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Group II intron

Antony T Vincent, Steve J Charette, Jean Barbeau
The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found in several habitats, both natural and human-made, and is particularly known for its recurrent presence as a pathogen in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease. Given its clinical importance, several major studies have investigated the genomic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in lungs and its transition as acute infections become chronic. However, our knowledge about the diversity and adaptation of the P. aeruginosa genome to non-clinical environments is still fragmentary, in part due to the lack of accurate reference genomes of strains from the numerous environments colonized by the bacterium...
March 16, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Cloe S Pogoda, Kyle G Keepers, Sarah E Hamsher, Joshua G Stepanek, Nolan C Kane, J Patrick Kociolek
Diatoms are the most diverse lineage of algae and at the base of most aquatic food webs, but only 11 of their mitochondrial genomes have been described. Herein, we present the mitochondrial genomes of six diatom species, including: Melosira undulata, Nitzschia alba, Surirella sp., Entomoneis sp., Halamphora coffeaeformis, and Halamphora calidilacuna. Comparison of these six genomes to the 11 currently published diatom mitochondrial genomes revealed a novel ubiquitous feature block consisting of tatC-orf157-rps11...
March 11, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Ayaka Ito, Chieko Sugita, Mizuho Ichinose, Yoshinobu Kato, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai, Mamoru Sugita
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are known to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation in plant organelles. However, the function of the majority of PPR proteins remains unknown. To examine their functions, Physcomitrella patens PpPPR_66 knockout (KO) mutants were generated and characterized. KO mosses exhibited a wild type-like growth phenotype but showed aberrant chlorophyll fluorescence due to defects in chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) activity. Immuno-blot analysis suggested that disruption of PpPPR_66 led to a complete loss of the chloroplast NDH complex...
March 5, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Douglas C Wu, Alan M Lambowitz
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huichun Xu, Gerald W Dorn Ii, Amol Shetty, Ankita Parihar, Tushar Dave, Shawn W Robinson, Stephen S Gottlieb, Mark P Donahue, Gordon F Tomaselli, William E Kraus, Braxton D Mitchell, Stephen B Liggett
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is the most common form of non-ischemic chronic heart failure. Despite the higher prevalence of IDC in African Americans, the genetics of IDC have been relatively understudied in this ethnic group. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify susceptibility genes for IDC in African Americans recruited from five sites in the U.S. (662 unrelated cases and 1167 controls). The heritability of IDC was calculated to be 33% (95% confidence interval: 19-47%; p = 6...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Felipe E E S Gomes, Thales D Arantes, José A L Fernandes, Leonardo C Ferreira, Héctor Romero, Sandra M G Bosco, Maria T B Oliveira, Gilda M B Del Negro, Raquel C Theodoro
Cryptococcosis, one of the most important systemic mycosis in the world, is caused by different genotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii , which differ in their ecology, epidemiology, and antifungal susceptibility. Therefore, the search for new molecular markers for genotyping, pathogenicity and drug susceptibility is necessary. Group I introns fulfill the requisites for such task because (i) they are polymorphic sequences; (ii) their self-splicing is inhibited by some drugs; and (iii) their correct splicing under parasitic conditions is indispensable for pathogen survival...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yong Zhou, Lifang Hu, Lunwei Jiang, Shiqiang Liu
Metacaspase (MC), a family of caspase-like proteins, plays vital roles in regulating programmed cell death (PCD) during development and in response to stresses in plants. In this study, five MC genes (designated as CsMC1 to CsMC5) were identified in the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genome. Sequence analysis revealed that CsMC1-CsMC3 belong to type I MC proteins, while CsMC4 and CsMC5 are type II MC proteins. Phylogenetic tree and conserved motif analysis of MC proteins indicated that these proteins can be classified into two groups, which are correlated with the types of these MC proteins...
