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cancer and plastic

Cheng-Ming Chiang
BRD4 is an epigenetic regulator and transcription cofactor whose phosphorylation by CK2 and dephosphorylation by PP2A modulates its function in chromatin targeting, factor recruitment, and cancer progression. While the bromodomains of BET family proteins, including BRD4, BRD2, BRD3 and BRDT, have been the primary targets of small compounds such as JQ1, I-BET and MS417 that show promising anticancer effects against some hematopoietic cancer and solid tumors, drug resistance upon prolonged treatment necessitates a better understanding of alternative pathways underlying not only the resistance but also persistent BET protein dependence for identifying new targets and effective combination therapy strategies...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Sara S Franco, Karolina Szczesna, Maria S Iliou, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Ali Mobasheri, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Cancer cells, stem cells and cancer stem cells have for a long time played a significant role in the biomedical sciences. Though cancer therapy is more effective than it was a few years ago, the truth is that still none of the current non-surgical treatments can cure cancer effectively. The reason could be due to the subpopulation called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs), being defined as those cells within a tumour that have properties of stem cells: self-renewal and the ability for differentiation into multiple cell types that occur in tumours...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Yu-Ting Chou, Shih-Sheng Jiang, Junn-Liang Chang, Chih-Hung Chung, Yu-Rung Kao, I-Shou Chang, Cheng-Wen Wu
Cell differentiation within stem cell lineages can check proliferative potential but nodal pathways that can limit tumor growth are obscure. Here we report that lung cancer cell populations generate phenotypic and oncogenic plasticity via a switch between differentiation programs controlled by SOX2 and SOX9, thus altering proliferative and invasive capabilities. In lung cancer cells, SOX2 bound the EPCAM promoter to induce EpCAM-p21Cip1-cyclin A2 signaling, encouraging cell proliferation as well as barrier properties...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Research
Theerawut Chanmee, Pawared Ontong, Tomomi Izumikawa, Miho Higashide, Nobutoshi Mochizuki, Chatchadawalai Chokchaitaweesuk, Manatsanan Khansai, Kazuki Nakajima, Ikuko Kakizaki, Prachya Kongtawelert, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Naoki Itano
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of self-renewing oncogenic cells. Like many other stem cells, metabolic reprogramming has been implicated to be a key characteristic of CSCs. However, little is known on how the metabolic features of cancer cells are controlled to orchestrate their CSC-like properties. We recently demonstrated that hyaluronan (HA) overproduction allowed plastic cancer cells to revert to stem-cell states. Here, we adopted stable isotope-assisted tracing and mass spectrometry profiling to elucidate the metabolic features of HA-overproducing breast cancer cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
H A Marsman, M G Besselink
- The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increasing due to the ageing population among other things, while 5-year survival has improved in the past two decades from 3 to 7%.- In case of biliary obstruction due to pancreatic cancer, biliary drainage before surgery or ablative therapy using a covered metal stent instead of plastic reduces the rate of complications.- In patients with metastasized pancreatic cancer a combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) results in improved survival...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Yingjiao Xue, Shenda Hou, Hongbin Ji, Xiangkun Han
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Targeted therapy is beneficial in most cases, but the development of drug resistance stands as an obstacle to good prognosis. Multiple mechanisms were explored such as genetic alterations, activation of bypass signaling, and phenotypic transition. These intrinsic and/or extrinsic dynamic regulations facilitate tumor cell survival in meeting the demands of signaling under different stimulus. This review introduces lung cancer plasticity and heterogeneity and their correlation with drug resistance...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
Thomas C Lam, Caleb J Winch
: Reconstruction after mastectomy is an important milestone for many women treated for breast cancer. However, because many surgeons only offer their preferred method of reconstruction, it is not clear which approach women would choose if offered a genuine choice. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2010, the breast reconstruction service at a major Australian teaching hospital was staffed by a single plastic surgeon trained in both prosthetic and autologous breast reconstruction techniques...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Maximilian Boesch, Sieghart Sopper, Alain G Zeimet, Daniel Reimer, Guenther Gastl, Burkhard Ludewig, Dominik Wolf
Malignancy is fuelled by distinct subsets of stem-like cells which persist under treatment and provoke drug-resistant recurrence. Eradication of these cancer stem cells has therefore become a prime objective for the development and design of novel classes of anti-cancer therapeutics with improved clinical efficacy. Here, we portray potentially clinically-relevant hallmarks of cancer stem cells and focus on their recently appreciated properties of cell variability and plasticity, both of which make them elusive targets for cancer therapies...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Cecilia Rossetti, Maren C S Levernæs, Léon Reubsaet, Trine G Halvorsen
Mass spectrometric assays are now of great relevance for trace compound analysis in complex matrices such as serum and plasma samples. Especially in the quantification of low abundant protein-biomarkers, the choice of the sample preparation is crucial. In the present paper immunocapture and Molecular Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) have been applied in the determination of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide, a Small Cell Lung Cancer marker. These affinity-based techniques were compared in terms of matrix effect, limits of detection, repeatability and extraction specificity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Chung-Hsuan Wu, Wei-Han Wang, Chien-Chong Hong, Kuo Chu Hwang
This paper presents a novel disposable breath-sensing tube with an on-tube single-nanowire (NW) sensor array for noninvasive, simple, and on-site detection of exhaled breath biomarkers. Although various noninvasive detection methods for lung cancer biomarkers in breath samples exist, they are unsuitable for self-diagnostics and immediate detection because they entail complicated handling procedures and are time intensive. In this study, we simulated, fabricated, and characterized disposable nanosensors by using single TiO2 and Ag NWs in flexible plastic tubes...
