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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330684/investigation-of-mature-bdnf-and-probdnf-signaling-in-a-rat-photothrombotic-ischemic-model
#1
Mehreen Rahman, Haiyun Luo, Neil R Sims, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
Treatment with mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) promotes functional recovery after ischemia in animal trials but the possible role of its precursor protein proBDNF and its receptors or the factors responsible for the conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF in ischemic stroke are not known. The main aim of this study was to characterize the time-dependent expression of genes and/or proteins related to BDNF processing and signaling after ischemia as well as the sensorimotor behavioral dysfunction in a photothrombotic ischemic model in rats...
January 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#2
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327652/acquisition-of-a-mental-strategy-to-control-a-virtual-tail-via-brain-computer-interface
#3
Ayaka Fujisawa, Shoko Kasuga, Takaharu Suzuki, Junichi Ushiba
The objective of the present study was to clarify the variation in and properties of mental images and policies used to regulate specific image selection when learning to control a brain-computer interface. Healthy volunteers performed a reaching task with a virtually generated monkey tail-like object on a computer monitor by regulating event-related desynchronization (ERD) on the buttock area of the sensorimotor cortex as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). Participants were instructed to find a free image by which the tail was well controlled...
January 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327649/the-effect-of-auditory-stimulus-training-on-swimming-start-reaction-time
#4
Christopher Papic, Peter Sinclair, Che Fornusek, Ross Sanders
Task-specific auditory training can improve sensorimotor processing times of the auditory reaction time (RT). The majority of competitive swimmers do not conduct habitual start training with the electronic horn used to commence a race. We examined the effect of four week dive training interventions on RT and block time (BT) of 10 male adolescent swimmers (age 14.0 ± 1.4 years): dive training with auditory components (speaker and electronic horn) (n = 5) and dive training without auditory components (n = 5)...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326293/physiological-effects-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-cervical-dystonia
#5
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Jill L Ostrem, David E Vaillancourt, Robert Chen, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia. METHODS: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326171/abdominal-vagal-afferents-modulate-the-brain-transcriptome-and-behaviors-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#6
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322586/functional-connectivity-predicts-gender-evidence-for-gender-differences-in-resting-brain-connectivity
#8
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#9
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321712/sensorimotor-integration-during-motor-learning-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#11
REVIEW
Zeliha Matur, A Emre Öge
The effect of sensory signals coming from skin and muscle afferents on the sensorimotor cortical networks is entitled as sensory-motor integration (SMI). SMI can be studied electrophysiologically by the motor cortex excitability changes in response to peripheral sensory stimulation. These changes include the periods of short afferent inhibition (SAI), afferent facilitation (AF), and late afferent inhibition (LAI). During the early period of motor skill acquisition, motor cortex excitability increases and changes occur in the area covered by the relevant zone of the motor cortex...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321138/sensorimotor-functional-and-structural-networks-after-intracerebral-stem-cell-grafts-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain
#12
Claudia Green, Anuka Minassian, Stefanie Vogel, Michael Diedenhofen, Andreas Beyrau, Dirk Wiedermann, Mathias Hoehn
Past investigations on stem cell mediated recovery after stroke have limited their focus on the extent and morphological development of the ischemic lesion itself over time or on the integration capacity of the stem cell graft ex vivo However, an assessment of the long-term functional and structural improvement in vivo is essential to reliably quantify the regenerative capacity of cell implantation after stroke.We induced ischemic stroke in nude mice and implanted human neural stem cells (H9 derived) into the ipsilateral cortex in the acute phase...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320740/plexina2-forward-signaling-through-rap1-gtpases-regulates-dentate-gyrus-development-and-schizophrenia-like-behaviors
#13
Xiao-Feng Zhao, Rafi Kohen, Rachel Parent, Yuntao Duan, Grace L Fisher, Matthew J Korn, Lingchao Ji, Guoqiang Wan, Jing Jin, Andreas W Püschel, David F Dolan, Jack M Parent, Gabriel Corfas, Geoffrey G Murphy, Roman J Giger
Dentate gyrus (DG) development requires specification of granule cell (GC) progenitors in the hippocampal neuroepithelium, as well as their proliferation and migration into the primordial DG. We identify the Plexin family members Plxna2 and Plxna4 as important regulators of DG development. Distribution of immature GCs is regulated by Sema5A signaling through PlxnA2 and requires a functional PlxnA2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Rap1 small GTPases. In adult Plxna2-/- but not Plxna2-GAP-deficient mice, the dentate GC layer is severely malformed, neurogenesis is compromised, and mossy fibers form aberrant synaptic boutons within CA3...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320499/precocious-development-of-self-awareness-in-dolphins
