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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212302/the-importance-of-conditioned-stimuli-in-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-craving-reduction-by-e-cigarettes
#1
Martijn Van Heel, Dinska Van Gucht, Koen Vanbrabant, Frank Baeyens
This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#2
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210212/differential-behavioral-and-neurobiological-effects-of-chronic-corticosterone-treatment-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#3
Jitao Li, Xiaomeng Xie, Youhong Li, Xiao Liu, Xuemei Liao, Yun-Ai Su, Tianmei Si
Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29-49) or adulthood (PND 71-91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209980/the-contribution-of-the-human-posterior-parietal-cortex-to-episodic-memory
#4
REVIEW
Carlo Sestieri, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209741/frequency-characteristics-of-human-muscle-and-cortical-responses-evoked-by-noisy-achilles-tendon-vibration
#5
Robyn Lynne Mildren, Ryan M Peters, Aimee J Hill, Jean-Sebastien Blouin, Mark Gregory Carpenter, J Timothy Inglis
Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine proprioceptive reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults (n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied two-minutes of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205497/critical-motor-involvement-in-prediction-of-human-and-non-biological-motion-trajectories
#7
Matthieu M de Wit, Laurel J Buxbaum
OBJECTIVES: Adaptive interaction with the environment requires the ability to predict both human and non-biological motion trajectories. Prior accounts of the neurocognitive basis for prediction of these two motion classes may generally be divided into those that posit that non-biological motion trajectories are predicted using the same motor planning and/or simulation mechanisms used for human actions, and those that posit distinct mechanisms for each. Using brain lesion patients and healthy controls, this study examined critical neural substrates and behavioral correlates of human and non-biological motion prediction...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205065/spontaneous-recovery-of-upper-extremity-motor-impairment-after-ischemic-stroke-implications-for-stem-cell-based-therapeutic-approaches
#8
Hossein Delavaran, Joseph Aked, Håkan Sjunnesson, Olle Lindvall, Bo Norrving, Zaal Kokaia, Arne Lindgren
Preclinical studies suggest that stem cell therapy (SCT) may improve sensorimotor recovery after stroke. Upper extremity motor impairment (UEMI) is common after stroke, often entailing substantial disability. To evaluate the feasibility of post-stroke UEMI as a target for SCT, we examined a selected sample of stroke patients potentially suitable for SCT, aiming to assess the frequency and recovery of UEMI, as well as its relation to activity limitations and participation restrictions. Patients aged 20-75 years with first-ever ischemic stroke, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores 1-18, underwent brain diffusion-weighted MRI within 4 days of stroke onset (n = 108)...
February 15, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#9
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203631/a-different-kind-of-weapon-focus-simulated-training-with-ballistic-weapons-reduces-change-blindness
#10
J Eric T Taylor, Jessica K Witt, Jay Pratt
Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools - and specifically weapons - can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and then searched for changes while holding a weapon or a control object...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203145/bidirectional-hebbian-plasticity-induced-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-basal-dendrites-of-rat-barrel-cortex-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#11
Andrea Díez-García, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Ángel Núñez, Washington Buño, David Fernández de Sevilla
According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202949/clinical-diversity-caused-by-novel-ighmbp2-variants
#12
Jun-Hui Yuan, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Akiko Yoshimura, Hiroshi Yaguchi, Koji Tsuzaki, Azusa Ikeda, Kenji Wada-Isoe, Masahiro Ando, Tomonori Nakamura, Yujiro Higuchi, Yu Hiramatsu, Yuji Okamoto, Hiroshi Takashima
Immunoglobulin helicase μ-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2) gene is responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2S and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1). From June 2014 to December 2015, we collected 408 cases, who referred to our genetic laboratory for genetic analysis, suspected with CMT disease or other inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) on the basis of clinical manifestations and electrophysiological studies. Mutation screening was performed using Ion AmpliSeq Custom Panels, which comprise 72 disease-causing or candidate genes of IPNs...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202889/treatment-of-transthyretin-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-with-tafamidis-a-case-report
#13
Yoshimichi Miyazaki
INTRODUCTION: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is a rare hereditary disorder caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. Tafamidis is a TTR stabilizer able to prevent TTR tetramer dissociation, and several studies have demonstrated its safety and efficacy at slowing the progression of neuropathy in FAP caused by the TTR Val30Met mutation. However, nerve conduction study (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) results have yet to be reported in relation to FAP progression during tafamidis therapy...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202410/atypical-antipsychotic-clozapine-reversed-deficit-on-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-reflex-produced-by-microinjection-of-doi-into-the-inferior-colliculus-in-rats
#14
Rodolpho Pereira de Oliveira, Karen Yuriko Nagaishi, Regina Cláudia Barbosa Silva
Dysfunctions of the serotonergic system have been suggested to be important in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in an operational measure of sensorimotor gating: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is the normal reduction in the startle response caused by a low intensity non-startling stimulus (prepulse) which is presented shortly before the startle stimulus (pulse). The hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), a 5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)2 receptor agonist disrupted PPI in rats...