February 20, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Nadja Dabbagh, Angelika Preisfeld
The latest studies of chloroplast genomes of phototrophic euglenoids yielded different results according to intrageneric variability such as cluster arrangement or diversity of introns. Whereas the genera Euglena and Monomorphina in those studies show high syntenic arrangements at the intrageneric level, the two investigated Eutreptiella species comprise low synteny. Furthermore T. volvocina show low synteny to the chloroplast genomes of the sister genera Monomorphina aenigmatica, M. parapyrum, Cryptoglena skujae, Euglenaria anabaena, Strombomonas acuminata, all of which were highly syntenic...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yingfu Li, Chuanyin Li, Qianli Ma, Yu Zhang, Yueting Yao, Shuyuan Liu, Xinwen Zhang, Chao Hong, Fang Tan, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao
Cadherin 13 (CDH13, T-cadherin, H-cadherin) has been identified as an anti-oncogene in various cancers. Recent studies have reported that downregulation of H-cadherin in cancers is associated with CDH13 promoter hypermethylation, which could be affected by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near CpG sites in the CDH13 promoter. In the current study, we investigated and analyzed the association of seven SNPs (rs11646213, rs12596316, rs3865188, rs12444338, rs4783244, rs12051272 and rs7195409) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using logistic regression analysis...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Wojciech P Galej, Navtej Toor, Andrew J Newman, Kiyoshi Nagai
Nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and group II intron self-splicing both proceed by two-step transesterification reactions via a lariat intron intermediate. Recently determined cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of catalytically active spliceosomes revealed the RNA-based catalytic core and showed how pre-mRNA substrates and reaction products are positioned in the active site. These findings highlight a strong structural similarity to the group II intron active site, strengthening the notion that group II introns and spliceosomes evolved from a common ancestor...
January 29, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Wahid Boukouaci, José Oliveira, Bruno Etain, Meriem Bennabi, Christina Mariaselvam, Nora Hamdani, Céline Manier, Djaouida Bengoufa, Frank Bellivier, Chantal Henry, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Dominique Charron, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation is believed to contribute, at least in a subset of patients, to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). In this context, the most investigated biological marker is the acute phase response molecule, C-reactive protein (CRP). While the genetic diversity of CRP was amply studied in various pathological settings, little is known in BD. METHODS: 568 BD patients along with 163 healthy controls (HC) were genotyped for the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the CRP gene: intron rs1417938 (+ 29) T/A, 3'-UTR rs1130864 (+ 1444) G/A, and downstream rs1205 (+ 1846) (C/T)...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Dawei Dai, Shengchao Luan, Xiuzu Chen, Qun Wang, Yang Feng, Chenguang Zhu, Weiwei Qi, Rentao Song
Mitochondrial group II introns require the participation of numerous nucleus-encoded general and specific factors to achieve efficient splicing in vivo Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been implicated in assisting group II intron splicing. Here, we identified and characterized a new maize seed mutant, defective kernel 37 (dek37), which has significantly delayed endosperm and embryo development. Dek37 encodes a classic P-type PPR protein that targets mitochondria. The dek37 mutation causes no detectable DEK37 protein in mutant seeds...
January 4, 2018: Genetics
Michèle C Erat, Emina Besic, Michael Oberhuber, Silke Johannsen, Roland K O Sigel
Group II introns are large self-splicing ribozymes that require high amounts of monovalent and divalent metal ions for folding and catalysis under in vitro conditions. Domain 6 of these ribozymes contains a highly conserved adenosine whose 2'-OH acts as a nucleophile during self-cleavage via the branching pathway. We have previously suggested a divalent metal ion that binds to the major groove at the GU wobble pair above the branch-A in a minimal, but active branch domain construct (D6-27) from the yeast mitochondrial intron Sc...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Julian Vosseberg, Berend Snel
ᅟ: The spliceosome is a eukaryote-specific complex that is essential for the removal of introns from pre-mRNA. It consists of five small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and over a hundred proteins, making it one of the most complex molecular machineries. Most of this complexity has emerged during eukaryogenesis, a period that is characterised by a drastic increase in cellular and genomic complexity. Although not fully resolved, recent findings have started to shed some light on how and why the spliceosome originated...
