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M Cordovana, M Kostrzewa, J Sóki, E Witt, S Ambretti, A B Pranada
Bacteroides fragilis is a frequent anaerobic pathogen and can cause severe infections. Resistance to carbapenems, associated with the cfiA gene encoded carbapenemase, represents an emerging problem. To date, no rapid methods are available to detect and confirm this resistance mechanism in routine laboratories, and the missed recognition of carbapenemase-producing strains can lead to therapeutic failures. In this study we have investigated a whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow to detect carbapenemase-producing B...
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Yusuke Ohsaki, Ryoichi Kubo, Jonathan Hobson, Mya Davies, Shunsuke Osaka, Wataru Hayashi, Yui Taniguchi, Shota Koide, Yukiko Nagano, Noriyuki Nagano
Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenemases and identification of their types in Enterobacteriaceae are both still major challenges for clinical laboratories in attempting to prevent the intrusion and transmission of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the MASTDISCS combi Carba plus disc system in identification of different carbapenemase types, including OXA-48-type carbapenemase, for which no specific enzyme inhibitors have so far been available. The simple disc system discriminates carbapenemases, including OXA-48-types exhibiting low carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations, by targeting Enterobacteriaceae isolates with a EUCAST meropenem screening cut-off of ≥0...
January 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Vladimira Hinić, Josiane Reist, Adrian Egli
We evaluated a rapid biochemical screening test β-CARBA™ for detection of Gram-negative carbapenemase producers. The sensitivity of the test after 30min incubation was 98.2%, but increased to 100% after 1h. β-CARBA™ proved reliable for carbapenemase screening in Acinetobacter spp. for which currently no commercial phenotypic assays are available.
January 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Karin Thorsheim, Daniel Willén, Emil Tykesson, Jonas Ståhle, Jean-Pierre Praly, Sébastien Vidal, Magnus T Johnson, Göran Widmalm, Sophie Manner, Ulf Ellervik
Xyloside analogues with substitution of the endocyclic oxygen atom by sulfur or carbon were investigated as substrates for β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (β4GalT7), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains. The analogues with an endocyclic sulfur atom proved to be excellent substrates for β4GalT7, and were galactosylated approximately fifteen times more efficiently than the corresponding xyloside. The 5a-carba-β-xylopyranoside in the d-configuration proved to be a good substrate for β4GalT7, whereas the enantiomer in the l-configuration showed no activity...
December 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gina Thomson, David Turner, William Brasso, Susan Kircher, Thierry Guillet, Kenneth Thomson
There is an urgent need for rapid, accurate detection and classification of carbapenemases. The current study evaluated the automated BD Phoenix CPO Detect and the manual bioMérieux Rapidec Carba NP tests for meeting these needs. Both tests were challenged with 294 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Acinetobacter baumannii chosen to provide extreme diagnostic difficulty. Carbapenemases such as KPC, NMC-A, IMI, SME, NDM, SPM, IMP, VIM, and OXA-23, 40, 48, 58, 72, 181, and 232 were produced by 243 isolates and 51 carbapenemase-negative isolates included porin mutants and producers of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpCs, K1, and broad-spectrum β-lactamases...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Kirsten Kost, Jumi Yi, Beverly Rogers, Robert Jerris
We evaluated detection of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) by routine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Xpert® Carba-R assay, hydrolysis of ertapenem and imipenem detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and hydrolysis by colorimetry using the EPI-CRE assay. Ninety-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates possessing carbapenemase genes and 29 carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae were available for testing...
August 2017: Practical Laboratory Medicine
Patricia J Simner, Belita N A Opene, Krizia K Chambers, Matthew E Naumann, Karen C Carroll, Pranita D Tamma
Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (CPNFs), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii , is necessary to prevent their dissemination within health care settings. We performed a method comparison study of 11 phenotypic carbapenemase detection assays to evaluate their accuracy for the detection of CPNFs. A total of 96 carbapenem-resistant glucose-nonfermenting isolates were included, of which 29% produced carbapenemases. All CPNFs were molecularly characterized to identify β-lactamase genes...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Nicholas M Moore, Rafael Cantón, Edoardo Carretto, Lance R Peterson, Robert L Sautter, Maria M Traczewski
Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) have been identified by global health leaders as an urgent threat. Detection of patients with gastrointestinal carriage of CPO is necessary to interrupt their spread within health care facilities. In this multisite study, we assessed the performance of the Xpert Carba-R test, a rapid real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay that detects five families of carbapenemase genes ( bla IMP , bla KPC , bla NDM , bla OXA-48 , and bla VIM ) directly from rectal swab specimens. Using dual swabs, specimens from 755 patients were collected and tested prospectively...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Lauraine Gauthier, Remy A Bonnin, Laurent Dortet, Thierry Naas
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for accurate and rapid diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase producing enterobacteria (CPE). Here, we have evaluated the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM) test to detect CPEs from cultured colonies. METHODS: A total of 256 enterobacterial isolates were used to evaluate the performance of the CIM in comparison to Carba NP test and molecular detection used a reference method. Ninety three well-characterized isolates (including 29 non-CPE and 63 CPEs of worldwide origin) with decreased susceptibility to at least one carbapenem were used to (i) evaluate the efficacy of CIM test and (ii) to compare it to the Carba NP test...
2017: PloS One
Eloiza H Campana, Stephanie G Chuster, Isadora R da Silva, Raphael P Paschoal, Raquel R Bonelli, Beatriz M Moreira, Renata C Picão
The modified Carba NP test presented here may be a valuable tool for laboratories interested in investigating a large number of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in a less-costly way. The test was evaluated against 48 carbapenemase-producing and carbapenemase-non-producing gram-negative bacteria. No false-positive results were obtained, but false-negative results were observed with OXA-23- and GES-carbapenemase-producing isolates. Aeromonas sp. are not testable by Modified Carba NP.
