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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315117/the-evolution-of-pollution-profile-and-health-risk-assessment-for-three-groups-svocs-pollutants-along-with-beijiang-river-china
#1
Jiao Tang, Taicheng An, Jukun Xiong, Guiying Li
Three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), were produced by various human activities and entered the water body. In this study, the pollution profiles of three species including 16 PAHs, 20 OCPs and 15 PAEs in water along the Beijiang River, China were investigated. The concentrations of Σ16PAHs in the dissolved and particulate phases were obtained as 69-1.5 × 10(2) ng L(-1) and 2...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302822/the-cancer-epigenome-concepts-challenges-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#2
REVIEW
Mark A Dawson
Cancer biology is profoundly influenced by changes in the epigenome. Because the dynamic plasticity of the epigenome lends itself well to therapeutic manipulation, the past few years have witnessed an unprecedented investment in the development, characterization, and translation of targeted epigenetic therapies. In this review, I provide a broad context for recent developments that offer a greater understanding of how epigenetic regulators facilitate the initiation, maintenance, and evolution of cancer. I discuss newly developed epigenetic therapies and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may govern sensitivity and resistance to these agents...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302679/disrupting-androgen-receptor-signaling-induces-snail-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Lu Miao, Lin Yang, Rui Li, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Mateus Crespo, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Wayne D Tilley, Johann S de Bono, Luke A Selth, Ganesh V Raj
Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) has been linked to metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance. In prostate cancer (PCa), EMP has been associated with both suppression and activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here we investigated the effect of the potent AR antagonist enzalutamide on EMP in multiple preclinical models of PCa and patient tissues. Enzalutamide treatment significantly enhanced the expression of EMP drivers (ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail, Twist, and FOXC2) and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin) in PCa cells, enhanced PCa cell migration, and induced PCa transformation to a spindle, fibroblast-like morphology...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299193/recent-advances-in-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-class-i-antigen-presentation-plastic-mhc-molecules-and-tapbpr-mediated-quality-control
#4
REVIEW
Andy van Hateren, Alistair Bailey, Tim Elliott
We have known since the late 1980s that the function of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to bind peptides and display them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. Recognition by these sentinels of the immune system can lead to the destruction of the presenting cell, thus protecting the host from pathogens and cancer. Classical MHC class I molecules (MHC I hereafter) are co-dominantly expressed, polygenic, and exceptionally polymorphic and have significant sequence diversity...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#5
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293332/systemic-therapy-for-early-stage-breast-cancer-what-the-plastic-surgeon-should-know
#6
Chad M Teven, Daniel B Schmid, Mark Sisco, James Ward, Michael A Howard
Objective: We review the types, indications, and common regimens of systemic forms of therapy offered in early-stage breast cancer. We further detail the mechanism of action, approved uses, major toxicities, and relevance to breast reconstruction of specific agents. Methods: A review of the literature on PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken to define the indications and common regimens of systemic therapy in early-stage breast cancer. In addition, literature describing relevant information regarding specific systemic agents was reviewed...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292569/indocyanine-green-applications-in-plastic-surgery-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Pierre Burnier, Jérémy Niddam, Romain Bosc, Barbara Hersant, Jean-Paul Meningaud
INTRODUCTION: Use of indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence as a dye to assess tissue vascularization is now well standardized. The aim of this literature review was to review and resume the most recent recommendations for ICG use in its plastic surgery applications. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases to obtain the latest recommendations for ICG in plastic surgery. Inclusion criteria were all articles written in English language that evaluated pre-, intra-, or postoperative ICG applications in surgical procedures usually performed by plastic surgeons...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289703/autonomous-retroflexion-of-a-magnetic-flexible-endoscope
#8
Piotr R Slawinski, Addisu Z Taddese, Kyle B Musto, Keith L Obstein, Pietro Valdastri
Retroflexion during colonoscopy is typically only practiced in the wider proximal and distal ends of the large intestine owing to the stiff nature of the colonoscope. This inability to examine the proximal side of the majority of colon folds contributes to today's suboptimal colorectal cancer detection rates. We have developed an algorithm for autonomous retroflexion of a flexible endoscope that is actuated magnetically from the tip. The magnetic wrench applied on the tip of the endoscope is optimized in real-time with data from pose detection to compute motions of the actuating magnet...
July 2017: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288136/oncostatin-m-promotes-cancer-cell-plasticity-through-cooperative-stat3-smad3-signaling
#9
D J Junk, B L Bryson, J M Smigiel, N Parameswaran, C A Bartel, M W Jackson
Increasing evidence supports the idea that cancer cell plasticity promotes metastasis and tumor recurrence, resulting in patient mortality. While it is clear that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to cancer cell plasticity, the specific TME factors most actively controlling plasticity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a screen to identify TME cytokines and growth factors that promote epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Of 28 TME cytokines and growth factors tested, we identified Oncostatin M (OSM) as the most potent inducer of mesenchymal/CSC properties...
