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Situational judgement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897213/decision-making-processes-based-on-social-conventional-rules-in-early-adolescents-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Hidetsugu Komeda, Hidekazu Osanai, Kaichi Yanaoka, Yuko Okamoto, Toru Fujioka, Sumiyoshi Arai, Keisuke Inohara, Masuo Koyasu, Takashi Kusumi, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Masao Kawatani, Hirokazu Kumazaki, Michio Hiratani, Akemi Tomoda, Hirotaka Kosaka
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by problems with reciprocal social interaction, repetitive behaviours/narrow interests, and impairments in the social cognition and emotional processing necessary for intention-based moral judgements. The aim of this study was to examine the information used by early adolescents with and without ASD when they judge story protagonists as good or bad. We predicted that adolescents with ASD would use protagonists' behaviour, while typically developing (TD) adolescents would use protagonists' characteristics when making the judgements...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878797/choosing-wisely-at-the-end-of-life-the-crucial-role-of-medical-indication
#2
Gian Domenico Borasio, Ralf J Jox
At the end of life, several treatments are administered routinely that lack medical indication and may cause significant harm to patients. Examples include artificial hydration and oxygen therapy in the dying phase, as well as enteral nutrition in advanced dementia. Medical indication is defined as the appropriateness of a therapeutic or diagnostic measure in the patient's concrete clinical situation, in light of the best available evidence. The decision about the absence or presence of a medical indication is a core competence of physicians...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855088/does-the-ukcat-predict-performance-on-exit-from-medical-school-a-national-cohort-study
#3
R K MacKenzie, J A Cleland, D Ayansina, S Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Most UK medical programmes use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk), and 4 of its subscales, along with individual and contextual socioeconomic background factors, as predictors of performance during, and on exit from, medical school. METHODS: This was an observational study of 6294 medical students from 30 UK medical programmes who took the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008, for whom selection data from the UK Foundation Programme (UKFPO), the next stage of UK medical education training, were available in 2013...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832830/-it-depends-on-the-consultation-revisiting-use-of-family-members-as-interpreters-for-general-practice-consultations-when-and-why
#4
Jo Hilder, Ben Gray, Anthony Dowell, Lindsay Macdonald, Rachel Tester, Maria Stubbe
Family members continue to be used as interpreters in medical consultations despite the well-known risks. This paper examines participant perceptions of this practice in three New Zealand clinics chosen for their frequent use of interpreters and their skill in using them. It is based on a detailed study of 17 video-recorded interpreted consultations and 48 post-consultation interviews with participants (5 doctors, 16 patients and 12 interpreters, including 6 family members). All participants expressed satisfaction with the communication...
November 11, 2016: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822130/parallel-to-the-situational-judgement-test-is-the-educational-performance-measure-fair-in-ranking-medical-students-on-the-uk-foundation-programme
#5
Harmeet Singh Sidhu, Adil Mahmood, Ranjodh Sanghera, Jay Mandan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789117/acute-ataxia-in-children-a-review-of-the-differential-diagnosis-and-evaluation-in-the-emergency-department
#6
REVIEW
Mauro Caffarelli, Amir A Kimia, Alcy R Torres
Acute ataxia in a pediatric patient poses a diagnostic dilemma for any physician. While the most common etiologies are benign, occasional individuals require urgent intervention. Children with stroke, toxic ingestion, infection, and neuro-inflammatory disorders frequently exhibit ataxia as an essential-if not the only-presenting feature. The available retrospective research utilize inconsistent definitions of acute ataxia, precluding the ability to pool data from these studies. No prospective data exist that report on patients presenting to the emergency department with ataxia...
December 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762011/measuring-resilience-in-palliative-care-workers-using-the-situational-judgement-test-methodology
#7
Antonio Pangallo, Lara Zibarras, Fiona Patterson
OBJECTIVES: Relatively little research has been directed toward the assessment of resilience in the health care context. Given the stressors associated with the provision of health care, the present study describes the development and evaluation of a situational judgement test (SJT) designed to assess resilience in palliative care health care workers. METHODS: An SJT was developed to measure behaviours associated with resilience in a palliative care context. Next, SJT reliability and validity analyses were assessed in a sample of acute ward, hospice and community palliative care workers (n = 284)...