December 1, 2017: Biology Direct
Kunyuan Wanghe, Yongtao Tang, Fei Tian, Chenguang Feng, Renyi Zhang, Guogang Li, Sijia Liu, Kai Zhao
Schizopygopsis stoliczkai (Cyprinidae, subfamily Schizothoracinae) is one of the major freshwater fishes endemic to the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, we used mitochondrial DNA markers cytochrome b (Cyt b ) and 16S rRNA (16S), as well as the nuclear marker, the second intron of the nuclear beta-actin gene (Act2), to uncover the phylogeography of S. stoliczkai . In total, we obtained 74 haplotypes from 403 mitochondrial concatenated sequences. The mtDNA markers depict the phylogenetic structures of S...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Tuhin K Guha, Alvan Wai, Sahra-Taylor Mullineux, Georg Hausner
Fungal mitochondrial genes are frequently noted for the presence of introns. These introns are self-splicing and can be assigned to either group I or II introns and they can encode open reading frames (ORFs). This study examines the introns present within the cytochrome b (cytb) gene of ascomycetes fungi. Cytochrome b gene sequences were sampled from GenBank and supplemented with our own data for species of Leptographium and Ophiostoma. Group I introns were encountered most frequently, many encoding either LAGLIDADG or GIY-YIG homing endonucleases (HEs)...
November 20, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Jennifer L Stamos, Alfred M Lentzsch, Alan M Lambowitz
Bacterial group II intron reverse transcriptases (RTs) function in both intron mobility and RNA splicing and are evolutionary predecessors of retrotransposon, telomerase, and retroviral RTs as well as the spliceosomal protein Prp8 in eukaryotes. Here we determined a crystal structure of a full-length thermostable group II intron RT in complex with an RNA template-DNA primer duplex and incoming deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) at 3.0-Å resolution. We find that the binding of template-primer and key aspects of the RT active site are surprisingly different from retroviral RTs but remarkably similar to viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
Michal Zmudjak, Sofia Shevtsov, Laure D Sultan, Ido Keren, Oren Ostersetzer-Biran
Plant mitochondria are remarkable with respect to the presence of numerous group II introns which reside in many essential genes. The removal of the organellar introns from the coding genes they interrupt is essential for respiratory functions, and is facilitated by different enzymes that belong to a diverse set of protein families. These include maturases and RNA helicases related proteins that function in group II intron splicing in different organisms. Previous studies indicate a role for the nMAT2 maturase and the RNA helicase PMH2 in the maturation of different pre-RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C D Sadik, J Bischof, N van Beek, A Dieterich, S Benoit, M Sárdy, M Worm, S Meller, R Gläser, D Zillikens, B Homey, J Setterfield, D Minassian, E Schmidt, J Dart, S M Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, chronic, and often aggressive subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease potentially affecting several mucous membranes with blisters and secondary erosions and scars. The pathogenesis of MMP is poorly understood, and the contribution of genetic predispositions, other than HLA class II allele variants to MMP, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify susceptibility genes for MMP in a British cohort of MMP patients...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
Kaleem U Kakar, Zarqa Nawaz, Khadija Kakar, Essa Ali, Abdulwareth A Almoneafy, Raqeeb Ullah, Xue-Liang Ren, Qing-Yao Shu
BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) family affects the uptake of cations, growth, pathogen defence, and thermotolerance in plants. However, the systematic identification, origin and function of this gene family has not been performed in Brassica oleracea, an important vegetable crop and genomic model organism. RESULTS: In present study, we identified 26 CNGC genes in B. oleracea genome, which are non-randomly localized on eight chromosomes, and classified into four major (I-IV) and two sub-groups (i...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
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