#14
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319731/comparison-among-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-and-mononuclear-cells-to-promote-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rabbits
#15
Antônio Filipe Braga Fonseca, Jussara Peters Scheffer, Arthur Giraldi-Guimarães, Bárbara Paula Coelho, Raphael Mansur Medina, André Lacerda Abreu Oliveira
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of allogeneic mesenchymal stem-cells and autologous mononuclear cells to promote sensorimotor recovery and tissue rescue. METHODS: Female rabbits were submitted to the epidural balloon inflation method and the intravenous cells administrations were made after 8 hours or seven days after injury induction. Sensorimotor evaluation of the hindlimbs was performed, and the euthanasia was made thirty days after the treatment. Spinal cords were stained with hematoxylin and eosin...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319456/comt-genotype-and-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-high-and-low-hypnotizable-subjects
#16
Zinaida I Storozheva, Anna V Kirenskaya, Mikhail N Gordeev, Maria E Kovaleva, Vladimir Yu Novototsky-Vlasov
We investigated the association between hypnotizability, COMT polymorphism, P50 suppression ratio, and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response (ASR) in 21 high (HH) and 19 low (LH) hypnotizable subjects. The frequency of Met/Met carriers of COMT polymorphysm was higher in HH than in LH group (33.3% versus 10.6%, p = .049). Increased ASR amplitude and latency and decreased prepulse inhibition at 120 ms lead interval were found in the HH compared to the LH group. The effect of COMT genotype on prepulse inhibition was observed in LH group only...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317726/revisiting-the-link-between-body-and-agency-visual-movement-congruency-enhances-intentional-binding-but-is-not-body-specific
#17
Regine Zopf, Vince Polito, James Moore
Embodiment and agency are key aspects of how we perceive ourselves that have typically been associated with independent mechanisms. Recent work, however, has suggested that these mechanisms are related. The sense of agency arises from recognising a causal influence on the external world. This influence is typically realised through bodily movements and thus the perception of the bodily self could also be crucial for agency. We investigated whether a key index of agency - intentional binding - was modulated by body-specific information...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317605/non-invasive-modulation-reduces-repetitive-behavior-in-a-rat-model-through-the-sensorimotor-cortico-striatal-circuit
#18
Henriette Edemann-Callesen, Bettina Habelt, Franziska Wieske, Mark Jackson, Niranjan Khadka, Daniele Mattei, Nadine Bernhardt, Andreas Heinz, David Liebetanz, Marom Bikson, Frank Padberg, Ravit Hadar, Michael A Nitsche, Christine Winter
Involuntary movements as seen in repetitive disorders such as Tourette Syndrome (TS) results from cortical hyperexcitability that arise due to striato-thalamo-cortical circuit (STC) imbalance. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a stimulation procedure that changes cortical excitability, yet its relevance in repetitive disorders such as TS remains largely unexplored. Here, we employed the dopamine transporter-overexpressing (DAT-tg) rat model to investigate behavioral and neurobiological effects of frontal tDCS...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317414/innovative-stroke-interactive-virtual-therapy-strive-online-platform-for-community-dwelling-stroke-survivors-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#19
Liam Johnson, Marie-Louise Bird, Makii Muthalib, Wei-Peng Teo
INTRODUCTION: The STRoke Interactive Virtual thErapy (STRIVE) intervention provides community-dwelling stroke survivors access to individualised, remotely supervised progressive exercise training via an online platform. This trial aims to determine the clinical efficacy of the STRIVE intervention and its effect on brain activity in community-dwelling stroke survivors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In a multisite, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, 60 stroke survivors >3 months poststroke with mild-to-moderate upper extremity impairment will be recruited and equally randomised by location (Melbourne, Victoria or Launceston, Tasmania) to receive 8 weeks of virtual therapy (VT) at a local exercise training facility or usual care...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316895/daily-repetitive-sensory-stimulation-of-the-paretic-hand-for-the-treatment-of-sensorimotor-deficits-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke-reset-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#20
Jan C Kattenstroth, Tobias Kalisch, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Wolfgang Greulich, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse
BACKGROUND: Repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS) adapts the timing of stimulation protocols used in cellular studies to induce synaptic plasticity. In healthy subjects, RSS leads to widespread sensorimotor cortical reorganization paralleled by improved sensorimotor behavior. Here, we investigated whether RSS reduces sensorimotor upper limb impairment in patients with subacute stroke more effectively than conventional therapy. METHODS: A single-blinded sham-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of RSS in treating sensorimotor deficits of the upper limbs...
January 9, 2018: BMC Neurology
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