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Abhirup Mookherjee, Paramita Bera, Adinpunya Mitra, Mrinal K Maiti
Plant-associated endophytes are recognized as sources of novel bioactive molecules having diverse applications. In this study, an endophytic yeast-like fungal strain was isolated from the fruit of eggplant (Solanum melongena) and identified as Geotrichum candidum through phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. This endophytic G. candidum isolate PF005 was found to emit fruity scented volatiles. The compositional profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol, isopentyl acetate, naphthalene, and isobutyl acetate in significant proportion when analyzed on a time-course basis...
September 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Meenu Katoch, Kushal Bindu, Shipra Phull, M K Verma
An endophytic fungus, MC_25L, has been isolated from the leaves of MonardacitriodoraCerv. ex Lag., a medicinal and aromatic herb from the northwestern Himalayas. It produces a fruity fragrance while growing on potato dextrose agar, suggesting that it is producing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The endophyte inhibited the growth of plant pathogens such asSclerotiniasp. and Aspergillusflavus by virtue of VOCs. Identification of MC_25L based on morphological and microscopic features, as well as ITS-based rDNA sequence analysis, revealed that it is a Fusariumsp...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
Michelle L Hutchings, Cambria J Alpha-Cobb, David A Hiller, Julien Berro, Scott A Strobel
Antagonistic microorganisms produce antimicrobials to inhibit the growth of competitors. Although water-soluble antimicrobials are limited to proximal interactions via aqueous diffusion, volatile antimicrobials are able to act at a distance and diffuse through heterogeneous environments. Here, we identify the mechanism of action of Muscodor albus , an endophytic fungus known for its volatile antimicrobial activity toward a wide range of human and plant pathogens and its potential use in mycofumigation. Proposed uses of the Muscodor species include protecting crops, produce, and building materials from undesired fungal or bacterial growth...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nakarin Suwannarach, Chariya Kaewyana, Arpaporn Yodmeeklin, Jaturong Kumla, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Richard Hung, Samantha Lee, Joan W Bennett
All odorants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e., low molecular weight compounds that easily evaporate at normal temperatures and pressure. Fungal VOCs are relatively understudied compared to VOCs of bacterial, plant, or synthetic origin. Much of the research to date on fungal VOCs has focused on their food and flavor properties, their use as indirect indicators of fungal growth in agriculture, or their role as semiochemicals for insects. In addition, research into fungal volatiles has also taken place to monitor spoilage, for purposes of chemotaxonomy, for use in biofilters and for biodiesel, to detect plant and animal disease, for "mycofumigation," and with respect to plant health...
April 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nakarin Suwannarach, Boonsom Bussaban, Wipornpan Nuangmek, Wasna Pithakpol, Bantoon Jirawattanakul, Kenji Matsui, Saisamorn Lumyong
BACKGROUND: This study investigated both the in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus Muscodor suthepensis CMU-Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. RESULTS: Volatile compounds from M. suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91 ± 0...
January 15, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Cambria J Alpha, Manuel Campos, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Scott A Strobel
Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M...
February 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Chu-Long Zhang, Guo-Ping Wang, Li-Juan Mao, Monika Komon-Zelazowska, Zhi-Lin Yuan, Fu-Cheng Lin, Irina S Druzhinina, Christian P Kubicek
The fungal genus Muscodor was erected on the basis of Muscodor albus, an endophytic fungus originally isolated from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. It produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antimicrobial activity that can be used as mycofumigants. The genus currently comprises five species. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new species of Muscodor on the basis of five endophytic fungal strains from leaves of Actinidia chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii and an unidentified broad leaf tree in the Fengyangshan Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province, Southeast of China...
October 2010: Fungal Biology
S O Lee, H Y Kim, G J Choi, H B Lee, K S Jang, Y H Choi, J-C Kim
AIMS: To characterize the volatile antifungal compound produced by Oxyporus latemarginatus EF069 and to examine in vitro and in vivo fumigation activity of the fungus. METHODS AND RESULTS: An antifungal volatile-producing strain, O. latemarginatus EF069 inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani by mycofumigation. An antifungal volatile compound was isolated from the hexane extract of wheat bran-rice hull cultures of O...
April 2009: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Gary Strobel
Endophytic microorganisms exist within the living tissues of most plant species. They are most abundant in rainforest plants. Novel endophytes usually have associated with them novel secondary natural products and/or processes. Muscodor is a novel endophytic fungal genus that produces bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This fungus, as well as its VOCs, has enormous potential for uses in agriculture, industry and medicine. Muscodor albus produces a mixture of VOCs that act synergistically to kill a wide variety of plant and human pathogenic fungi and bacteria...
June 2006: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Gary Strobel
We have found a novel fungal genus that produces extremely bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This fungal isolate was initially discovered as an endophyte in Cinnamomum zeylanicum in a botanical garden in Honduras. This endophytic fungus, Muscodor albus, produces a mixture of VOCs that are lethal to a wide variety of plant and human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. It is also effective against nematodes and certain insects. The mixture of VOCs has been analyzed using GC/MS and consists primarily of various alcohols, acids, esters, ketones, and lipids...
July 2006: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
G A Strobel, E Dirkse, J Sears, C Markworth
Muscodor albus is a recently described endophytic fungus obtained from small limbs of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon tree). This xylariaceaous fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain other fungi, and bacteria, by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then made into an artificial mixture that mimicked the antibiotic effects of the mixture of volatile compounds given off by the fungus. Each of the five classes of volatile compounds produced by the fungus (alcohols, esters, ketones, acids and lipids) had some inhibitory effect against the test fungi and bacteria, but none was lethal...
November 2001: Microbiology
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