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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335589/global-functional-analysis-of-butanol-sensitive-escherichia-coli-and-its-evolved-butanol-tolerant-strain
#1
Haeyoung Jeong, Seung-Won Lee, Sun Hong Kim, Eun-Youn Kim, Sinyeon Kim, Sung Ho Yoon
Butanol is a promising alternative to ethanol and is desirable for use in transportation fuels and additives to gasoline and diesel fuels. Microbial production of butanol is challenging primarily due to its toxicity and low titer of production. Herein, we compared the transcriptome and phenome of wild-type Escherichia coli and its butanol-tolerant evolved strain to understand the global cellular physiology and metabolism responsible for butanol tolerance. When the ancestral butanol-sensitive E. coli was exposed to butanol, gene activities involved in respiratory mechanisms and oxidative stress were highly perturbed...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335571/3-substituted-n-benzylpyrazine-2-carboxamide-derivatives-synthesis-antimycobacterial-and-antibacterial-evaluation
#2
Lucia Semelková, Ondřej Janďourek, Klára Konečná, Pavla Paterová, Lucie Navrátilová, František Trejtnar, Vladimír Kubíček, Jiří Kuneš, Martin Doležal, Jan Zitko
A series of substituted N-benzyl-3-chloropyrazine-2-carboxamides were prepared as positional isomers of 5-chloro and 6-chloro derivatives, prepared previously. During the aminolysis of the acyl chloride, the simultaneous substitution of chlorine with benzylamino moiety gave rise to N-benzyl-3-(benzylamino)pyrazine-2-carboxamides as side products, in some cases. Although not initially planned, the reaction conditions were modified to populate this double substituted series. The final compounds were tested against four mycobacterial strains...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335565/an-eco-safety-assessment-of-glyoxal-containing-cellulose-ether-on-freeze-dried-microbial-strain-cyanobacteria-daphnia-and-zebrafish
#3
Chang-Beom Park, Min Ju Song, Nak Woon Choi, Sunghoon Kim, Hyun Pyo Jeon, Sanghun Kim, Youngjun Kim
The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether on 11 different microbial strains, Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos were designed as an initial stage of toxicity screening and performed in accordance with standardized toxicity test guidelines...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335481/genetic-variants-contributing-to-colistin-cytotoxicity-identification-of-tgif1-and-hoxd10-using-a-population-genomics-approach
#4
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335476/inhibition-of-neoplastic-transformation-and-chemically-induced-skin-hyperplasia-in-mice-by-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-si-wu-tang
#5
Mandy M Liu, Kevin M Huang, Steven Yeung, Andy Chang, Suhui Zhang, Nan Mei, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Ying Huang
Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women's diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT's activity of cancer prevention...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335468/differential-degradation-and-detoxification-of-an-aromatic-pollutant-by-two-different-peroxidases
#6
Aysha Hamad Alneyadi, Iltaf Shah, Synan F AbuQamar, Syed Salman Ashraf
Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye), using two peroxidases-soybean peroxidase (SBP) and chloroperoxidase (CPO). Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H₂O₂ concentration, etc...
March 18, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335427/laxative-effects-of-total-diterpenoids-extracted-from-the-roots-of-euphorbia-pekinensis-are-attributable-to-alterations-of-aquaporins-in-the-colon
#8
Kuilong Wang, Lian Liu, Jianyu Huang, Hongli Yu, Hao Wu, Yu Duan, Xiaobing Cui, Xingde Zhang, Liping Liu, Wei Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of total diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis (TDEP) on the mouse colon and to clarify the mechanism. Dried powdered roots of E. pekinensis were extracted with chloroform, and then the extract (6.7 g) was subjected to column chromatography and preparative TLC, giving TDEP. Using the HPLC-DAD method, the purity of TDEP was determined as 85.26%. Mice were orally administered with TDEP (3.942, 19.71 and 39.42 mg/kg), after which fecal water content and colon water content were examined...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335421/pamam-dendrimers-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier-when-administered-through-the-carotid-artery-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Bhairavi Srinageshwar, Sarah Peruzzaro, Melissa Andrews, Kayla Johnson, Allison Hietpas, Brittany Clark, Crystal McGuire, Eric Petersen, Jordyn Kippe, Andrew Stewart, Olivia Lossia, Abeer Al-Gharaibeh, Aaron Antcliff, Rebecca Culver, Douglas Swanson, Gary Dunbar, Ajit Sharma, Julien Rossignol
Drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS) is challenging due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and drug delivery into the brain overcoming the BBB can be achieved using nanoparticles such as dendrimers. The conventional cationic dendrimers used are highly toxic. Therefore, the present study investigates the role of novel mixed surface dendrimers, which have potentially less toxicity and can cross the BBB when administered through the carotid artery in mice. In vitro experiments investigated the uptake of amine dendrimers (G1-NH₂ and G4-NH₂) and novel dendrimers (G1-90/10 and G4-90/10) by primary cortical cultures...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335390/a-simple-metallothionein-based-biosensor-for-enhanced-detection-of-arsenic-and-mercury
#10
Gordon W Irvine, Swee Ngin Tan, Martin J Stillman
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As(3+) and Hg(2+). A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs)...
March 13, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335389/characteristics%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lethality%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-recombinant%C3%A2-dermonecrotic%C3%A2-venom%C3%A2-phospholipase%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-hemiscorpius%C3%A2-lepturus
#11
Elham Torabi, Mahdi Behdani, Mohammad Hosseininejad Chafi, Reza Moazzami, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Vahid Khalaj, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
Hemoscorpius lepturus is the most medically important scorpion in Iran. The clinical signs of H. lepturus envenomation are remarkably similar to those reported for brown spiders, including dermonecrosis, hematuria, renal failure and even death. The lethality and toxicity of brown spiders' venom have been attributed to its phospholipase D activity. This study aims to identify a phospholipase D with possible lethality and dermonecrotic activity in H. lepturus venom. In this study, a cDNA library of the venom glands was generated by Illumina RNA sequencing...
