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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545213/safe-utilization-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-farmland-by-mulberry-tree-cultivation-and-silk-production
#1
Xiaoming Wan, Mei Lei, Tongbin Chen, Yongbi Tan, Junxing Yang
Heavy-metal-contaminated soil threatens human health and environmental safety. Complete remediation of contaminated soil is expensive; therefore, phytomanagement has emerged as a cost-effective alternative. The current study investigated mulberry tree (Morus alba) plantation, silkworm cultivation, and silk production as phytomanagement options. Results defined the safety of planting mulberry trees in soils with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations lower than 369 and 180mgkg(-1), respectively. Silkworms fed with mulberry leaves collected from slightly contaminated soil exhibited productive growth and normal silk production...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544622/an-investigation-into-the-two-stage-meta-analytic-copula-modelling-approach-for-evaluating-time-to-event-surrogate-endpoints-which-comprise-of-one-or-more-events-of-interest
#2
Natalie Dimier, Susan Todd
Clinical trials of experimental treatments must be designed with primary endpoints that directly measure clinical benefit for patients. In many disease areas, the recognised gold standard primary endpoint can take many years to mature, leading to challenges in the conduct and quality of clinical studies. There is increasing interest in using shorter-term surrogate endpoints as substitutes for costly long-term clinical trial endpoints; such surrogates need to be selected according to biological plausibility, as well as the ability to reliably predict the unobserved treatment effect on the long-term endpoint...
May 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543944/anterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-effort-allocation-toward-a-qualitatively-preferred-option
#3
Evan E Hart, Julian O Gerson, Yael Zoken, Marisella Garcia, Alicia Izquierdo
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in effortful choice, yet its role in cost-benefit evaluation of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. Selecting between qualitatively different options is a decision type commonly faced by humans. Here we assessed the role of ACC on a task that has primarily been used to probe striatal function in motivation. Rats were trained to stable performance on a progressive ratio schedule for sucrose pellets and were then given sham surgeries (control) or excitotoxic NMDA-lesions of ACC...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542979/consequences-of-symbiont-co-infections-for-insect-host-phenotypes
#4
Ailsa H C McLean, Benjamin J Parker, Jan Hrček, James Kavanagh, Peter A D Wellham, H Charles J Godfray
1.Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. 2.We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of endosymbiotic bacteria within an aphid host influence the outcome of symbiosis for both symbiont and host. 3.We first asked whether different combinations of facultative symbiont species or strains can exist in stable co-infections...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542465/employers-perception-of-the-costs-and-the-benefits-of-hiring-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-open-employment-in-australia
#5
Melissa Scott, Andrew Jacob, Delia Hendrie, Richard Parsons, Sonya Girdler, Torbjörn Falkmer, Marita Falkmer
Research has examined the benefits and costs of employing adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the perspective of the employee, taxpayer and society, but few studies have considered the employer perspective. This study examines the benefits and costs of employing adults with ASD, from the perspective of employers. Fifty-nine employers employing adults with ASD in open employment were asked to complete an online survey comparing employees with and without ASD on the basis of job similarity. The findings suggest that employing an adult with ASD provides benefits to employers and their organisations without incurring additional costs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542418/effects-of-histatin-1-peptide-on-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#6
Dhara Shah, Marwan Ali, Deepak Shukla, Sandeep Jain, Vinay Kumar Aakalu
