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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#1
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904801/midfoot-and-forefoot-involvement-in-lateral-ankle-sprains-and-chronic-ankle-instability-part-1-anatomy-and-biomechanics
#2
John J Fraser, Mark A Feger, Jay Hertel
: The modern human foot is the culmination of more than five million years of evolution. The ankle-foot complex absorbs forces during loading, accommodates uneven surfaces, and acts as a lever for efficient propulsion. The ankle-foot complex has six independent functional segments that should be understood for proper assessment and treatment of foot and ankle injuries: the shank, rearfoot, midfoot, lateral forefoot, and the medial forefoot. The compliance of the individual segments of the foot is dependent on velocity, task, and active and passive coupling mechanisms within each of the foot segments...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904761/vincristine-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#3
REVIEW
Erika Mora, Ellen M Lavoie Smith, Clare Donohoe, Daniel L Hertz
Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a component of many combination regimens for a variety of malignancies, including several common pediatric tumors. Vincristine treatment is limited by a progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is particularly challenging to detect and monitor in pediatric patients, in whom the side effect can diminish long term quality of life. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding VIPN, focusing on its description, assessment, prediction, prevention, and treatment...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903641/body-sway-adaptation-to-addition-but-not-withdrawal-of-stabilizing-visual-information-is-delayed-by-a-concurrent-cognitive-task
#4
Jean-Louis Honeine, Oscar Crisafulli, Marco Schieppati
Aim of this study was to test the effects of a concurrent cognitive task on the promptness of the sensorimotor integration and reweighting processes following addition and withdrawal of vision. Fourteen subjects stood in tandem while vision was passively added and removed. Subjects performed a cognitive task, consisting of counting backwards in steps of three, or were 'mentally idle'. We estimated the time interval, following addition and following withdrawal of vision, at which body sway began to change. We also estimated the time constant of the exponential change in body oscillation until the new level of sway was reached, consistent with the current visual state...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903639/automated-classification-of-pain-perception-using-high-density-electroencephalography-data
#5
Gaurav Misra, Wei-En Wang, Derek B Archer, Arnab Roy, Stephen A Coombes
Translating brief millisecond-long pain-eliciting stimuli to the subjective perception of pain is associated with changes in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. However, when a pain-eliciting stimulus continues for minutes, regions beyond the sensorimotor cortex such as the prefrontal cortex are also engaged. Abnormalities in prefrontal cortex have been associated with chronic pain states, but conventional millisecond-long EEG paradigms do not engage prefrontal regions. In the current study we collected high-density EEG data during an experimental paradigm in which subjects experienced a 4 second low or high intensity pain-eliciting stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903180/results-of-volume-staged-fractionated-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-large-complex-arteriovenous-malformations-obliteration-rates-and-clinical-outcomes-of-an-evolving-treatment-paradigm
#6
Alberto Franzin, Pietro Panni, Giorgio Spatola, Antonella Del Vecchio, Alberto L Gallotti, Carmen R Gigliotti, Andrea Cavalli, Carmine A Donofrio, Pietro Mortini
OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900816/sensorimotor-and-visual-perceptual-functioning-in-school-aged-children-with-williams-syndrome
#7
Y-P Wuang, H-Y Tsai
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to describe sensorimotor profile and visual perceptual performance in school-aged (6-12 years) children with Williams syndrome (WS). The impacts of sensorimotor and visual perception on participation in WS were examined as well to guide research and evidence-based practices. METHODS: A total of 38 children with WS aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated with measures of motor performance (Bruininks-Oseretsky of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition), sensory processing (Sensory Profile), visual perceptual abilities (Test of Visual Perception Skills-Third Edition) and activity participation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, School Function Assessment)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899748/cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-drives-neurogenesis-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-stroke
#8
Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, María I Cuartero, Juan G Zarruk, Jesús M Pradillo, Olivia Hurtado, Víctor G Romera, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Juan M García-Segura, Manuel Guzmán, Ignacio Lizasoain, Ismael Galve-Roperh, María A Moro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional disturbances. Unfortunately, pharmacological options are scarce. The cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) is neuroprotective in acute experimental stroke by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, its role in chronic stroke is still unknown. METHODS: Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice; CB2R modulation was assessed by administering the CB2R agonist JWH133 ((6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran) or the CB2R antagonist SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo-[2...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895926/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-as-a-tool-to-study-cerebellar-m1-interactions-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Sara Tremblay, Duncan Austin, Ricci Hannah, John C Rothwell
The recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has allowed the non-invasive assessment of cerebellar function in humans. Early studies showed that cerebellar activity, as reflected in the excitability of the dentate-thalamo-cortical pathway, can be assessed with paired stimulation of the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) (cerebellar inhibition of motor cortex, CBI). Following this, many attempts have been made, using techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), to modulate the activity of the cerebellum and the dentate-thalamo-cortical output, and measure their impact on M1 activity...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895619/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-head-movements-in-cervical-dystonia
#10
Cecília N Prudente, Randall Stilla, Shivangi Singh, Cathrin Buetefisch, Marian Evatt, Stewart A Factor, Alan Freeman, Xiaoping Philip Hu, Ellen J Hess, K Sathian, H A Jinnah
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894792/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-e1%C3%AE-deficiency-presenting-as-recurrent-acute-proximal-muscle-weakness-of-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-an-8-year-old-boy
#11
Bülent Kara, Hülya Maraş Genç, Emek Uyur-Yalçın, Ayfer Sakarya-Güneş, Uğur Topçu, Serap Mülayim, Serdar Ceylaner
The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) plays an important role in aerobic energy metabolism and acid-base equilibrium. PDHC contains of 5 enzymes, 3 catalytic (E1, E2, E3) and 2 regulatory, as well as 3 cofactors and an additional protein (E3-binding protein) encoded by nuclear genes. The clinical presentation of PDHC deficiency ranges from fatal neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurologic dysfunction without lactic acidosis. Paroxysmal neurologic problems such as intermittent ataxia, episodic weakness, exercise-induced dystonia and recurrent demyelination may also be seen although they are rare...
