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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#1
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432992/bioaccumulation-kinetics-of-copper-in-ruditapes-philippinarum-exposed-to-increasing-continuous-and-pulsed-exposure-implications-for-growth
#2
Lígia M B M Santana, Julián Blasco, Denis M S Abessa, Olivia Campana
Metal bioaccumulation and toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on factors such as magnitude, duration and frequency of the exposure. The type of the exposure affects the toxicokinetic processes in the organisms. In this study, we carried out 30-day toxicity tests on juveniles of Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to increasing, continuous and pulsed exposure. Organisms were exposed to copper-spiked sediments followed by a 10-day recovery period. We assessed the interaction between the kinetics of subcellular copper partitioning and the growth response...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432978/cadmium-hampers-salt-tolerance-of-sesuvium-portulacastrum
#3
Mariem Wali, Soledad Martos, Laura Pérez-Martín, Chedly Abdelly, Tahar Ghnaya, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Benet Gunsé
It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl2. Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells...
April 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#4
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432962/gc-ms-quantitative-analysis-of-black-market-pharmaceutical-products-containing-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-seized-by-the-brazilian-federal-police
#5
Diana Brito da Justa Neves, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis...
April 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432916/colorimetric-method-for-the-detection-of-melamine-using-in-situ-formed-silver-nanoparticles-via-tannic-acid
#6
Md Fazle Alam, Amaj Ahmed Laskar, Shahbaz Ahmed, Mohd Azfar Shaida, Hina Younus
Melamine toxicity has recently attracted worldwide attention as it causes renal failure and the death of humans and animals. Therefore, developing a simple, fast and sensitive method for the routine detection of melamine is the need of the hour. Herein, we have developed a selective colorimetric method for the detection of melamine in milk samples based upon in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via tannic acid. The AgNPs thus formed were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), zetasizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
April 17, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432892/arsenic-chromium-molybdenum-and-selenium-geochemical-fractions-and-potential-mobilization-in-riverine-soil-profiles-originating-from-germany-and-egypt
#7
Sabry M Shaheen, Eilhann E Kwon, Jayanta K Biswas, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
The fractionation and potential mobilization of As, Cr, Mo, and Se in four floodplain soil profiles collected along the Nile (Egypt) and Wupper (Germany) Rivers were assessed using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations of total and the geochemical fractions (acid soluble (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (F4) fraction) of the elements were determined. The Wupper soils had the highest total concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of As (378) and Cr (2,797) while the Nile soils contained the highest total Mo (12) and Se (42)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432881/improvement-in-cadmium-tolerance-of-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-with-exogenous-application-of-chitooligosaccharide
#8
Haiying Zong, Kecheng Li, Song Liu, Lin Song, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, which is readily taken up by plant roots and has deleterious effects on crop yield and quality. The study investigated the potential cross-protection roles of chitooligosaccharide (COS) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L.) under greenhouse conditions. The results demonstrated that spraying COS onto the leaves of edible rape could promote the plant growth and leaf chlorophyll contents, decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in leaves as well as the Cd(2+) concentration in shoots and roots of edible rape under Cd stress...
April 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432880/immobilization-of-cu-zn-cd-and-pb-in-mine-drainage-stream-sediment-using-chinese-loess
#9
Fei Zang, Shengli Wang, Zhongren Nan, Jianmin Ma, Yepu Li, Qian Zhang, Yazhou Chen
The in situ immobilization of metal-contaminated sediment, using various amendments, has attracted great attention owing to their cost-effectiveness. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese loess on Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb stabilization by decreasing their bioavailability in contaminated sediment. The loess was mixed with the sediment in doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg. Approximately 70 d after loess application, the effectiveness was evaluated using the Tessier sequential extraction procedure and single extractants, including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#10
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432818/characterization-of-decellularized-ovine-small-intestine-submucosal-layer-as-extracellular-matrix-based-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering
#11
Morteza Rashtbar, Jamshid Hadjati, Jafar Ai, Issa Jahanzad, Mahmoud Azami, Sadegh Shirian, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Extracellular matrix-based scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues have been used in tissue engineering applications. Among all the tissues, decellularized small intestine submucosal layer (SIS) has been recently investigated for its exceptional characteristics and biocompatibilities. These investigations have been mainly focused on the decellularized porcine SIS; however, there has not been any report on ovine SIS (OSIS) layer. In this study, OSIS was decellularized and its physical, chemical, and morphological properties were evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432798/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-mitotane-analytical-assay-and-patient-follow-up
#12
Yoann Cazaubon, Helene Guillemin, Damien Vautier, Olivier Oget, Hervé Millart, Claire Gozalo, Zoubir Djerada, Catherine Feliu
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy of the adrenal gland. Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is the most effective chemotherapy for ACC. According to literature, mitotane plasma trough concentrations within 14-20 mg.L(1) are correlated with a higher response rate with acceptable toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mitotane is therefore recommended. The aim of this study was to propose a robust, and simple method for mitotane quantification in plasma. The validation procedures were based on international guidelines...
