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Situational judgement

Melih Iphar, Ali Kivanc Cukurluoz
Decision matrix method is preferred as a measure of risk evaluation considering the risk value obtained by two risk factors such as the likelihood and severity of the hazard. However, it has some deficiencies since crisp risk score is assigned for the likelihood and severity. In this paper, fuzzy logic based safety evaluation method to enhance the risk assessment process is introduced to overcome the uncertainties encountered in classical decision matrix risk assessment method. The proposed method is of more realistic evaluation of the risks which may be available in the mechanized coal panels in Turkey...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Alison Callwood, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Grigorios Kotronoulas, Annegret Schneider, Liane Lewis, Vishna Devi Nadarajah
OBJECTIVES: To examine the personal domains multiple mini interviews (MMIs) are being designed to assess, explore how they were determined and contextualise such domains in current and future healthcare student selection processes DESIGN: A systematic review of empirical research reporting on MMI model design was conducted from database inception to November 2017. DATA SOURCES: Twelve electronic bibliographic databases. REVIEW METHODS: Evidence was extracted from original studies, and integrated in a narrative synthesis guided by the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews...
January 31, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Mark Dalton, John Harrison, Anitra Malin, Conan Leavey
BACKGROUND: nurses play a crucial role in the early recognition and management of the deteriorating patient. They are responsible for the care they provide to their patients, part of which is the monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and temperature), which are fundamental in the surveillance of deterioration. The aim of this study was to discover what factors influence how nurses assess patient acuity and their response to acute deterioration. METHODS: a generic qualitative approach was used...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Marcos Díaz-Lago, Helena Matute
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of a foreign language on the causality bias (i.e., the illusion that two events are causally related when they are not). We predict that using a foreign language could reduce the illusions of causality. A total of 36 native English speakers participated in Experiment 1, 80 native Spanish speakers in Experiment 2. They performed a standard contingency learning task, which can be used to detect causal illusions. Participants who performed the task in their native tongue replicated the illusion of causality effect, whereas those performing the task in their foreign language were more accurate in detecting that the two events were causally unrelated...
February 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ein Soon Shin, Ji Eun Jang, Ji Yun Yeon, Da Sol Kim, Sung Goo Chang, Yoon Seong Lee
BACKGROUND: A standardized systematic approach to grade evidence and the strength of recommendations is important for guideline users to minimize bias and help interpret the most suitable decisions at the point of care. The study aims to identify and classify determinants used to make judgement for the strength of recommendations among 56 Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and explore strong recommendations based on low quality of evidence. METHODS: Determinants used in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach among 34 CPGs which have reported both strength of recommendations and level of evidence were reviewed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jessica Gerrard
This paper examines the affective dimensions of new forms of informal entrepreneurial work carried out in spaces of unemployment. Situating the analysis within contemporary scholarship on deservingness and on affect and labour, I shed light on the forms of entrepreneurial labour that rely upon affect-driven economies of exchange underpinned by moral judgements of deservingness, value and worth. In particular, this paper draws on a multi-city (Melbourne, London, San Francisco) study of homeless street press sellers (The Big Issue and Street Sheet) to explore the ways in which contemporary practices of charity and care are carried out through individualized market-place exchanges...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
Unconscious perception, or perception without awareness, describes a situation where an observer's behaviour is influenced by a stimulus of which they have no phenomenal awareness. Perception without awareness is often claimed on the basis of a difference in thresholds for tasks that do and do not require awareness, for example, detecting the stimulus (requiring awareness) and making accurate judgements about the stimulus (based on unconscious processing). Although a difference in thresholds would be expected if perceptual evidence were processed without awareness, such a difference does not necessitate that this is actually occurring: a difference in thresholds can also arise from response bias, or through task differences...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Victoria Filingeri, Ken Eason, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
Crowds are a commonplace encounter but the experience for participants can be highly variable. Crowds are complex sociotechnical phenomenon, affected by many interacting factors. Little is known, however, about how those responsible for organising crowd situations approach their responsibilities. This study conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 41) with organisers responsible for different aspects of the design, planning, management and operations of events and other crowd situations. The objective was to understand organisers' priorities, along with the consideration given to the experience of crowd participants...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
Wendy E de Leng, Karen M Stegers-Jager, Marise Ph Born, Axel P N Themmen
CONTEXT: Despite their widespread use in medical school selection, there remains a lack of clarity on exactly what situational judgement tests (SJTs) measure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop an SJT that measures integrity by combining critical incident interviews (inductive approach) with an innovative deductive approach. The deductive approach guided the development of the SJT according to two established theoretical models, of which one was positively related to integrity (honesty-humility [HH]) and one was negatively related to integrity (cognitive distortions [CD])...