November 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761311/judgement-bias-in-goats-capra-hircus-investigating-the-effects-of-human-grooming
#8
Luigi Baciadonna, Christian Nawroth, Alan G McElligott
Animal emotional states can be investigated by evaluating their impact on cognitive processes. In this study, we used a judgement bias paradigm to determine if short-term positive human-animal interaction (grooming) induced a positive affective state in goats. We tested two groups of goats and trained them to discriminate between a rewarded and a non-rewarded location over nine training days. During training, the experimental group (n = 9) was gently groomed by brushing their heads and backs for five min over 11 days (nine training days, plus two testing days, total time 55 min)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743388/teachers-legitimacy-effects-of-justice-perception-and-social-comparison-processes
#9
Maria Gouveia-Pereira, Jorge Vala, Isabel Correia
BACKGROUND: Teachers' legitimacy is central to school functioning. Teachers' justice, whether distributive or procedural, predicts teachers' legitimacy. AIMS: What is still do be found, and constitutes the goal of this paper, is whether unjust treatment by a teacher affects the legitimacy of the teacher differently when the student knows that the teacher was fair to a peer (comparative judgement) or when the student does not have that information (autonomous judgement)...
October 15, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704290/do-personality-traits-assessed-on-medical-school-admission-predict-exit-performance-a-uk-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study
#10
R K MacKenzie, J Dowell, D Ayansina, J A Cleland
Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools...
October 4, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697790/further-clarity-on-cooperation-and-morality
#11
David S Oderberg
I explore the increasingly important issue of cooperation in immoral actions, particularly in connection with healthcare. Conscientious objection, especially as pertains to religious freedom in healthcare, has become a pressing issue in the light of the US Supreme Court judgement in Hobby Lobby Section 'Moral evaluation using the basic principles of cooperation' outlines a theory of cooperation inspired by Catholic moral theologians such as those cited by the court. The theory has independent plausibility and is at least worthy of serious consideration-in part because it is an instance of double-effect reasoning, which is also independently plausible despite its association with moral theology...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683511/when-are-clinical-trials-beneficial-for-study-patients-and-future-patients-a-factorial-vignette-based-survey-of-institutional-review-board-members
#12
Rahul Mhaskar, Branko Miladinovic, Thomas M Guterbock, Benjamin Djulbegovic
OBJECTIVE: The ethicists believe that the goal of clinical research is to benefit future and not current (trial) patients. Many clinicians believe that the clinical trial enrolment offers best management for their patients. The objective of our study was to identify the situations when a clinical trial is beneficial for the patients enrolled in the trial and future patients. DESIGN: Factorial vignette-based cross-sectional survey via the internet. PARTICIPANTS: Institutional review board (IRB) members of the US Medical Schools...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666338/exploring-uses-of-the-uk-clinical-aptitude-test-situational-judgement-test-in-a-dental-student-selection-process
#13
P Lambe, E Kay, D Bristow
AIM: In 2013 the UKCAT included a non-cognitive situational judgement test in addition to the four cognitive subtests commonly used by UK dental schools to select students. However, little is known about the situational judgement test's psychometric properties and relationship to other selection tools. This study's aim was explore these issues to inform decisions about the inclusion of the UKCAT SJT in the dental student selection process. METHOD: The sample comprised a cohort of applicants to a Bachelor of Dental Surgery programme, at a UK dental school, which does not use achievement in the UKCAT SJT in its selection process...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646058/in-utero-testosterone-exposure-influences-physiological-responses-to-dyadic-interactions-in-neurotypical-adults
#14
Anna Truzzi, Vincenzo Paolo Senese, Peipei Setoh, Cristian Ripoli, Gianluca Esposito
OBJECTIVE: We investigated how different levels of prenatal exposure to testosterone influence physiological reactions to dyadic interactions, hypothesising that higher levels of prenatal testosterone are linked to greater physiological responses. METHOD: Autonomic nervous system responses to dyadic interactions focussed on social or physical norms were measured. Physiological assessment of excitability (heart rate, facial temperature) and a behavioural assessment (Likert items judgements) were run on 25 neurotypical participants who had distinct testosterone exposure levels in utero...
