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Situational judgement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496220/using-a-situational-judgement-test-for-selection-into-dental-core-training-a-preliminary-analysis
#1
E Rowett, F Patterson, F Cousans, K Elley
Objective and setting This paper describes the evaluation of a pilot situational judgement test (SJT) for selection into UK Dental Core Training (DCT). The SJT's psychometric properties, group differences based on gender and ethnicity, and candidate reactions were assessed.Methods The SJT targets four non-academic attributes important for success in DCT. Data were collected alongside live selection processes from five Health Education England local teams in the UK (N = 386). Candidates completed the pilot SJT and an evaluation questionnaire to examine their reactions to the test...
May 12, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484636/response-threshold-variance-as-a-basis-of-collective-rationality
#2
Tatsuhiro Yamamoto, Eisuke Hasegawa
Determining the optimal choice among multiple options is necessary in various situations, and the collective rationality of groups has recently become a major topic of interest. Social insects are thought to make such optimal choices by collecting individuals' responses relating to an option's value (=a quality-graded response). However, this behaviour cannot explain the collective rationality of brains because neurons can make only 'yes/no' responses on the basis of the response threshold. Here, we elucidate the basic mechanism underlying the collective rationality of such simple units and show that an ant species uses this mechanism...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451694/production-pressures-among-anaesthesiologists-in-singapore
#3
Jia Xin Chai, Shin Yuet Chong
INTRODUCTION: Production pressure is the pressure on personnel to prioritise production ahead of safety. We assessed the prevalence of production pressures among anaesthesiologists in Singapore. METHODS: A random online survey was conducted among local anaesthesiologists. Questions were asked about attitudes to production pressures in the work environment, occurrence of situations involving unsafe actions, and rating on the intensity of external and internal sources of pressure...
April 28, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447134/-poisonings-in-germany-poisons-centres-medical-management-and-national-monitoring
#4
REVIEW
Herbert Desel, Helmut Hentschel, Andreas Stürer
BACKGROUND: Illnesses caused by exposure to extracorporeal artificial substances play a major role in emergency medicine, family medicine, and environmental medicine. OBJECTIVE: The current situation of medical poisoning management and national reporting of poisonings in Germany are described. MATERIALS UND METHODS: The information and data presented here are derived from a literature review and from stakeholder interviews. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eight poison centres (PCs) offer consultation supporting the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases in Germany today...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421018/the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task-the-role-of-experienced-fluency-and-strength-of-representation
#5
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is an important paradigm to study the properties of unconscious learning processes. One specifically interesting and still controversially discussed topic are the conditions under which unconsciously acquired knowledge becomes conscious knowledge. The different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms can contrastively be separated into two accounts: single system views in which the strengthening of associative weights throughout training gradually turns implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and dual system views in which implicit knowledge itself does not become conscious...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406719/structured-expert-consensus-on-actinic-keratosis-treatment-algorithm-focusing-on-daylight-pdt
#6
Piergiacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Merete Hædersdal, Kirk Barber, Nicole Basset-Seguin, María Emilia Del Pino Flores, Peter Foley, Gaston Galimberti, Rianne Gerritsen, Yolanda Gilarbete, Sally Ibbotson, Ketty Peris, Sheetal Sapra, Eleni Sotiriou, Luis Torezan, Claas Ulrich, Jonathan Guillemot, Janek Hendrich, Rolf-Markus Szeimies
BACKGROUND: A practical and up-to-date consensus among experts is paramount to further improve patient care in actinic keratosis (AK). OBJECTIVES: To develop a structured consensus statement on the diagnosis, classification, and practical management of AK based on up-to-date information. METHODS: A systematic review of AK clinical guidelines was conducted. This informed the preparation of a 3-round Delphi procedure followed by a consensus meeting, which combined the opinions of 16 clinical experts from 13 countries, to construct a structured consensus statement and a treatment algorithm positioning daylight photodynamic therapy (dl-PDT) among other AK treatment options...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401657/validation-of-a-modified-early-warning-score-linked-situation-background-assessment-recommendation-sbar-communication-tool-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Debora Burger, Sue Jordan, Una Kyriacos
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a modified Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation communication tool incorporating components of the Cape Town Modified Early Warning Score vital signs chart for reporting early signs of clinical deterioration. BACKGROUND: Reporting early signs of physiological and clinical deterioration could prevent 'failure to rescue' or unexpected intensive care admission, cardiac arrest or death...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386432/calibration-with-confidence-a-principled-method-for-panel-assessment
#8
R S MacKay, R Kenna, R J Low, S Parker
Frequently, a set of objects has to be evaluated by a panel of assessors, but not every object is assessed by every assessor. A problem facing such panels is how to take into account different standards among panel members and varying levels of confidence in their scores. Here, a mathematically based algorithm is developed to calibrate the scores of such assessors, addressing both of these issues. The algorithm is based on the connectivity of the graph of assessors and objects evaluated, incorporating declared confidences as weights on its edges...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341312/evaluation-of-methods-for-the-assessment-of-attention-while-driving
#9
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
The ability to assess the current attentional state of the driver is important for many aspects of driving, not least in the field of partial automation for transfer of control between vehicle and driver. Knowledge about the driver's attentional state is also necessary for the assessment of the effects of additional tasks on attention. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different methods that can be used to assess attention, first theoretically, and then empirically in a controlled field study and in the laboratory...
