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Situational judgement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754583/validity-evidence-for-the-hamburg-multiple-mini-interview
#1
Mirjana Knorr, Anja Schwibbe, Maren Ehrhardt, Janina Lackamp, Stefan Zimmermann, Wolfgang Hampe
BACKGROUND: Multiple mini-interviews (MMI) become increasingly popular for the selection of medical students. In this work, we examine the validity evidence for the Hamburg MMI. METHODS: We conducted three follow-up studies for the 2014 cohort of applicants to medical school over the course of two years. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation (ρ) between MMI results and (1) emotional intelligence measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM), (2) supervisors' and practice team members' evaluations of psychosocial competencies and suitability for the medical profession after a one-week 1:1 teaching in a general practice (GP) and (3) objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores...
May 14, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693788/-what-the-hell-is-water-how-to-use-deliberate-clinical-inertia-in-common-emergency-department-situations
#2
Diana Egerton-Warburton, Louise Cullen, Gerben Keijzers, Daniel M Fatovich
Appropriate deliberate clinical inertia refers to the art of doing nothing as a positive clinical response. It includes shared decision-making to improve patient care with the use of clinical judgement. We discuss common clinical scenarios where the use of deliberate clinical inertia can occur. The insertion of peripheral intravenous cannulae, investigating patients with suspected renal colic and the investigation of low risk chest pain are all opportunities for the thoughtful clinician to 'stand there' and use effective patient communication to avoid low value tests and procedures...
April 25, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692272/effects-of-self-image-on-anxiety-judgement-bias-and-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#3
Hannah Lee, Jung-Kwang Ahn, Jung-Hye Kwon
BACKGROUND: Research to date has focused on the detrimental effects of negative self-images for individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), but the benefits of positive self-images have been neglected. AIMS: The present study examined the effect of holding a positive versus negative self-image in mind on anxiety, judgement bias and emotion regulation (ER) in individuals with SAD. METHOD: Forty-two individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for SAD were randomly assigned to either a positive or a negative self-image group...
April 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624660/social-decision-making-mediates-the-association-between-anger-and-externalising-problems-in-chinese-adolescents
#4
Nan Li, Sascha Hein, Lin Ye, Yangyang Liu
The goal of this study was to test the mediating effect of social decision making in the relations of anger and anger control to externalising and internalising problems. A sample of 174 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.36 years) completed self-reports of trait anger, anger control, externalising problems, internalising problems and social decision making, which was operationalized as situational judgement reflecting an individual's ability to interact effectively with parents, teachers and peers. Findings indicated that adolescents' trait anger and anger control were positively related to both externalising and internalising problems...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574896/resident-hesitation-in-the-operating-room-does-uncertainty-equal-incompetence
#5
Michael Ott, Alan Schwartz, Mark Goldszmidt, Georges Bordage, Lorelei Lingard
CONTEXT: In postgraduate medical programmes, the progressive development of autonomy places residents in situations in which they must cope with uncertainty. We explored the phenomenon of hesitation, triggered by uncertainty, in the context of the operating room in order to understand the social behaviours surrounding supervision and progressive autonomy. METHODS: Nine surgical residents and their supervising surgeons at a Canadian medical school were selected. Each resident-supervisor pair was observed during a surgical procedure and subsequently participated in separate post-observation, semi-structured interviews...
March 25, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493428/fuzzy-risk-assessment-for-mechanized-underground-coal-mines-in-turkey
#6
Melih Iphar, Ali Kivanc Cukurluoz
The decision matrix method is preferred as a measure of risk evaluation considering the risk value obtained by two risk factors such as the likelihood and severity of a hazard. However, it has some deficiencies since a crisp risk score is assigned for likelihood and severity. In this article, a fuzzy logic-based safety evaluation method to enhance the risk assessment process is introduced to overcome the uncertainties encountered in the classical decision matrix risk assessment method. The proposed method is a more realistic evaluation of the risks which may be available in mechanized coal mines in Turkey...
April 11, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459193/personal-domains-assessed-in-multiple-mini-interviews-mmis-for-healthcare-student-selection-a-narrative-synthesis-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Alison Callwood, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Grigorios Kotronoulas, Annegret Schneider, Liane Lewis, Vishna Devi Nadarajah
OBJECTIVES: To examine the personal domains multiple mini interviews (MMIs) are being designed to assess, explore how they were determined and contextualise such domains in current and future healthcare student selection processes DESIGN: A systematic review of empirical research reporting on MMI model design was conducted from database inception to November 2017. DATA SOURCES: Twelve electronic bibliographic databases. REVIEW METHODS: Evidence was extracted from original studies, and integrated in a narrative synthesis guided by the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews...
May 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457945/factors-that-influence-nurses-assessment-of-patient-acuity-and-response-to-acute-deterioration
#8
Mark Dalton, John Harrison, Anitra Malin, Conan Leavey
BACKGROUND: nurses play a crucial role in the early recognition and management of the deteriorating patient. They are responsible for the care they provide to their patients, part of which is the monitoring of vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and temperature), which are fundamental in the surveillance of deterioration. The aim of this study was to discover what factors influence how nurses assess patient acuity and their response to acute deterioration. METHODS: a generic qualitative approach was used...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451106/thinking-in-a-foreign-language-reduces-the-causality-bias
#9
Marcos Díaz-Lago, Helena Matute
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of a foreign language on the causality bias (i.e., the illusion that two events are causally related when they are not). We predict that using a foreign language could reduce the illusions of causality. A total of 36 native English speakers participated in Experiment 1, 80 native Spanish speakers in Experiment 2. They performed a standard contingency learning task, which can be used to detect causal illusions. Participants who performed the task in their native tongue replicated the illusion of causality effect, whereas those performing the task in their foreign language were more accurate in detecting that the two events were causally unrelated...
