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Davis C Woodworth, Langston T Holly, Emeran A Mayer, Noriko Salamon, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: Advanced cervical spondylosis (CS) can cause structural damage to the spinal cord resulting in long-term neurological impairment including neck pain and motor weakness. We hypothesized long-term structural reorganization within the brain in patients with CS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, neurological symptoms, and pain severity in CS patients with or without myelopathy and healthy controls (HCs)...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
V Reggie Edgerton, Parag Gad
What are the implications of the vagus nerve being able to mediate the time-dependent plasticity of an array of sensorimotor networks?
March 16, 2018: ELife
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Somogy Varga
Often drawing on the phenomenological tradition, a number of philosophers and cognitive scientists working in the field of "embodied cognition" subscribe to the general view that cognition is grounded in aspects of its sensorimotor embodiment and should be comprehended as the result of a dynamic interaction of nonneural and neural processes. After a brief introduction, the paper critically engages Lakoff and Johnson's "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT), and provides a review of recent empirical evidence that appears to support it...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Christopher L Jones, Derek G Kamper
Finger-thumb coordination is crucial to manual dexterity but remains incompletely understood, particularly following neurological injury such as stroke. While being controlled independently, the index finger and thumb especially must work in concert to perform a variety of tasks requiring lateral or palmar pinch. The impact of stroke on this functionally critical sensorimotor control during dynamic tasks has been largely unexplored. In this study, we explored finger-thumb coupling during close-open pinching motions in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Joshua L Haworth, Adam J Strang, Mathias Hieronymus, Mark S Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Many people use balance training as a rehabilitation or habilitation modality. Although the time course of changes to temporal and spatial aspects of postural sway over the initial weeks of such training is as yet unclear. Particularly, we sought to explore the effects of training on sway during a dynamic task of stance on an ultra-compliant surface. Such a task provides different mechanical, and thus sensorimotor, constraints compared to stance on a solid surface...
March 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Istvan Bodi, Anastasios Giamouriadis, Naomi Sibtain, Ross Laxton, Andrew King, Francesco Vergani
Background: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumors are very rare in adults and much less is known about their biological behavior than in children. Recently, two adult cases of SMARCB1 (also known as INI1)-deficient tumor with rhabdoid cells have been described, suggesting an emerging group of primary meningeal SMARCB1-deficient tumors. We have recently encountered a case of INI1-deficient tumor with similar histology and immunophenotype to the above cases, but with a superficial cerebral, yet apparent intra-axial origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Ibrahim Hussain, Theodore H Schwartz, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Basilar invagination is defined as abnormal upward and/or posterior displacement of the odontoid leading to ventral compression of the cervicomedullary junction. This condition leads to lower cranial neuropathies, sensorimotor deficits, and myelopathy. These symptoms can persist even after posterior decompression, which is an indication for ventral decompression. Transoral approaches to the upper cervical spine carry significant morbidity, limiting their utility. The endonasal approach to the upper cervical spine presents an alternative for patients with amenable anatomy...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Tauheed Ishrat, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Wael Eldahshan, Heba Ahmed, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
The aim of this translational, randomized, controlled, blinded preclinical trial was to determine the effect of compound 21 (C21) in embolic stroke. Rats were subjected to embolic-middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO). They received C21 (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg/d) or saline (orally) for five days, with the first-dose given IV at 3 h post-eMCAO. For the time-window study, the optimal-dose of C21 was initiated at 3, 6 or 24 h post-eMCAO and continued for five days. For the combinatorial study, animals received IV-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at either 2 or 4 h, with IV-C21 (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Martin Lamos, Radek Marecek, Tomáš Slavíček, Michal Mikl, Ivan Rektor, Jiri Jan
Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during EEG data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity.
 Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by Parallel Factor Analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Ewelina Bator, Joachim Latusz, Urszula Głowacka, Aleksandra Radaszkiewicz, Kinga Mudlaff, Marzena Maćkowiak
Social isolation (SI) during adolescence may induce schizophrenia-like behavior. In the present study, we investigated whether adolescent SI might affect the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in the MAM-E17 neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Rats were socially isolated for 10 days during adolescence (postnatal days (P) 30-40), followed by resocialization until late adolescence (P45-P48) or early adulthood (P70-P75); behavioral and neurochemical studies were performed at these ages. The behavioral studies analyzed locomotor activity, social interaction, recognition memory, and sensorimotor gating; GAD65 and GAD67 protein levels were measured in the prefrontal cortex...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sarah Marchina, Andrea Norton, Sandeep Kumar, Gottfried Schlaug
Functional imaging studies have provided insight into the effect of rate on production of syllables, pseudowords, and naturalistic speech, but the influence of rate on repetition of commonly-used words/phrases suitable for therapeutic use merits closer examination. Aim: To identify speech-motor regions responsive to rate and test the hypothesis that those regions would provide greater support as rates increase, we used an overt speech repetition task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to capture rate-modulated activation within speech-motor regions and determine whether modulations occur linearly and/or show hemispheric preference...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tianxiao Jiang, Su Liu, Giuseppe Pellizzer, Aydin Aydoseli, Sacit Karamursel, Pulat A Sabanci, Altay Sencer, Candan Gurses, Nuri F Ince
Functional mapping of eloquent cortex before the resection of a tumor is a critical procedure for optimizing survival and quality of life. In order to locate the hand area of the motor cortex in two patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), we recorded electrocorticogram (ECoG) from a 113 channel hybrid high-density grid (64 large contacts with diameter of 2.7 mm and 49 small contacts with diameter of 1 mm) while they executed hand clenching movements. We investigated the spatio-spectral characteristics of the neural oscillatory activity and observed that, in both patients, the hand movements were consistently associated with a wide spread power decrease in the low frequency band (LFB: 8-32 Hz) and a more localized power increase in the high frequency band (HFB: 60-280 Hz) within the sensorimotor region...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Doreen Huppert, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness, fear of heights, and adverse effects of alcohol were the major areas where descriptions of vertigo and dizziness were found in Roman, Greek, and Chinese texts from about 730 BC-600 AD. A few detailed accounts were suggestive of specific vestibular disorders such as Menière's attacks (Huangdi Neijing, the Yellow Thearch's Classic of Internal Medicine) or vestibular migraine (Aretaeus of Cappadocia). Further, the etymological and metaphorical meanings of the terms and their symptoms provide fascinating historical insights, e...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
D Crivelli, M D Sabogal Rueda, M Balconi
The present work aimed at exploring functional correlates of motor and linguistic representations of everyday actions, with a specific interest in potential sensorimotor activation effects induced by the use of related action sentences. While it is indeed known that observing simple motor acts (e.g., precision grasping) and listening to the sound of specific actions (e.g., walking) activate sensorimotor structures, less is known when we move to more complex behaviors and more abstract linguistic representations (e...
March 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ke Li, Na Wei, Mei Cheng, Xingguo Hou, Jun Song
This study investigated the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on dynamical coordination of hand intrinsic muscles during precision grip. Precision grip was tested using a custom designed apparatus with stable and unstable loads, during which the surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) were recorded simultaneously. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was applied to quantify the dynamical structure of sEMG signals of the APB and FDI; and cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) was used to assess the intermuscular coupling between the two intrinsic muscles...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luqing Wei, Xiao Hu, Yonggui Yuan, Weiguo Liu, Hong Chen
Neuropathology suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression may involve a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have shown that dopamine changes in individual brain regions constituting the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic circuits are associated with depression in PD. However, few studies have been conducted on the circuit-level alterations in this disease...
March 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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