March 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329417/nursing-judgement-and-decision-making-using-the-sedation-withdrawal-score-sws-in-children
#10
Jennie Craske, Bernie Carter, Ian H Jarman, Lyvonne N Tume
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate registered children's nurses' approaches to the assessment and management of withdrawal syndrome in children. BACKGROUND: Assessment of withdrawal syndrome is undertaken following critical illness when the child's condition may be unstable with competing differential diagnoses. Assessment tools aim to standardise and improve recognition of withdrawal syndrome. Making the right decisions in complex clinical situations requires a degree of mental effort and it is not known how nurses make decisions when undertaking withdrawal assessments...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320325/-was-that-a-success-or-not-a-success-a-qualitative-study-of-health-professionals-perspectives-on-support-for-people-with-long-term-conditions
#11
John Owens, Vikki A Entwistle, Alan Cribb, Zoë C Skea, Simon Christmas, Heather Morgan, Ian S Watt
BACKGROUND: Support for self-management (SSM) is a prominent strand of health policy internationally, particularly for primary care. It is often discussed and evaluated in terms of patients' knowledge, skills and confidence, health-related behaviours, disease control or risk reduction, and service use and costs. However, these goals are limited, both as guides to professional practice and as indicators of its quality. In order to better understand what it means to support self-management well, we examined health professionals' views of success in their work with people with long-term conditions...
March 20, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306586/voice-outcomes-post-total-laryngectomy
#12
Anne Hurren, Nick Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A consensus and body of robust evidence has developed regarding optimal laryngeal voice outcome measures. This contrasts with a lack of clarity for equivalent assessments in alaryngeal voice. Addressing this situation would enable clinicians to select the best tools currently available to facilitate research, audit and clinical practice. This is important because of the limited knowledge regarding the optimal surgical or reconstruction techniques and rehabilitation regimes for the laryngectomy population...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284408/-hospital-care-in-estonia-thoughts-on-patient-privacy
#13
REVIEW
Aline Schoenacker
A student nurse is doing a work placement in a hospital in Estonia. The care techniques are identical to those with which she is familiar. However, the application of concepts of privacy and modesty is somewhat different. A reflexive analysis of the situation ensures no hasty judgements are made and enables her to think about the place of her own representations.
March 2017: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247985/enrique-pichon-rivi%C3%A3-re-s-conception-of-reality-in-psychoanalysis
#14
Samuel Arbiser
The author places the subject of his paper in the context of the original views of a school of Argentinian psychoanalysts that differed from traditional conceptions of man and his relationship with the sociocultural context - that is, with reality. These were the analysts who followed Enrique Pichon Rivière and further developed his ideas - namely, Madeleine and Willy Baranger, José Bleger, and David Liberman. The author begins his exposition with a discussion of Pichon Rivière and culture. He then offers an outline of Pichon Rivière's particular conception of man, followed by a section on the Internal Group as the nexus between the psyche and reality...
February 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239024/in-practical-training-a-questionnaire-survey-and-analysis-to-pharmacy-students-of-the-utilization-situation-of-the-course-contents-of-pharmacy-school
#15
Masato Okubo, Yuka Takahashi, Jun Yamashita, Hideyo Takahashi, Okiko Miyata, Takaaki Suzuki, Itsuko Ishii
  Pharmacy education comprises basic pharmacy (organic chemistry, biochemistry, and physical chemistry) and applied pharmacy (clinical pharmacy, pharm aceutics, and chemical hygiene). Students are expected to apply these subjects studied in pharmacy school during their practical pharmacy training. However, knowledge gained in university does not appear to be fully utilized in practice. We hypothesized that this is due to a lack of connection between pre-practical training education and actual practical training...
February 24, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225464/beyond-selection-the-use-of-situational-judgement-tests-in-the-teaching-and-assessment-of-professionalism
#16
Barbara D Goss, Anna T Ryan, Joshua Waring, Terry Judd, Neville G Chiavaroli, Richard Charles O'Brien, Stephen C Trumble, Geoffrey J McColl
PROBLEM: Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students' knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations. APPROACH: Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience...
February 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181019/evaluating-the-complementary-roles-of-an-sjt-and-academic-assessment-for-entry-into-clinical-practice
#17
Fran Cousans, Fiona Patterson, Helena Edwards, Kim Walker, John C McLachlan, David Good
Although there is extensive evidence confirming the predictive validity of situational judgement tests (SJTs) in medical education, there remains a shortage of evidence for their predictive validity for performance of postgraduate trainees in their first role in clinical practice. Moreover, to date few researchers have empirically examined the complementary roles of academic and non-academic selection methods in predicting in-role performance. This is an important area of enquiry as despite it being common practice to use both types of methods within a selection system, there is currently no evidence that this approach translates into increased predictive validity of the selection system as a whole, over that achieved by the use of a single selection method...
May 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#18
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
April 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148572/the-predictive-validity-of-a-situational-judgement-test-a-clinical-problem-solving-test-and-the-core-medical-training-selection-methods-for-performance-in-specialty-training%C3%A2
#19
Fiona Patterson, Safiatu Lopes, Stephen Harding, Emma Vaux, Liz Berkin, David Black
The aim of this study was to follow up a sample of physicians who began core medical training (CMT) in 2009. This paper examines the long-term validity of CMT and GP selection methods in predicting performance in the Membership of Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations. We performed a longitudinal study, examining the extent to which the GP and CMT selection methods (T1) predict performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations (T2). A total of 2,569 applicants from 2008-09 who completed CMT and GP selection methods were included in the study...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096705/situational-judgment-tests-reliably-measure-professional-attributes-important-for-clinical-practice
#20
EDITORIAL
Katie Petty-Saphon, Kim A Walker, Fiona Patterson, Vicki Ashworth, Helena Edwards
Over the course of more than 40 years, international research has consistently shown situational judgment tests (SJTs) to be a reliable and valid selection method for assessing a range of professional attributes. However, SJTs still represent a relatively new selection method within the medical profession, and as such it is to be expected that applicant reactions will vary. In this Expert Opinion piece, we respond to Najim et al's article "The situational judgement test: a student's worst nightmare" by highlighting three key clarifications...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
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