March 13, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287607/mitoception-transferring-isolated-human-msc-mitochondria-to-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#10
Brice Nzigou Mombo, Sabine Gerbal-Chaloin, Aleksandra Bokus, Martine Daujat-Chavanieu, Christian Jorgensen, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Marie-Luce Vignais
Mitochondria play a central role for cell metabolism, energy production and control of apoptosis. Inadequate mitochondrial function has been found responsible for very diverse diseases, ranging from neurological pathologies to cancer. Interestingly, mitochondria have recently been shown to display the capacity to be transferred between cell types, notably from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to cancer cells in coculture conditions, with metabolic and functional consequences for the mitochondria recipient cells, further enhancing the current interest for the biological properties of these organelles...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286418/mir-484-suppresses-proliferation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-zeb1-and-smad2-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#11
Yang Hu, Hong Xie, Yankun Liu, Weiying Liu, Min Liu, Hua Tang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer initiation and development. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a form of cellular plasticity that is critical for embryonic development and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to determine the function and mechanism of miR-484 in initiation and development of cervical cancer (CC). METHODS: We determined the expression levels of miR-484 in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines with RT-qPCR...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286338/integration-site-selection-by-retroviruses-and-transposable-elements-in-eukaryotes
#12
REVIEW
Tania Sultana, Alessia Zamborlini, Gael Cristofari, Pascale Lesage
Transposable elements and retroviruses are found in most genomes, can be pathogenic and are widely used as gene-delivery and functional genomics tools. Exploring whether these genetic elements target specific genomic sites for integration and how this preference is achieved is crucial to our understanding of genome evolution, somatic genome plasticity in cancer and ageing, host-parasite interactions and genome engineering applications. High-throughput profiling of integration sites by next-generation sequencing, combined with large-scale genomic data mining and cellular or biochemical approaches, has revealed that the insertions are usually non-random...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280777/quantifying-hormone-disruptors-with-an-engineered-bacterial-biosensor
#13
Ariel L Furst, Alexander C Hoepker, Matthew B Francis
Endocrine disrupting compounds are found in increasing amounts in our environment, originating from pesticides, plasticizers, and pharmaceuticals, among other sources. Although the full impact of these compounds is still under study, they have already been implicated in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. The list of chemicals that disrupt normal hormone function is growing at an alarming rate, making it crucially important to find sources of contamination and identify new compounds that display this ability...
February 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280676/the-telemark-breast-score-a-valid-method-for-evaluation-of-outcome-after-breast-surgery
#14
Anadi Begic, Birgit Stark
BACKGROUND: "Telemark Breast Score" (TBS) has been developed at Telemark Hospital in Norway for evaluation of results after breast surgery based on standardized patients' photographs taken as a part of daily routine. Its reliability has recently been tested and approved. The external validity of the TBS was assessed by matching its data against the internationally recognized Breast-Q (BQ) questionnaire as a further step to study the validity of this new tool. METHODS: The ideal distribution of breast volume is 45% of the total volume above and 55% below the nipple, and a 40° slope line at the upper pole...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274525/epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#15
REVIEW
Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly caused by smoking and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and irreversible. It is a worldwide health problem and the fourth most common cause of chronic disability and mortality (even in developed countries). It is a complex disease involving both the airway and lung parenchyma. Small-airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small-airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
March 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272124/diabetic-mastopathy-a-systematic-review-of-surgical-management-of-a-rare-breast-disease
#16
Nneamaka Barbara Agochukwu, Lesley Wong
Diabetic mastopathy is a benign condition of the breast that typically manifests in patients with diabetes mellitus. Lymphocytic mastopathy is the term used to describe this condition in patients without diabetes mellitus. Most patients undergo excisional biopsy, but the use of mastectomy, even in cases of diffuse, bilateral disease, is rarely reported. We present a 32-year-old female patient with type 1 diabetes and bilateral diabetic mastopathy. Because of pain, and concern for limitations in future cancer detection, she underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies with immediate direct-to-implant reconstruction...
April 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271447/guards-at-the-gate-physiological-and-pathological-roles-of-tissue-resident-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-lung
#17
REVIEW
Hang Cheng, Chengyan Jin, Jing Wu, Shan Zhu, Yong-Jun Liu, Jingtao Chen
The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity...
March 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267621/targeting-hepatic-macrophages-to-treat-liver-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Frank Tacke
Our view on liver macrophages in the context of health and disease has been reformed by the recognition of a remarkable heterogeneity of phagocytes in the liver. Liver macrophages consist of ontogenically distinct populations termed Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Kupffer cells are self-renewing, resident and principally non-migratory phagocytes, serving as sentinels for liver homeostasis. Liver injury triggers Kupffer cell activation, leading to inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. This fosters the infiltration of monocytes into liver that give rise to large numbers of inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264904/neutrophils-as-active-regulators-of-the-immune-system-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#19
REVIEW
Merav E Shaul, Zvi G Fridlender
In recent years, the role of immune cells in tumor progression has been a matter of increasing interest. Neutrophils constitute an important portion of the immune cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment. Traditionally viewed as the first line of defense against infections, it is now well accepted that neutrophils also have an important role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Multiple and heterogeneous neutrophil subsets have been identified in tumors and in circulation. Evidence from many studies now supports the notion that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) show functional plasticity driven by multiple factors present in the tumor microenvironment...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262792/glucocorticoid-resistance-of-migration-and-gene-expression-in-a-daughter-mda-mb-231-breast-tumour-cell-line-selected-for-high-metastatic-potential
#20
Ebony R Fietz, Christine R Keenan, Guillermo López-Campos, Yan Tu, Cameron N Johnstone, Trudi Harris, Alastair G Stewart
Glucocorticoids are commonly used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting despite a lack of understanding of their direct effect on cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that glucocorticoids inhibit cancer cell migration. However, this action has not been investigated in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumour cells, although activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is associated with a worse prognosis in ER-negative breast cancers. In this study we have explored the effect of glucocorticoids on the migration of the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast tumour cell line and the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231-HM...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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