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Situational judgement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142628/perioperative-results-and-complications-after-posterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-for-spinal-stenosis-in-geriatric-patients-over-than-70-years-old
#1
Jong Min Choi, Man Kyu Choi, Sung Bum Kim
Objective: As increasing the size of the geriatric population, the number of elderly patients, who need the surgery for painful degenerative spinal stenosis has been increasing. The geriatric population may be relatively high complications, because of age and age-associated medical conditions. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the perioperative complications and outcomes in elderly patients with posterior lumbar inter body fusion with screw augmentation (PLIF). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographic studies of geriatric patients who had spine surgery of PLIF due to spinal stenosis for 11 years...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122975/efficiency-and-thoroughness-trade-offs-in-high-volume-organisational-routines-an-ethnographic-study-of-prescribing-safety-in-primary-care
#2
Suzanne Grant, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Prescribing is a high-volume primary care routine where both speed and attention to detail are required. One approach to examining how organisations approach quality and safety in the face of high workloads is Hollnagel's Efficiency and Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO). Hollnagel argues that safety is aligned with thoroughness and that a choice is required between efficiency and thoroughness as it is not usually possible to maximise both. This study aimed to ethnographically examine the efficiency and thoroughness trade-offs made by different UK general practices in the achievement of prescribing safety...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111998/combining-the-outcomes-of-endoscopy-laboratory-testing-and-professional-judgement-in-gastroenterological-decision-making
#3
Amnon Sonnenberg
The need to combine the results of multiple separate tests or make decisions based on the judgement by multiple experts permeates the clinical and professional practice of a gastroenterologist. The present analysis is aimed at delineating four different means to combine results of multiple tests and discuss their applicability and limitations. In serial testing, the overall test outcome is rated as being positive if the outcome is positive in all individual tests applied in series. Serial testing increases the overall specificity at the expense of decreasing sensitivity...
December 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#4
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
October 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028258/between-user-reliability-of-tier-1-exposure-assessment-tools-used-under-reach
#5
Judith Lamb, Karen S Galea, Brian G Miller, Susanne Hesse, Martie Van Tongeren
When applying simple screening (Tier 1) tools to estimate exposure to chemicals in a given exposure situation under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals Regulation 2006 (REACH), users must select from several possible input parameters. Previous studies have suggested that results from exposure assessments using expert judgement and from the use of modelling tools can vary considerably between assessors. This study aimed to investigate the between-user reliability of Tier 1 tools...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984374/lessons-learned-from-15-years-of-non-grades-based-selection-for-medical-school
#6
Karen M Stegers-Jager
CONTEXT: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of (non-academic) personal qualities is that this will lead to the selection of students who will perform better as a doctor than those who are selected on the basis of academic measures only. A second rationale is the expectation that this will lead to a representative health workforce as a result of reduced adverse impact...
October 6, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953958/effects-of-age-on-the-soccer-specific-cognitive-motor-performance-of-elite-young-soccer-players-comparison-between-objective-measurements-and-coaches-evaluation
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Halim Hicheur, Alan Chauvin, Steve Chassot, Xavier Chenevière, Wolfgang Taube
The cognitive-motor performance (CMP), defined here as the capacity to rapidly use sensory information and transfer it into efficient motor output, represents a major contributor to performance in almost all sports, including soccer. Here, we used a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) which combines a visual environment simulator fully synchronized with a motion capture system. This system allowed us to measure objective real-time CMP parameters (passing accuracy/speed and response times) in a large turf-artificial grass playfield...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947389/experience-of-clandestine-use-of-medical-abortion-among-university-students-in-chile-a-qualitative-study
#8
Irma Palma Manríquez, Claudia Moreno Standen, Andrea Álvarez Carimoney, Alondra Richards
OBJECTIVES: o explore the ways in which medical abortion pills are obtained and used by university students in Chile in a clandestine context. STUDY DESIGN: Using a qualitative approach, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 young women who had had a medical abortion between 2006 and 2016 while attending university. We recorded the details of their pathways to abortion and their experience of abortion, and how they used networks in the university to find the pills and learn how to use them...
September 22, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915244/metacognitive-monitoring-and-control-in-visual-change-detection-implications-for-situation-awareness-and-cognitive-control
#9
Ken I McAnally, Adam P Morris, Christopher Best
Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA) are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control). We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL) or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895808/shared-decision-making-after-severe-stroke-how-can-we-improve-patient-and-family-involvement-in-treatment-decisions
#10
Akila Visvanathan, Martin Dennis, Gillian Mead, William N Whiteley, Julia Lawton, Fergus Neil Doubal
People who are well may regard survival with disability as being worse than death. However, this is often not the case when those surviving with disability (e.g. stroke survivors) are asked the same question. Many routine treatments provided after an acute stroke (e.g. feeding via a tube) increase survival, but with disability. Therefore, clinicians need to support patients and families in making informed decisions about the use of these treatments, in a process termed shared decision making. This is challenging after acute stroke: there is prognostic uncertainty, patients are often too unwell to participate in decision making, and proxies may not know the patients' expressed wishes (i...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776437/warfarin-monitoring-in-nursing-homes-assessed-by-case-histories-do-recommendations-and-electronic-alerts-affect-judgements
#11
Reyes Serrano Teruel, Geir Thue, Svein Ivar Fylkesnes, Sverre Sandberg, Ann Helen Kristoffersen
PURPOSE: Older adults treated with warfarin are prone to complications, and high-quality monitoring is essential. The aim of this case history based study was to assess the quality of warfarin monitoring in a routine situation, and in a situation with an antibiotic-warfarin interaction, before and after receiving an electronic alert. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In April 2014, a national web-based survey with two case histories was distributed among Norwegian nursing home physicians and general practitioners working part-time in nursing homes...
