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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317947/parietal-operculum-and-motor-cortex-activities-predict-motor-recovery-in-moderate-to-severe-stroke
#1
Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu, Thomas A Zeffiro, Laurent Lamalle, Olivier Heck, Félix Renard, Antoine Thuriot, Alexandre Krainik, Marc Hommel, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard
While motor recovery following mild stroke has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, mechanisms of recovery after moderate to severe strokes of the types that are often the focus for novel restorative therapies remain obscure. We used fMRI to: 1) characterize reorganization occurring after moderate to severe subacute stroke, 2) identify brain regions associated with motor recovery and 3) to test whether brain activity associated with passive movement measured in the subacute period could predict motor outcome six months later...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315957/right-sided-dominance-of-the-bilateral-vestibular-system-in-the-upper-brainstem-and-thalamus
#2
Marianne Dieterich, V Kirsch, T Brandt
MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315610/sensory-processing-in-huntington-s-disease
#3
Ana Mirallave, Merche Morales, Christopher Cabib, Esteban J Muñoz, Pilar Santacruz, Xavier Gasull, Josep Valls-Sole
OBJECTIVE: An intriguing electrophysiological feature of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) is the delayed latency and decreased amplitude of somatosensory long-latency evoked potentials (LLeps). We investigated whether such dysfunction was associated with delayed conscious perception of the sensory stimulus. METHODS: Sixteen HD patients and 16 control subjects faced a computer screen showing the Libet's clock (Libet et al., 1983). In Rest trials, subjects had to memorize the position of the clock handle at perception of either electrical or thermal stimuli (AW)...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314813/tdcs-induced-modulation-of-gaba-levels-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#4
Daria Antonenko, Florian Schubert, Florian Bohm, Bernd Ittermann, Semiha Aydin, Dayana Hayek, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates human behavior, neuronal patterns and metabolite concentrations, with exciting potential for neurorehabilitation. However, the understanding of tDCS-induced alterations on the neuronal level is incomplete and conclusions from young adults, in whom the majority of studies have been conducted, cannot be easily transferred to older populations. Here, we investigated tDCS-induced effects in older adults (N=48, age range 50-79 years) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess sensorimotor network strength and inter-hemispheric connectivity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314748/flight-control-of-fruit-flies-dynamic-response-to-optic-flow-and-headwind
#5
Kiaran K K Lawson, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings, and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) was examined. 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314519/after-effects-of-peripheral-neurostimulation-on-brain-plasticity-and-ankle-function-in-chronic-stroke-the-role-of-afferents-recruited
#6
Louis-David Beaulieu, Hugo Massé-Alarie, Samuel Camiré-Bernier, Édith Ribot-Ciscar, Cyril Schneider
AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study tested the after-effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) and muscle tendon vibration (VIB) on brain plasticity and sensorimotor impairments in chronic stroke to investigate whether different results could depend on the nature of afferents recruited by each technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen people with chronic stroke participated in five sessions (one per week)...
March 14, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#7
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299642/cerebromicrovascular-dysfunction-predicts-cognitive-decline-and-gait-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-whole-brain-irradiation-induced-accelerated-brain-senescence
#8
Zoltan Ungvari, Stefano Tarantini, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Gabor A Fülöp, Sreemathi Logan, Tamas Kiss, Eszter Farkas, Anna Csiszar, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Whole brain irradiation (WBI) is a mainstream therapy for patients with both identifiable brain metastases and prophylaxis for microscopic malignancies. However, it also promotes accelerated senescence in healthy tissues and leads to progressive cognitive dysfunction in up to 50% of tumor patients surviving long term after treatment, due to γ-irradiation-induced cerebromicrovascular injury. Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neuronal activity-dependent cerebromicrovascular dilation (functional hyperemia) has a critical role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299208/sensorimotor-cortical-neuroplasticity-in-the-early-stage-of-bell-s-palsy
#9
Wenwen Song, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Zhijian Cao, Sisi Zhou, Courtney Lang, Kun Lv, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298896/spotmetrics-an-open-source-image-analysis-software-plugin-for-automatic-chromatophore-detection-and-measurement
#10
Stavros P Hadjisolomou, George El-Haddad
Coleoid cephalopods (squid, octopus, and sepia) are renowned for their elaborate body patterning capabilities, which are employed for camouflage or communication. The specific chromatic appearance of a cephalopod, at any given moment, is a direct result of the combined action of their intradermal pigmented chromatophore organs and reflecting cells. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the cephalopod coloration system by video recording and analyzing the activation of individual chromatophores in time. The fact that adult cephalopods have small chromatophores, up to several hundred thousand in number, makes measurement and analysis over several seconds a difficult task...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294714/where-is-the-beat-the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-stress-and-rhythmical-well-formedness-in-auditory-story-comprehension
#11
Katerina D Kandylaki, Karen Henrich, Arne Nagels, Tilo Kircher, Ulrike Domahs, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Richard Wiese
While processing continuous speech, humans use beat perception to correctly identify word boundaries. The beats of language are stress patterns that are created by combining lexical (word-specific) stress patterns and the rhythm of a specific language. Sometimes, the lexical stress pattern needs to be altered to obey the rhythm of the language. This study investigated this interplay of lexical stress patterns and rhythmical well-formedness in natural speech with fMRI. Previous electrophysiological studies on cases in which a regular lexical stress pattern may be altered to obtain rhythmical well-formedness showed that even subtle rhythmic deviations are detected by the brain if attention is directed toward prosody...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294693/functional-network-connectivity-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-correlations-with-disability-and-cognitive-impairment
#12