January 19, 2018: Medical Education
Shu-Wen Chen, Alison M Hutchinson, Cate Nagle, Tracey K Bucknall
BACKGROUND: Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation...
January 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
F Kazzazi, J Bartlett, E Finnerty
The NHS is an evolving landscape. While the level of clinical knowledge conferred to medical students remains constant, their competence in other skills, such as leadership, needs to be enhanced in order for them to successfully work within the health-care system. The importance of leadership is considered at the start and end of a medical degree - when applying to medical school with various examples of leading a team, and upon balancing scenarios of leadership when sitting the situational judgement test in final year...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Johannes C Bruck, Anna-Kristine Wipper
Surgical options to optimise one's body image are also accessible to adolescents. Although the vast majority of surgical procedures in this group of patients focus on otoplasty, 4 % of procedures in Germany are performed on the breast. The onset of menarche has not changed much in recent years, but obesity seems to generate problems with the breast for young girls. Since it is difficult to assess maturity and psychological resilience in young patients, a plastic surgeon is faced with an area of conflicts regarding his or her will to meet patients' reasonable wishes to ease their suffering, offer reliable and sustainable results, and comply with legal regulations that are largely uncertain...
December 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Margaret Cargo, Janet Harris, Tomas Pantoja, Andrew Booth, Angela Harden, Karin Hannes, James Thomas, Kate Flemming, Ruth Garside, Jane Noyes
OBJECTIVES: This article provides reviewers with guidance on methods for identifying and processing evidence to understand intervention implementation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Strategies, tools, and methods are applied to the systematic review process to illustrate how process and implementation can be addressed using quantitative, qualitative, and other sources of evidence (i.e., descriptive textual and nonempirical). RESULTS: Reviewers can take steps to navigate the heterogeneity and level of uncertainty present in the concepts, measures, and methods used to assess implementation...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jong Min Choi, Man Kyu Choi, Sung Bum Kim
Objective: As increasing the size of the geriatric population, the number of elderly patients, who need the surgery for painful degenerative spinal stenosis has been increasing. The geriatric population may be relatively high complications, because of age and age-associated medical conditions. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the perioperative complications and outcomes in elderly patients with posterior lumbar inter body fusion with screw augmentation (PLIF). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographic studies of geriatric patients who had spine surgery of PLIF due to spinal stenosis for 11 years...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Prescribing is a high-volume primary care routine where both speed and attention to detail are required. One approach to examining how organisations approach quality and safety in the face of high workloads is Hollnagel's Efficiency and Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO). Hollnagel argues that safety is aligned with thoroughness and that a choice is required between efficiency and thoroughness as it is not usually possible to maximise both. This study aimed to ethnographically examine the efficiency and thoroughness trade-offs made by different UK general practices in the achievement of prescribing safety...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
Amnon Sonnenberg
The need to combine the results of multiple separate tests or make decisions based on the judgement by multiple experts permeates the clinical and professional practice of a gastroenterologist. The present analysis is aimed at delineating four different means to combine results of multiple tests and discuss their applicability and limitations. In serial testing, the overall test outcome is rated as being positive if the outcome is positive in all individual tests applied in series. Serial testing increases the overall specificity at the expense of decreasing sensitivity...
December 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Judith Lamb, Karen S Galea, Brian G Miller, Susanne Hesse, Martie Van Tongeren
When applying simple screening (Tier 1) tools to estimate exposure to chemicals in a given exposure situation under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals Regulation 2006 (REACH), users must select from several possible input parameters. Previous studies have suggested that results from exposure assessments using expert judgement and from the use of modelling tools can vary considerably between assessors. This study aimed to investigate the between-user reliability of Tier 1 tools...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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