February 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202036/kinesthetic-deficits-after-perinatal-stroke-robotic-measurement-in-hemiparetic-children
#15
Andrea M Kuczynski, Jennifer A Semrau, Adam Kirton, Sean P Dukelow
BACKGROUND: While sensory dysfunction is common in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) secondary to perinatal stroke, it is an understudied contributor to disability with limited objective measurement tools. Robotic technology offers the potential to objectively measure complex sensorimotor function but has been understudied in perinatal stroke. The present study aimed to quantify kinesthetic deficits in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke and determine their association with clinical function...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199924/hip-ankle-coordination-during-gait-in-individuals-with-chronic-ankle-instability
#16
Sheng-Che Yen, Kevin K Chui, Marie B Corkery, Elizabeth A Allen, Caitlin M Cloonan
Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) may have sensorimotor impairments that affect control at the hip in addition to the ankle. The purpose of this study was to compare hip-ankle coordination and coordination variability between individuals with CAI and healthy individuals during walking. Ten healthy subjects and 10 subjects with CAI were recruited to walk on a treadmill. Hip-ankle coordination was quantified using vector coding, and coordination variability was quantified using coefficient of correspondence...
February 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196356/therapeutic-hypothermia-provides-variable-protection-against-behavioral-deficits-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-a-potential-role-for-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#17
Johana Diaz, Suleiman Abiola, Nancy Kim, Oliver Avaritt, Debra Flock, Jenny Yu, Frances J Northington, Raul Chavez-Valdez
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), infants who survive hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) have persistent neurological abnormalities at school age. Protection by TH against HI brain injury is variable in both humans and animal models. Our current preclinical model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and TH displays this variability of outcomes in neuropathological and neuroimaging end points with some sexual dimorphism. The detailed behavioral phenotype of this model is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195523/characteristics-of-implicit-sensorimotor-adaptation-revealed-by-task-irrelevant-clamped-feedback
#18
John Ryan Morehead, Jordan A Taylor, Darius Parvin, Richard B Ivry
Sensorimotor adaptation occurs when there is a discrepancy between the expected and actual sensory consequences of a movement. This learning can be precisely measured, but its source has been hard to pin down because standard adaptation tasks introduce two potential learning signals: task performance errors and sensory prediction errors. Here we employed a new method that induces sensory prediction errors without task performance errors. This method combines the use of clamped visual feedback that is angularly offset from the target and independent of the direction of motion, along with instructions to ignore this feedback while reaching to targets...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#19
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194100/head-stability-and-head-trunk-coordination-in-horseback-riders-the-contribution-of-visual-information-according-to-expertise
#20
Agnès Olivier, Elise Faugloire, Laure Lejeune, Sophie Biau, Brice Isableu
Maintaining equilibrium while riding a horse is a challenging task that involves complex sensorimotor processes. We evaluated the relative contribution of visual information (static or dynamic) to horseback riders' postural stability (measured from the variability of segment position in space) and the coordination modes they adopted to regulate balance according to their level of expertise. Riders' perceptual typologies and their possible relation to postural stability were also assessed. Our main assumption was that the contribution of visual information to postural control would be reduced among expert riders in favor of vestibular and somesthetic reliance...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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