October 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625626/social-transmission-of-experience-of-agency-an-experimental-study
#15
Nima Khalighinejad, Bahador Bahrami, Emilie A Caspar, Patrick Haggard
The sense of controlling one's own actions is fundamental to normal human mental function, and also underlies concepts of social responsibility for action. However, it remains unclear how the wider social context of human action influences sense of agency. Using a simple experimental design, we investigated, for the first time, how observing the action of another person or a robot could potentially influence one's own sense of agency. We assessed how observing another's action might change the perceived temporal relationship between one's own voluntary actions and their outcomes, which has been proposed as an implicit measure of sense of agency...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479291/-not-available
#16
Antonio Oddo
This new paper on chemical risk from anaesthetic agents in operating theatres is the natural progression of that published in this journal in supplement 1-2013, as it constitutes a development and complement of the previous work and an applicative confirmation from the highest organ of administrative justice, the Consiglio di Stato, regarding, in particular, the obligation of adopting the technically most advanced "measures" to eliminate or, at least, minimise risk in the use of new generation and the most commonly-used anaesthetic agents (sevoflurane and desflurane)...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460878/report-of-the-clinical-donor-case-workshop-of-the-european-association-of-tissue-banks-annual-meeting-2014
#17
Hilde Beele, Marja J van Wijk, Birgit Wulff, Noor Holsboer, Marieke de Bruijn, Camilla Segerström, Esteve Trias
The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) donor case workshop is a forum held within the program of the EATB annual congress. The workshop offers an opportunity to discuss and evaluate possible approaches taken to challenging situations regarding donor selection. Donor case workshops actively engage participants with diverging background and experience in an informal, secure and enjoyable setting. The resulting discussion with peers promotes consensus development in deciding tissue donor acceptability, especially when donor health issues are not conclusively addressed in standards and regulations...
September 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444524/embodied-information-affects-judgements-about-politicians-the-impact-of-haptic-weight-sensations-and-hand-cleansing
#18
Kai Kaspar, Andreas Klane
Politicians' characteristics attract voters' attention and dominate impression formation. Thereby, social judgements are deduced from different information being available in a certain situation. The literature suggests that incidental bodily sensations can influence judgement processes. Here, two bodily treatments-the haptic sensation of weight and the act of hand cleansing-simultaneously contribute to judgements about politicians. This study expands previous works by (a) investigating potential interactions of two haptic information cues, (b) providing evidence for the significant role of conceptual closeness between embodied cues and judgement dimensions, (c) showing that hand cleansing leads to harsher moral judgements independently of whether a misconduct has been committed or not, and (d) showing that the familiarity of the target to be judged does not moderate the effect of embodied information...
July 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440700/australasian-society-for-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-auspen-adult-vitamin-guidelines-for-parenteral-nutrition
#19
Emma J Osland, Azmat Ali, Truc Nguyen, Melvyn Davis, Lyn Gillanders
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This work represents the second part of a progressive review of AuSPEN's 1999 Guidelines for Provision of Micronutrient Supplementation in adult patients receiving parenteral nutrition. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature review was undertaken and recommendations made based on the available evidence and with consideration to specific elements of the Australian and New Zealand (NZ) practice environment. The strength of evidence underpinning each recommendation was assessed...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400783/evaluation-of-two-selection-tests-for-recruitment-into-radiology-specialty-training
#20
Fiona Patterson, Alec Knight, Liam McKnight, Thomas C Booth
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated whether two selection tests previously validated for primary care General Practice (GP) trainee selection could provide a valid shortlisting selection method for entry into specialty training for the secondary care specialty of radiology. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from radiology applicants who also applied to UK GP specialty training or Core Medical Training. The psychometric properties of the two selection tests, a clinical problem solving (CPS) test and situational judgement test (SJT), were analysed to evaluate their reliability...
2016: BMC Medical Education
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