PURPOSE: Ocular surface and corneal epithelial wounds are common and potentially debilitating problems. Ideal treatments for these injuries would promote epithelial healing without inflammation, infection and scarring. In addition the best treatments would be cost-efficient, effective, non-toxic and easily applied. Histatin-1 peptides have been shown to be safe and effective enhancers of epithelial wound healing in other model systems. We sought to determine whether histatin-1 peptides could enhance human corneal epithelial wound healing in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542308/lipid-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porosira-glacialis-and-attheya-longicornis-in-response-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-aeration
#7
E Y Artamonova, T Vasskog, H C Eilertsen
In the current study two novel psychrophilic diatoms Porosira glacialis and Attheya longicornis were tested for suitability to CO2 mitigation coupled with production of the physiologically requisite omega- 3 fatty acids. This study is in line with the worldwide conducted research aimed at applying biorefinery concept to heavy polluting industries. Since the production of algal high value compounds, i.e. essential fatty acids, relies on utilization of residual CO2 emissions coming from industry, the costs of such production maybe substantially reduced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542239/projected-savings-through-public-health-voluntary-licences-of-hiv-drugs-negotiated-by-the-medicines-patent-pool-mpp
#8
Sandeep Juneja, Aastha Gupta, Suerie Moon, Stephen Resch
The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542184/estimation-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-prevention-portfolios-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-united-states-a-model-based-analysis
#9
Cora L Bernard, Douglas K Owens, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: The risks of HIV transmission associated with the opioid epidemic make cost-effective programs for people who inject drugs (PWID) a public health priority. Some of these programs have benefits beyond prevention of HIV-a critical consideration given that injection drug use is increasing across most United States demographic groups. To identify high-value HIV prevention program portfolios for US PWID, we consider combinations of four interventions with demonstrated efficacy: opioid agonist therapy (OAT), needle and syringe programs (NSPs), HIV testing and treatment (Test & Treat), and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541513/improving-health-literacy-through-adult-basic-education-in-australia
#10
Suzanne Morony, Emma Lamph, Danielle Muscat, Don Nutbeam, Haryana M Dhillon, Heather Shepherd, Sian Smith, Aisha Khan, Julie Osborne, Wedyan Meshreky, Karen Luxford, Andrew Hayen, Kirsten J McCaffery
Adults with low literacy are less empowered to take care of their health, have poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We facilitated partnerships between adult literacy teachers and community health providers to deliver a health literacy training program in adult basic education classrooms. Following course completion we interviewed 19 adult education teachers (15 delivering the health literacy program; 4 delivering standard literacy classes) and four community health providers (CHPs) about their experiences, and analysed transcripts using Framework analysis...
May 25, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541411/better-outcomes-and-reduced-hospitalization-cost-are-associated-with-ultra-early-treatment-of-ruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-us-nationwide-data-sample-study
#11
Ashish Sonig, Hussain Shallwani, Sabareesh K Natarajan, Hakeem J Shakir, L Nelson Hopkins, Kenneth V Snyder, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy
BACKGROUND: The benefit of surgical treatment of ruptured aneurysms is well established. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ultra-early ruptured aneurysm treatment leads to not only improved outcomes but also reduced hospitalization cost. METHODS: Using 2008-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, we analyzed demographic, clinical, and hospital factors for nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients who were "directly" admitted to the treating hospital where they underwent intervention (clipping/coiling)...
