number of microcephaly cases has been observed in infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. The severity of this condition raises grave concerns, and extensive studies on the possible link between ZIKV infection and microcephaly have been conducted. There is substantial evidence suggesting that there is a causal link between ZIKV and microcephaly, however, future studies are warranted to solidify this association...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Minji Yang, GilJae Lee, Jiyeon Si, Sung-Joon Lee, Hyun Ju You, GwangPyo Ko
Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Claudia Kohl
Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andreas Widder, Christian Kuehn
In this paper, we focus on the influence of heterogeneity and stochasticity of the population on the dynamical structure of a basic susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model. First we prove that, upon a suitable mathematical reformulation of the basic reproduction number, the homogeneous system and the heterogeneous system exhibit a completely analogous global behaviour. Then we consider noise terms to incorporate the fluctuation effects and the random import of the disease into the population and analyse the influence of heterogeneity on warning signs for critical transitions (or tipping points)...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Jianquan Li, Yiqun Li, Yali Yang
The epidemic characteristics, including the epidemic final size, peak, and turning point, of two classical SIR models with disease-induced death are investigated when a small initial value of the infective population is released. The models have mass-action (i.e. bilinear), or density dependent (i.e. standard) incidence, respectively. For the two models, the conditions that determining whether the related epidemic characteristics of an epidemic outbreak appear are explicitly determine by rigorous mathematical analysis...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Anita S Iyer, Malika Bouhenia, John Rumunu, Abdinasir Abubakar, Randon J Gruninger, Jane Pita, Richard Lako Lino, Lul L Deng, Joseph F Wamala, Edward T Ryan, Stephen Martin, Dominique Legros, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Andrew S Azman
Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Victor Virlogeux, Vicky J Fang, Minah Park, Joseph T Wu, Benjamin J Cowling
The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Jianhong Wu
Zika virus co-circulates with dengue in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cases of co-infection by dengue and Zika have been reported, the implication of this co-infection for an integrated intervention program for controlling both dengue and Zika must be addressed urgently. Here, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission dynamics of co-infection of dengue and Zika with particular focus on the effects of Zika outbreak by vaccination against dengue among human hosts. Our analysis determines specific conditions under which vaccination against dengue can significantly increase the Zika outbreak peak, and speed up the Zika outbreak peak timing...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin Young Ahn, David Boettiger, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Tuti Parwati Merati, Bui Vu Huy, Wing Wai Wong, Rossana Ditangco, Man Po Lee, Shinichi Oka, Nicolas Durier, Jun Yong Choi
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Sabine Iva Franklin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Kenta Tezuka, Madoka Kuramitsu, Kazu Okuma, Kiyoko Nojima, Kumiko Araki, Naoya Shinohara, Chieko Matsumoto, Masahiro Satake, Tomohiko Takasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Ichiro Kurane, Isao Hamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is caused by four related RNA viruses of the genus Flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-1, -2, -3, and -4, which are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Although DENV is not endemic in Japan, an autochthonous dengue outbreak occurred in 2014. Several transfusion-transmitted cases have also been reported after the use of blood and plasma products in DENV-endemic countries. The aim of this study was to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for DENV blood screening...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Truc T Pham, Shengli Meng, Yan Sun, Wenli Lv, Justin Bahl
A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Marta Canuti, Kimberly E O'Leary, Bruce D Hunter, Grant Spearman, Davor Ojkic, Hugh G Whitney, Andrew S Lang
Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
N L González Morales, M Núñez-López, J Ramos-Castañeda, J X Velasco-Hernández
In this work we present a mathematical model that incorporates two Dengue serotypes. The model has been constructed to study both the epidemiological trends of the disease and conditions that allow coexistence in competing strains under vaccination. We consider two viral strains and temporary cross-immunity with one vector mosquito population. Results suggest that vaccination scenarios will not only reduce disease incidence but will also modify the transmission dynamics. Indeed, vaccination and cross immunity period are seen to decrease the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks but in a differentiated manner with specific effects depending upon the interaction vaccine and strain type...
October 20, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Mark Doherty, Philippe Buchy, Baudouin Standaert, Carlo Giaquinto, David Prado-Cohrs
Unlike most drugs, whose benefit is restricted to the individual who takes the drug, prophylactic vaccines have the potential for far-reaching effects that encompass health service utilisation, general health and wellbeing, cognitive development and, ultimately, economic productivity. The impact of immunisation is measured by evaluating effects directly on the vaccinated individual, indirectly on the unvaccinated community (herd protection), the epidemiology of the pathogen (such as changing circulating serotypes or prevention of epidemic cycles), and the additional benefits arising from improved health...
October 20, 2016: Vaccine
Tim Stinear, Benjamin Howden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Sharon Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Meredith Wickens, Paula Spokes, Nathan Saul, Vicky Sheppeard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Elizabeth Catchpoole, John Gerrard, Claire Heney, Hanna E Sidjabat, Petra Derrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"