Maria A Rocca, Paola Valsasina, Victoria M Leavitt, Mariaemma Rodegher, Marta Radaelli, Gianna C Riccitelli, Vittorio Martinelli, Filippo Martinelli-Boneschi, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities within the principal brain networks in a large cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, to define the trajectory of FC changes over disease stages and their relation with clinical and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. METHODS: RS functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), clinical, and neuropsychological evaluation were obtained from 215 MS patients and 98 healthy controls...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294351/top-down-control-of-spinal-sensorimotor-circuits-essential-for-survival
#13
Stella Koutsikou, Richard Apps, Bridget M Lumb
The ability to interact with challenging environments requires coordination of sensory and motor systems that underpin appropriate survival behaviours. All animals, including humans, use active and passive coping strategies to react to escapable or inescapable threats respectively. Across species the neural pathways involved in survival behaviours are highly conserved and there is a consensus that knowledge of such pathways is a fundamental step towards understanding the neural circuits underpinning emotion in humans and treating anxiety or other prevalent emotional disorders...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294187/neurophysiological-and-bold-signal-uncoupling-of-giant-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-in-progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-a-case-series-study
#14
Silvia F Storti, Alessandra Del Felice, Laura Canafoglia, Emanuela Formaggio, Francesco Brigo, Franco Alessandrini, Luigi G Bongiovanni, Gloria Menegaz, Paolo Manganotti
In progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME), a rare epileptic syndrome caused by a variety of genetic disorders, the combination of peripheral stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can shed light on the mechanisms underlying cortical dysfunction. The aim of the study is to investigate sensorimotor network modifications in PME by assessing the relationship between neurophysiological findings and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) obtained briefly before fMRI and BOLD activation during median-nerve electrical stimulation were recorded in four subjects with typical PME phenotype and compared with normative data...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293803/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-schizophrenia
#15
Chuanjun Zhuo, Chunli Wang, Lina Wang, Xinyu Guo, Qingying Xu, Yanyan Liu, Jiajia Zhu
Structural and functional abnormalities of the cerebellum in schizophrenia have been reported. Most previous studies investigating resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) have relied on a priori restrictions on seed regions or specific networks, which may bias observations. In this study, we aimed to elicit the connectivity alterations of the cerebellum in schizophrenia in a hypothesis-free approach. Ninety-five schizophrenia patients and 93 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293484/structural-and-functional-hyperconnectivity-within-the-sensorimotor-system-in-xenomelia
#16
Jürgen Hänggi, Deborah A Vitacco, Leonie M Hilti, Roger Luechinger, Bernd Kraemer, Peter Brugger
INTRODUCTION: Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent and compulsive desire for the amputation of one or more physically healthy limbs. We highlight the neurological underpinnings of xenomelia by assessing structural and functional connectivity by means of whole-brain connectome and network analyses of regions previously implicated in empirical research in this condition. METHODS: We compared structural and functional connectivity between 13 xenomelic men with matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with fiber tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293179/disynaptic-subthalamic-input-to-the-posterior-cerebellum-in-rat
#17
Saad Jwair, Patrice Coulon, Tom J H Ruigrok
In the last decade, the interplay between basal ganglia and cerebellar functions has been increasingly advocated to explain their joint operation in both normal and pathological conditions. Yet, insight into the neuroanatomical basis of this interplay between both subcortical structures remains sparse and is mainly derived from work in primates. Here, in rodents, we have studied the existence of a potential disynaptic connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellar cortex as has been demonstrated earlier for the primate...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293162/ensemble-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-complex-graph-measures-from-diffusion-tensor-images
#18
Ashkan Ebadi, Josué L Dalboni da Rocha, Dushyanth B Nagaraju, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Ivanei Bramati, Gabriel Coutinho, Ranganatha Sitaram, Parisa Rashidi
The human brain is a complex network of interacting regions. The gray matter regions of brain are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. In this article, we report our investigation about the potential of applying brain connectivity patterns as an aid in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We performed pattern analysis of graph theoretical measures derived from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data representing structural brain networks of 45 subjects, consisting of 15 patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), 15 patients of MCI, and 15 healthy subjects (CT)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292645/one-hand-two-hands-two-people-prospective-sensorimotor-control-in-children-with-autism
#19
Caterina Ansuini, Jessica Podda, Francesca Maria Battaglia, Edvige Veneselli, Cristina Becchio
Where grasps are made reveals how grasps are planned. The grasp height effect predicts that, when people take hold of an object to move it to a new position, the grasp height on the object is inversely related to the height of the target position. In the present study, we used this effect as a window into the prospective sensorimotor control of children with autism spectrum disorders without accompanying intellectual impairment. Participants were instructed to grasp a vertical cylinder and move it from a table (home position) to a shelf of varying height (target position)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290507/inhibitory-interneuron-circuits-at-cortical-and-spinal-levels-are-associated-with-individual-differences-in-corticomuscular-coherence-during-isometric-voluntary-contraction
#20
Ryosuke Matsuya, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is an oscillatory synchronization of 15-35 Hz (β-band) between electroencephalogram (EEG) of the sensorimotor cortex and electromyogram of contracting muscles. Although we reported that the magnitude of CMC varies among individuals, the physiological mechanisms underlying this variation are still unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between CMC and intracortical inhibition (ICI) in the primary motor cortex (M1)/recurrent inhibition (RI) in the spinal cord, which probably affect oscillatory neural activities...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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