April 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Marit G Tellevik, Bjørn Blomberg, Øyvind Kommedal, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Sabrina J Moyo
BACKGROUND: Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103)...
2016: PloS One
Karim E Morey, Robert Vega, P Maureen Cassidy, Genevieve L Buser, Jaipreet K Rayar, Jeffrey A Myers, Scott J Weissman, Zintars G Beldavs, Christopher D Pfeiffer
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an urgent public health threat. We evaluated the capacity of the Carba NP test to detect carbapenemase production in 206 isolates: 143 Enterobacteriaceae identified by Oregon's CRE surveillance program in 2013 and 63 known carbapenemase-positive organisms. Overall, test sensitivity and specificity were 89% (59/66 isolates; 95% confidence interval [CI], 81 to 97%) and 100% (140/140 isolates; 95% CI, 98 to 100%), respectively. All KPC, NDM-1, VIM, and IMP producers but no (0/7 isolates) OXA-48-like strains were Carba NP positive prior to a post hoc protocol modification...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
James Knox, Claire Gregory, Louise Prendergast, Chandrika Perera, Jennifer Robson, Lynette Waring
Stool specimens spiked with a panel of 46 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and 59 non-carbapenemase producers were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 4 testing algorithms for the detection of intestinal carriage of CPE: (1) culture on Brilliance ESBL agar followed by the Carba NP test; (2) Brilliance ESBL followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 agar with no Carba NP test; (3) chromID CARBA agar followed by the Carba NP test; (4) chromID CARBA followed by the Carba NP test, plus chromID OXA-48 with no Carba NP test...
January 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
A Sorlózano-Puerto, D Esteva-Fernández, J Oteo-Iglesias, J M Navarro-Marí, J Gutiérrez-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: We describe the characterization of a new isolated in Spain of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 producing KPC-3, carbapenems non-susceptible, recovered from a sample of urine from a patient with urinary tract infection and no history of carbapenems exposure. METHODS: After the isolation, identification of K. pneumoniae was performed by biochemical tests and mass spectrometry. The carbapenems susceptibility testing was performed by microdilution and E-test in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton...
September 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Yuet Wu, Ronald Wai Kung Wu, Kwan Wing Cheu, Ian D Williams, Sanjeev Krishna, Ksenija Slavic, Andrew M Gravett, Wai M Liu, Ho Ning Wong, Richard K Haynes
We sought to establish if methylene homologues of artemisone are biologically more active and more stable than artemisone. The analogy is drawn with the conversion of natural O- and N-glycosides into more stable C-glycosides that may possess enhanced biological activities and stabilities. Dihydroartemisinin was converted into 10β-cyano-10-deoxyartemisinin that was hydrolyzed to the α-primary amide. Reduction of the β-cyanide and the α-amide provided the respective methylamine epimers that upon treatment with divinyl sulfone gave the β- and α-methylene homologues, respectively, of artemisone...
July 5, 2016: ChemMedChem
Arpasiri Srisrattakarn, Aroonlug Lulitanond, Chotechana Wilailuckana, Nicha Charoensri, Lumyai Wonglakorn, Sirikan Piyapatthanakul, Ampai Supajeen, Aroonwadee Chanawong
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates have now emerged worldwide. We therefore modified the phenotypic Carba NP test by use of a filter paper strip for easily and rapidly identifying CPE in routine laboratory. A collection of 56 CPE and carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas spp. isolates (including 28 NDM-1, 11 IMP-14a, 1 IMP-1, 1 IMP-4, 1 IMP-9, 1 IMP-15, 4 VIM-2, 1 VIM-1, 1 IMP-14a with VIM-2, 3 OXA-48, 3 OXA-181 and 1 KPC-2 producers) and 41 non-CPE isolates (including 19 ESBL, 7 pAmpC, 3 AmpC, 9 ESBL with pAmpC and 3 non-ESBL & non-AmpC producers) as confirmed by the PCR methods were tested by the paper strip method using pharmaceutical imipenem/cilastatin as a substrate...
July 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Gülçin Bayramoğlu, Gülşen Uluçam, Çiğdem Gençoğlu Özgür, Ali Osman Kılıç, Faruk Aydın
A rapid, practical, and accurate identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for the implementation of appropriate infection control measures and proper treatment of the infections. For this purpose, a large number of phenotypic test methods have been developed, although none has 100% sensitivity and specificity. Variations in sensitivity and specificity of these tests based on the type of beta-lactamase enzymes carried by that isolates might result in differences between regions and countries...
January 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Delphine Lamireau, Anne Monique Nuyt, Xin Hou, Sylvie Bernier, Martin Beauchamp, Fernand Gobeil, Isabelle Lahaie, Daya R Varma, Sylvain Chemtob
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation partly due to loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability occurs in most cases of chronic hypertension. Intrauterine nutritional deprivation has been associated with increased risk for hypertension and stroke, associated with relaxant dysfunction and decreased vascular compliance, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. The present studies were undertaken to investigate whether endothelial dysfunction associated with altered NO-dependent vasodilatation pathways is also observed in a model of in utero programming of hypertension...
December 2002: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
T Tetsuka, D Daphna-Iken, S K Srivastava, L D Baier, J DuMaine, A R Morrison
The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces both cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with increases in the release of prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) by mesangial cells. Recently, activation of the COX enzyme by NO has been described. However, the effects of COX products (PGs) on the NO pathway have not been fully clarified. Thus we determined the effect of COX inhibition and exogenous PGs on NO production and NOS induction in rat mesangial cells. A COX inhibitor, indomethacin, enhanced IL-1 beta-induced steady-state level of the inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA and nitrite production...
December 6, 1994: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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