May 25, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541406/cost-benefit-analysis-of-case-management-policies-in-a-dui-lab
#12
Nicholas B Tiscione, Russell Miller, Xiaoqin Shan, Dustin Tate Yeatman
A study was previously conducted and published describing the magnitude of the under-reporting of drugs in driving under the influence (DUI) cases by using a blood drug screen (BDS) case management protocol and to determine whether not reporting those drugs would have a meaningful impact on the DUI cases. A follow-up study presented herein was conducted to generate a larger dataset for evaluation and to compare the results to the original study. For this follow-up study of 576 cases, the laboratory BDS protocol was modified so that a BDS was performed for all felony cases and all misdemeanor cases with a BAC < 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541132/how-can-we-realize-the-clinical-benefits-of-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#13
Ramzi A Ajjan
Controlling glycemia in diabetes remains key to prevent complications in this condition. However, glucose levels can undergo large fluctuations secondary to daily activities, consequently creating management difficulties. The current review summarizes the basics of glucose management in diabetes by addressing the main glycemic parameters. The advantages and limitation of HbA1c, the gold standard measure of glucose control, are discussed together with the clinical importance of hypoglycemia and glycemic variability...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541116/imbruvica-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ibrutinib-patient-support-programme-for-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-and-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#14
Vidhya Murthy, Susan Weaving, Shankara Paneesha
Single-agent ibrutinib is an effective therapy for three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, both in relapsed and refractory cases and as a frontline treatment; relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma; and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia in patients who have been treated previously with a different medication. This novel agent has changed the landscape for the aforementioned three subtypes of lymphoma therapies as an oral alternative to traditional chemoimmunotherapy...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541108/using-qr-codes-to-enable-quick-access-to-information-in-acute-cancer-care
#15
Joanne Upton, Anna Olsson-Brown, Ernie Marshall, Joseph Sacco
Quick access to toxicity management information ensures timely access to steroids/immunosuppressive treatment for cancer patients experiencing immune-related adverse events, thus reducing length of hospital stays or avoiding hospital admission entirely. This article discusses a project to add a QR (quick response) code to a patient-held immunotherapy alert card. As QR code generation is free and the immunotherapy clinical management algorithms were already publicly available through the trust's clinical network website, the costs of integrating a QR code into the alert card, after printing, were low, while the potential benefits are numerous...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540513/utility-of-3d-printed-temporal-bones-in-pre-surgical-planning-for-complex-bonebridge-cases
#16
Payal Mukherjee, Kai Cheng, Sean Flanagan, Simon Greenberg
With the advent of single-sided hearing loss increasingly being treated with cochlear implantation, bone conduction implants are reserved for cases of conductive and mixed hearing loss with greater complexity. The BoneBridge (BB, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) is an active fully implantable device with no attenuation of sound energy through soft tissue. However, the floating mass transducer (FMT) part of the device is very bulky, which limits insertion in complicated ears. In this study, 3D printed temporal bones of patients were used to study its utility in preoperative planning on complicated cases...
May 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540115/the-benefits-of-streamlined-hip-fracture-management-in-a-regional-hospital
#17
T C Mow, Jen Lukeis, A G Sutherland
INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is an increasingly common injury in the growing elderly population. The morbidity and mortality associated with this injury can be reduced by minimizing delays to surgical treatment. We describe the impact of a regional hospital service redesign project that utilized the principles of smart simplicity, a management strategy that lays emphasis on collaboration to achieve desired goals. METHODS: Prior to the redesign, patients with hip fractures were taking an average of 72 hours for surgical treatment...
June 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539459/social-bet-hedging-in-vampire-bats
#18
Gerald G Carter, Damien R Farine, Gerald S Wilkinson
Helping kin or nonkin can provide direct fitness benefits, but helping kin also benefits indirect fitness. Why then should organisms invest in cooperative partnerships with nonkin, if kin relationships are available and more beneficial? One explanation is that a kin-limited support network is too small and risky. Even if additional weaker partnerships reduce immediate net cooperative returns, individuals extending cooperation to nonkin can maintain a larger social network which reduces the potential costs associated with losing a primary cooperation partner...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539216/cost-effectiveness-of-using-recombinant-human-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-before-radioiodine-ablation-for-thyroid-cancer-treatment-in-spanish-hospitals
#19
J A Vallejo, M A Muros
OBJECTIVES: In thyroid cancer treatment, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) must be elevated before radioiodine ablation, either by exogenous (with recombinant human thyrotropin [rhTSH]) or endogenous stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). The use of rhTSH avoids hypothyroidism and favours the subsequent elimination of radioiodine, but involves the cost of the product. For this reason, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed, taking into account all costs involved and the benefits associated with the use of this therapy...
May 20, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539107/a-feasibility-study-of-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ash-utilisation-in-estonia
#20
Hakan Berber, Ruedi Frey, Viktoria Voronova, Arina Koroljova
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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