April 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432752/incretin-based-glucose-lowering-medications-and-the-risk-for-acute-pancreatitis-and-or-pancreatic-cancer-risk-reassuring-data-from-cardio-vascular-outcome-trials
#13
Michael A Nauck, Juris J Meier, Wolfgang E Schmidt
Incretin-based medications (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] are glucose-lowering drugs approved and introduced after 2006 (1). Although both classes of drugs appeared to be relatively safe based on results from clinical trials and standard animal toxicology studies, epidemiological data (2, 3) and histological findings (4) in genetically modified rodents exposed to such agents have raised concern that pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer may be long-term risks associated with this therapy...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432686/high-level-of-reduced-glutathione-contributes-to-detoxification-of-lipid-peroxide-derived-reactive-carbonyl-species-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-overexpressing-glutathione-reductase-under-aluminum-stress
#15
Lina Yin, Jun'ichi Mano, Kiyoshi Tanaka, Shiwen Wang, Meijuan Zhang, Xiping Deng, Suiqi Zhang
Lipid peroxide-derived reactive carbonyl species (RCS), generated downstream of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are critical damage-inducing species in plant aluminum (Al) toxicity. In mammals, RCS are scavenged primarily by glutathione (GSH), but in plant Al stress, contribution of GSH to RCS detoxification has not been evaluated. In this study, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the gene AtGR1 (accession code At3g24170), encoding glutathione reductase (GR), were generated, and their performance under Al stress was examined...
April 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432648/rationale-for-new-checkpoint-inhibitor-combinations-in-melanoma-therapy
#16
Mario Mandalà, Carlo Tondini, Barbara Merelli, Daniela Massi
The use of monoclonal antibodies that block immunologic checkpoints, which mediate adaptive immune resistance, has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Specifically, targeting single immune suppressive molecules such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), or programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells or its primary ligand, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), resulted in pronounced clinical benefit for a subset of melanoma patients. Although single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has demonstrated promising clinical activity in metastatic melanoma patients, there is still a significant proportion of patients who show primary resistance to these therapies...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432638/community-gardens-as-environmental-health-interventions-benefits-versus-potential-risks
#17
REVIEW
W K Al-Delaimy, M Webb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. RECENT FINDINGS: Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432637/polluted-pathways-mechanisms-of-metabolic-disruption-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#18
REVIEW
Mizuho S Mimoto, Angel Nadal, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432623/performance-of-cstr-egsb-sbr-system-for-treating-sulfate-rich-cellulosic-ethanol-wastewater-and-microbial-community-analysis
#19
Lili Shan, Zhaohan Zhang, Yanling Yu, John Justo Ambuchi, Yujie Feng
Performance and microbial community composition were evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic and aerobic system treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater (CEW). The system was operated at five different chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4(2-) ratios (63.8, 26.3, 17.8, 13.7, and 10.7). Stable performance was obtained for total COD removal efficiency (94.5%), sulfate removal (89.3%), and methane production rate (11.5 L/day) at an organic loading rate of 32.4 kg COD/(m(3)·day). The acidogenic reactor made a positive contribution to net VFAs production (2318...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432595/what-animal-models-have-taught-us-about-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-bisphosphonates-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Matthew R Allen, Mohammad W Aref
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have long been the gold-standard anti-remodeling treatment for numerous metabolic bone diseases. Since these drugs are excreted unmetabolized through the kidney, they are not recommended for individuals with compromised kidney function due to concerns of kidney and bone toxicity. The goal of this paper is to summarize the preclinical BP work in models of kidney disease with particular focus on the bone, kidney, and vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: Summative data exists showing positive effects on bone and vascular calcifications with minimal evidence for bone or kidney toxicity in animal models...
April 21, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
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