November 9, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894464/functional-neurological-symptoms-modulate-processing-of-emotionally-salient-stimuli
#12
Johanna Fiess, Brigitte Rockstroh, Roger Schmidt, Christian Wienbruch, Astrid Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892854/a-comprehensive-excitatory-input-map-of-the-striatum-reveals-novel-functional-organization
#13
Barbara J Hunnicutt, Bart C Jongbloets, William T Birdsong, Katrina J Gertz, Haining Zhong, Tianyi Mao
The striatum integrates excitatory inputs from the cortex and the thalamus to control diverse functions. Although the striatum is thought to consist of sensorimotor, associative and limbic domains, their precise demarcations and whether additional functional subdivisions exist remain unclear. How striatal inputs are differentially segregated into each domain is also poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive map of the excitatory inputs to the mouse striatum. The input patterns reveal boundaries between the known striatal domains...
November 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892762/functional-inter-cortical-connectivity-among-motor-related-cortices-during-motor-imagery-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#14
Yota Obayashi, Jun-Ichi Uemura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Neural connectivity was measured during motor imagery (MI) and motor execution (ME) using magnetoencephalography in nine healthy subjects, MI, and at rest. Lower coherence values during ME and MI between sensorimotor areas than at rest, and lower values during MI between the left supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus than ME suggested the sensorimotor network of MI functioned with similar connectivity to ME and that the inhibitory activity functioned continuously during MI, respectively.
November 28, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891090/disrupted-nodal-and-hub-organization-account-for-brain-network-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Yuko Koshimori, Sang-Soo Cho, Marion Criaud, Leigh Christopher, Mark Jacobs, Christine Ghadery, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Romina Mizrahi, Clement Hamani, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#16
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890818/the-anabolic-steroid-nandrolone-alters-cannabinoid-self-administration-and-brain-cb1-receptor-density-and-function
#17
Dicky Struik, Paola Fadda, Tamara Zara, Erica Zamberletti, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro, Walter Fratta, Liana Fattore
Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890491/neural-pattern-similarity-between-contra-and-ipsilateral-movements-in-high-frequency-band-of-human-electrocorticograms
#18
Yusuke Fujiwara, Riki Matsumoto, Takuro Nakae, Kiyohide Usami, Masao Matsuhashi, Takayuki Kikuchi, Kazumichi Yoshida, Takeharu Kunieda, Susumu Miyamoto, Tatsuya Mima, Akio Ikeda, Rieko Osu
The cortical motor areas are activated not only during contralateral limb movements but also during ipsilateral limb movements. Although these ipsilateral activities have been observed in several brain imaging studies, their functional role is poorly understood. Due to its high temporal resolution and low susceptibility to artifacts from body movements, the electrocorticogram (ECoG) is an advantageous measurement method for assessing the human brain function of motor behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that contra- and ipsilateral movements share a similarity in the high-frequency band of human ECoG signals...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890325/functional-coupling-between-frontoparietal-and-occipitotemporal-pathways-during-action-and-perception
#19
R Matthew Hutchison, Jason P Gallivan
Several lines of evidence point to areas in the occipitotemporal pathway as being critical in the processes of visual perception and object recognition. Much less appreciated, however, is the role that this pathway plays in object-related processing for the purposes of visually guided action. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI) and functional connectivity (FC) measures, we examined interactions between areas in frontoparietal cortex (FPC) involved in grasping, reaching, eye movements, and tool use and areas in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in object-, face-, scene-, body-, tool-, and motion-related processing, both during the performance of sensorimotor and visual-perceptual tasks, as well as during passive fixation (resting-state)...
November 9, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888319/subacute-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus-inducing-unilateral-sensorimotor-neuropathy
#20
REVIEW
Savvas Psarelis, Fanourios Georgiades, Antreas Ioannou, Eleni Xenophontos, Georgios Georgiou, Eleni Papanicolaou
We describe the case of a 32-year-old male with previous history of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) who presented with arthritis followed by a unilateral lower-limb sensorimotor impairment, without biochemical or immunological marker abnormalities. Our patient currently satisfies only three of the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics criteria. Management of such patients is challenging due to lack of examples in the literature, with this case being the first described where a seronegative patient with SCLE demonstrated neurological involvement...
November 25, 2016: Rheumatology International
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