September 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763739/risk-of-malignancy-on-suspicion-of-polyps-in-menopausal-women
#12
Sandra Bel, Camille Billard, Julien Godet, Victor Viviani, Cherif Akladios, Aline Host, Emilie Faller, Thomas Boisrame, Michel Hummel, Jean-Jacques Baldauf, Lise Lecointre, Olivier Garbin
Improved performances in gynaecological ultrasonography have enabled an increasing number of often asymptomatic endometrial polyps to be detected. Most of these polyps are removed surgically, as a precautionary measure, so as not to miss a case of endometrial cancer. Nonetheless, this management strategy is based solely on the sonographer's judgement and a number of these operations, which are probably of no benefit, could be avoided. In order to do so, risk factors for malignancy need to be identified. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of lesions in menopausal patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of endometrial polyp...
September 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729598/book-review-the-dental-foundation-interview-guide-with-situational-judgement-tests
#13
M Shaath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726268/being-similar-while-judging-right-and-wrong-the-effects-of-personal-and-situational-similarity-on-moral-judgements
#14
Emilia Pascal
This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668586/the-art-of-preceptorship-a-qualitative-study
#15
Karina Nielsen, Jeanette Finderup, Lotte Brahe, Randi Elgaard, Anne Marie Elsborg, Vibeke Engell-Soerensen, Laila Holm, Hanne Juul, Irene Sommer
In the clinical nursing practice preceptorship is a widespread method to improve patient care by assisting nurses in developing the right clinical skills. However, little is known about how preceptorship should be practiced to achieve a positive learning outcome. The aim of the study was to investigate how preceptorship can be used in clinical practice to create learning and facilitate competence development. A qualitative study guided by a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and inspired by ethnographic fieldwork included 28 participant observations and 58 interviews...
September 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619858/ptsd-acute-stress-performance-and-decision-making-in-emergency-service-workers
#16
Cheryl Regehr, Vicki R LeBlanc
Despite research identifying high levels of stress and traumatic stress symptoms among those in the emergency services, the impact of these symptoms on performance and hence public safety remains uncertain. This review paper discusses a program of research that has examined the effects of prior critical incident exposure, acute stress, and current post-traumatic symptoms on the performance and decision-making during an acutely stressful event among police officers, police communicators, paramedics and child protection workers...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590153/is-it-acceptable-to-video-record-palliative-care-consultations-for-research-and-training-purposes-a-qualitative-interview-study-exploring-the-views-of-hospice-patients-carers-and-clinical-staff
#17
Marco Pino, Ruth Parry, Luke Feathers, Christina Faull
BACKGROUND: Research using video recordings can advance understanding of healthcare communication and improve care, but making and using video recordings carries risks. AIM: To explore views of hospice patients, carers and clinical staff about whether videoing patient-doctor consultations is acceptable for research and training purposes. DESIGN: We used semi-structured group and individual interviews to gather hospice patients, carers and clinical staff views...
September 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582982/the-role-of-emotional-intelligence-and-organisational-support-on-work-stress-of-nurses-in-ibadan-nigeria
#18
Abiodun M Lawal, Erhabor S Idemudia
BACKGROUND: Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses' responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors. OBJECTIVES: We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses through the use of convenience sampling...
May 23, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580748/opioid-addiction-and-misuse-in-adult-and-adolescent-patients-with-cancer
#19
Ross Pinkerton, Janet R Hardy
In the context of a therapeutic opioid epidemic, particularly in the USA, where increasingly stringent screening for 'at risk' individuals and close monitoring of opioid prescription and use is strongly recommended, the issue of misuse within the cancer population must be addressed. Most patients with advanced cancer will have pain requiring opioid therapy at some stage during their disease course. In the majority, this will provide good pain relief with no short- or longer-term adverse sequelae. A subset will present with substance misuse issues that will influence management and prescribing practice...
June 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557942/beyond-selection-the-use-of-situational-judgement-tests-in-the-teaching-and-assessment-of-professionalism
#20
Barbara D Goss, Anna T Ryan, Joshua Waring, Terry Judd, Neville G Chiavaroli, Richard Charles O'Brien, Stephen C Trumble, Geoffrey J McColl
PROBLEM: Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students' knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations. APPROACH: Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience...
June 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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