October 14, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Margherita Correnti, Chiara Raggi
Poor prognosis and high recurrence remain leading causes of primary liver cancer-associated mortality. The spread of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood plays a major role in the initiation of metastasis and tumor recurrence after surgery. Nevertheless, only a subset of CTCs can survive, migrate to distant sites and establish secondary tumors. Consistent with cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, stem-like CTCs might represent a potential source for cancer relapse and distant metastasis. Thus, identification of stem-like metastasis-initiating CTC-subset may provide useful clinically prognostic information...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Xin Li, Yun Liu, Tal Salz, Kasper D Hansen, Andrew P Feinberg
DNA methylation at the 5-postion of cytosine (5mC) is an epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression and cellular plasticity in development and disease. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) gene family oxidizes 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), providing an active mechanism for DNA demethylation, and may also provide its own regulatory function. Here we applied oxidative bisulfite sequencing to generate whole-genome DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation maps at single-base resolution in paired human liver and lung normal and cancer...
October 13, 2016: Genome Research
Junsheng Li, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Hao Lu, Maren Voglstätter, Erika Ueda, Michael Grunze, Jonathan Sleeman, Pavel A Levkin, Irina Nazarenko
Malignant transformation is associated with enhancement of cell plasticity, which allows cancer cells to survive under different conditions by adapting to their microenvironment during growth and metastatic spread. Much effort has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Although the importance of the extracellular matrix and of surface properties in these mechanisms is evident, the direct impact of distinct physical and chemical surfaces characteristics on cell fate remains unclear...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Antonino Natalello, Carlo Santambrogio, Rita Grandori
Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Emilie Bessède, Silvia Molina, Luis Acuña Amador, Pierre Dubus, Cathy Staedel, Lucie Chambonnier, Alice Buissonnière, Elodie Sifré, Alban Giese, Lucie Bénéjat, Benoît Rousseau, Pierre Costet, David B Sacks, Francis Mégraud, Christine Varon
Helicobacter pylori infection is responsible for gastric carcinogenesis but host factors are also implicated. IQGAP1, a scaffolding protein of the adherens junctions interacting with E-cadherin, regulates cellular plasticity and proliferation. In mice, IQGAP1 deficiency leads to gastric hyperplasia. The aim of this study was to elucidate the consequences of IQGAP1 deletion on H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.Transgenic mice deleted for iqgap1 and WT littermates were infected with Helicobacter sp., and histopathological analyses of the gastric mucosa were performed...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Stephanie Romanus, Patrick Neven, Adelheid Soubry
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory focuses on the consequences of periconceptional and in utero exposures. A wide range of environmental conditions during early development are now being investigated as a driving force for epigenetic disruptions that enhance disease risk in later life, including cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, and mental disorders and even breast cancer. Most studies involve mother-child dyads, with less focus on environmental influences through the father...
October 12, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Calley L Hirsch, Jeffrey L Wrana, Sharon Y R Dent
Development is generally regarded as a unidirectional process that results in the acquisition of specialized cell fates. During this process, cellular identity is precisely defined by signaling cues that tailor the chromatin landscape for cell-specific gene expression programs. Once established, these pathways and cell states are typically resistant to disruption. However, loss of cell identity occurs during tumor initiation and upon injury response. Moreover, terminally differentiated cells can be experimentally provoked to become pluripotent...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Bhumika Wadhwa, Rashmi Dumbre
Prostate (CaP) cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in Western societies. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a critical survival pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the principal treatment for patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease. Although a majority of patients initially respond to ADT, most will eventually develop castrate resistance. The recent discovery that AR signaling persists during systemic castration via intratumoral production of androgens led to the development of novel anti-androgen therapies...
October 6, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
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