March 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335386/revisiting-the-metabolism-and-bioactivation-of-ketoconazole-in-human-and-mouse-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics
#12
Ju-Hyun Kim, Won-Gu Choi, Sangkyu Lee, Hye Suk Lee
Although ketoconazole (KCZ) has been used worldwide for 30 years, its metabolic characteristics are poorly described. Moreover, the hepatotoxicity of KCZ limits its therapeutic use. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to evaluate the metabolic profile of KCZ in mouse and human and identify the mechanisms underlying its hepatotoxicity. A total of 28 metabolites of KCZ, 11 of which were novel, were identified in this study. Newly identified metabolites were classified into three categories according to the metabolic positions of a piperazine ring, imidazole ring, and N-acetyl moiety...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335354/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-biomolecule-interactions-influence-oral-absorption
#13
Mi-Rae Jo, Jin Yu, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Jae Ho Song, Kyoung-Min Kim, Jae-Min Oh, Soo-Jin Choi
Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in various industrial fields, such as electronics, packaging, food, and cosmetics. Accordingly, concerns about the potential toxicity of TiO₂ NPs have increased. In order to comprehend their in vivo behavior and potential toxicity, we must evaluate the interactions between TiO₂ NPs and biomolecules, which can alter the physicochemical properties and the fate of NPs under physiological conditions. In the present study, in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of food grade TiO₂ (f-TiO₂) NPs were evaluated following a single-dose oral administration to rats and were compared to those of general grade TiO₂ (g-TiO₂) NPs...
November 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335350/shape-and-charge-of-gold-nanomaterials-influence-survivorship-oxidative-stress-and-moulting-of-daphnia-magna
#14
Fatima Nasser, Adam Davis, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Iseult Lynch
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are materials with at least one dimension between 1-100 nm. The small size of ENMs results in a large surface area to volume ratio, giving ENMs novel characteristics that are not traditionally exhibited by larger bulk materials. Coupled with large surface area is an enormous capacity for surface functionalization of ENMs, e.g., with different ligands or surface changes, leading to an almost infinite array of variability of ENMs. Here we explore the effects of various shaped (spheres, rods) and charged (negative, positive) gold ENMs on Daphnia magna (D...
November 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335344/a-targeted-nanoprobe-based-on-carbon-nanotubes-natural-biopolymer-chitosan-composites
#15
Baoyan Wu, Na Zhao
A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a using a water-soluble carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Chitosan was fluorescently labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate via the covalently linkage of the isothiocyanate group with the amino group...
November 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335336/oral-toxicity-and-intestinal-transport-mechanism-of-colloidal-gold-nanoparticle-treated-red-ginseng
#16
Song-Hwa Bae, Jin Yu, Mi-Ran Go, Hyun-Jin Kim, Yun-Gu Hwang, Soo-Jin Choi
(1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335333/plant-mediated-green-synthesis-of-cuo-nanoparticles-comparison-of-toxicity-of-engineered-and-plant-mediated-cuo-nanoparticles-towards-daphnia-magna
#17
Sadia Saif, Arifa Tahir, Tayyaba Asim, Yongsheng Chen
Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
November 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335293/cholesterol-modified-amino-pullulan-nanoparticles-as-a-drug-carrier-comparative-study-of-cholesterol-modified-carboxyethyl-pullulan-and-pullulan-nanoparticles
#18
Xiaojun Tao, Yongchao Xie, Qiufang Zhang, Ximin Qiu, Liming Yuan, Yi Wen, Min Li, Xiaoping Yang, Ting Tao, Minghui Xie, Yanwei Lv, Qinyi Wang, Xing Feng
To search for nano-drug preparations with high efficiency in tumor treatment, we evaluated the drug-loading capacity and cell-uptake toxicity of three kinds of nanoparticles (NPs). Pullulan was grafted with ethylenediamine and hydrophobic groups to form hydrophobic cholesterol-modified amino-pullulan (CHAP) conjugates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to identify the CHAP structure and calculate the degree of substitution of the cholesterol group. We compared three types of NPs with close cholesterol hydrophobic properties: CHAP, cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP), and cholesterol-modified carboxylethylpullulan (CHCP), with the degree of substitution of cholesterol of 2...
September 8, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335259/lipid-nanovectors-to-deliver-rna-oligonucleotides-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Virginia Campani, Giuseppina Salzano, Sara Lusa, Giuseppe De Rosa
The growing knowledge on the mechanisms of gene silencing and gene regulation by non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), mainly small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), is providing a significant boost to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. However, the design of RNA-based therapeutics is hampered by biopharmaceutical issues, thus requiring the use of suitable delivery strategies. In this regards, lipid nanovectors have been successfully investigated to deliver RNA in different forms of cancer...
July 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335244/human-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-for-use-in-cancer-drug-delivery-process-optimization-and-in-vitro-characterization
#20
Nikita Lomis, Susan Westfall, Leila Farahdel, Meenakshi Malhotra, Dominique Shum-Tim, Satya Prakash
Human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA-NPs) are widely-used drug delivery systems with applications in various diseases, like cancer. For intravenous administration of HSA-NPs, the particle size, surface charge, drug loading and in vitro release kinetics are important parameters for consideration. This study focuses on the development of stable HSA-NPs containing the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) via the emulsion-solvent evaporation method using a high-pressure homogenizer. The key parameters for the preparation of PTX-HSA-NPs are: the starting concentrations of HSA, PTX and the organic solvent, including the homogenization pressure and its number cycles, were optimized...
June 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
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