February 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441759/determinants-used-to-justify-the-strength-of-recommendations-among-korean-clinical-practice-guidelines
#10
Ein Soon Shin, Ji Eun Jang, Ji Yun Yeon, Da Sol Kim, Sung Goo Chang, Yoon Seong Lee
BACKGROUND: A standardized systematic approach to grade evidence and the strength of recommendations is important for guideline users to minimize bias and help interpret the most suitable decisions at the point of care. The study aims to identify and classify determinants used to make judgement for the strength of recommendations among 56 Korean clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and explore strong recommendations based on low quality of evidence. METHODS: Determinants used in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach among 34 CPGs which have reported both strength of recommendations and level of evidence were reviewed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441524/the-economy-of-smiles-affect-labour-and-the-contemporary-deserving-poor
#11
Jessica Gerrard
This paper examines the affective dimensions of new forms of informal entrepreneurial work carried out in spaces of unemployment. Situating the analysis within contemporary scholarship on deservingness and on affect and labour, I shed light on the forms of entrepreneurial labour that rely upon affect-driven economies of exchange underpinned by moral judgements of deservingness, value and worth. In particular, this paper draws on a multi-city (Melbourne, London, San Francisco) study of homeless street press sellers (The Big Issue and Street Sheet) to explore the ways in which contemporary practices of charity and care are carried out through individualized market-place exchanges...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410872/visual-processing-conscious-until-proven-otherwise
#12
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
Unconscious perception, or perception without awareness, describes a situation where an observer's behaviour is influenced by a stimulus of which they have no phenomenal awareness. Perception without awareness is often claimed on the basis of a difference in thresholds for tasks that do and do not require awareness, for example, detecting the stimulus (requiring awareness) and making accurate judgements about the stimulus (based on unconscious processing). Although a difference in thresholds would be expected if perceptual evidence were processed without awareness, such a difference does not necessitate that this is actually occurring: a difference in thresholds can also arise from response bias, or through task differences...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409633/factors-influencing-experience-in-crowds-the-organiser-perspective
#13
Victoria Filingeri, Ken Eason, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
Crowds are a commonplace encounter but the experience for participants can be highly variable. Crowds are complex sociotechnical phenomenon, affected by many interacting factors. Little is known, however, about how those responsible for organising crowd situations approach their responsibilities. This study conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 41) with organisers responsible for different aspects of the design, planning, management and operations of events and other crowd situations. The objective was to understand organisers' priorities, along with the consideration given to the experience of crowd participants...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385270/cognitive-judgement-bias-is-associated-with-frequency-of-anticipatory-behavior-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#14
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
March 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349804/integrity-situational-judgement-test-for-medical-school-selection-judging-what-to-do-versus-what-not-to-do
#15
Wendy E de Leng, Karen M Stegers-Jager, Marise Ph Born, Axel P N Themmen
CONTEXT: Despite their widespread use in medical school selection, there remains a lack of clarity on exactly what situational judgement tests (SJTs) measure. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop an SJT that measures integrity by combining critical incident interviews (inductive approach) with an innovative deductive approach. The deductive approach guided the development of the SJT according to two established theoretical models, of which one was positively related to integrity (honesty-humility [HH]) and one was negatively related to integrity (cognitive distortions [CD])...
April 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343215/women-s-decision-making-processes-and-the-influences-on-their-mode-of-birth-following-a-previous-caesarean-section-in-taiwan-a-qualitative-study
#16
Shu-Wen Chen, Alison M Hutchinson, Cate Nagle, Tracey K Bucknall
BACKGROUND: Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation...
January 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315043/how-should-medical-schools-prepare-medical-students-for-leading-the-nhs
#17
F Kazzazi, J Bartlett, E Finnerty
The NHS is an evolving landscape. While the level of clinical knowledge conferred to medical students remains constant, their competence in other skills, such as leadership, needs to be enhanced in order for them to successfully work within the health-care system. The importance of leadership is considered at the start and end of a medical degree - when applying to medical school with various examples of leading a team, and upon balancing scenarios of leadership when sitting the situational judgement test in final year...
January 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287287/-breast-reduction-surgery-as-an-example-of-surgery-on-demand-in-adolescents
#18
Johannes C Bruck, Anna-Kristine Wipper
Surgical options to optimise one's body image are also accessible to adolescents. Although the vast majority of surgical procedures in this group of patients focus on otoplasty, 4 % of procedures in Germany are performed on the breast. The onset of menarche has not changed much in recent years, but obesity seems to generate problems with the breast for young girls. Since it is difficult to assess maturity and psychological resilience in young patients, a plastic surgeon is faced with an area of conflicts regarding his or her will to meet patients' reasonable wishes to ease their suffering, offer reliable and sustainable results, and comply with legal regulations that are largely uncertain...
December 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223325/cochrane-qualitative-and-implementation-methods-group-guidance-paper-4-methods-for-assessing-evidence-on-intervention-implementation
#19
Margaret Cargo, Janet Harris, Tomas Pantoja, Andrew Booth, Angela Harden, Karin Hannes, James Thomas, Kate Flemming, Ruth Garside, Jane Noyes
OBJECTIVES: This article provides reviewers with guidance on methods for identifying and processing evidence to understand intervention implementation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Strategies, tools, and methods are applied to the systematic review process to illustrate how process and implementation can be addressed using quantitative, qualitative, and other sources of evidence (i.e., descriptive textual and nonempirical). RESULTS: Reviewers can take steps to navigate the heterogeneity and level of uncertainty present in the concepts, measures, and methods used to assess implementation...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194529/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#20
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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