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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540249/liquid-biopsies-for-bladder-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
Douglas G Ward, Richard T Bryan
The development of accurate urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) could transform patient pathways by reducing reliance on cystoscopy, and the identification of highly prognostic (or even predictive) biomarkers could better guide patient management. A number of approaches are being utilised to address these challenges in both urinary- and plasma-borne tumour DNA (tDNA), so-called "liquid biopsies". Next generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allow detection of very low levels of such tDNA amongst a large excess of non-tumour DNA, the former permitting large mutation panels to be assessed and the latter potentially identifying ultrarare mutant alleles yet restricted for multiplexing...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534984/ccl21-ccr7-interaction-promotes-cellular-migration-and-invasion-via-modulation-of-the-mek-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-and-correlates-with-lymphatic-metastatic-spread-and-poor-prognosis-in-urinary-bladder-cancer
#2
Yang Xiong, Fang Huang, Xiaozhou Li, Zhi Chen, Deyun Feng, Haiying Jiang, Wei Chen, Xiangyang Zhang
Lymph node metastasis in patients with urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is always associated with poor prognosis and is the determinant for tumor staging and the development of treatment regimens; however, its underlying mechanisms remain to be studied. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor sections from 62 UBC patients was performed using CCR7, D2-40 and CD34 antibodies. We showed that increased CCR7 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node status (P=0.008), pT3-T4 tumor stage (P=0.015), tumor grade (P=0...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524234/alcohol-consumption-and-cigarette-smoking-in-combination-a-predictor-of-contralateral-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-wecare-study
#3
Julia A Knight, Jing Fan, Kathleen E Malone, Esther M John, Charles F Lynch, Rikke Langballe, Leslie Bernstein, Roy Shore, Jennifer D Brooks, Anne S Reiner, Meghan Woods, Xiaolin Liang, Jonine L Bernstein
Alcohol drinking and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking are risk factors for a first primary breast cancer. Information on these behaviours at diagnosis may contribute to risk prediction of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and they are potentially modifiable. The WECARE Study is a large population-based case-control study of women with breast cancer where cases (N=1521) had asynchronous CBC and controls (N=2212), matched on survival time and other factors, had unilateral breast cancer (UBC). Using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), we examined the risk of CBC in relation to drinking and smoking history at and following first diagnosis...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521362/association-of-common-genetic-variants-with-contralateral-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-wecare-study
#4
Mark E Robson, Anne S Reiner, Jennifer D Brooks, Patrick J Concannon, Esther M John, Lene Mellemkjaer, Leslie Bernstein, Kathleen E Malone, Julia A Knight, Charles F Lynch, Meghan Woods, Xiaolin Liang, Robert W Haile, David J Duggan, Roy E Shore, Susan A Smith, Duncan C Thomas, Daniel O Stram, Jonine L Bernstein
Background: Women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) are at risk of developing a subsequent contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Common variants are associated with breast cancer risk. Whether these influence CBC risk is unknown. Methods: Participants were breast cancer cases from the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Sixty-seven established breast cancer risk loci were genotyped directly or by imputation in 1459 case subjects with CBC and 2126 UBC control subjects...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508171/over-expression-of-tobacco-ubc1-encoding-a-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-increases-cadmium-tolerance-by-activating-the-20s-26s-proteasome-and-by-decreasing-cd-accumulation-and-oxidative-stress-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum
#5
Ramin Bahmani, DongGwan Kim, Byoung Doo Lee, Seongbin Hwang
Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzyme (UBC, E2) receives Ub from Ub-activating enzyme (E1) and transfers it to target proteins, thereby playing a key role in Ub/26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis. UBC has been reported to be involved in tolerating abiotic stress in plants, including drought, salt, osmotic and water stresses. To isolate the genes involved in Cd tolerance, we transformed WT (wild-type) yeast Y800 with a tobacco cDNA expression library and isolated a tobacco cDNA, NtUBC1 (Ub-conjugating enzyme), that enhances cadmium tolerance...
May 15, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490769/increased-cerebral-expressions-of-mmps-cldn5-ocln-zo1-and-aqps-are-associated-with-brain-edema-following-fatal-heat-stroke
#6
Yu Du, Jing-Tao Xu, Hong-Nian Jin, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Si-Hao Du, Ye Xue, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Human brain samples were collected from 46 autopsy cases, including 23 fatal heat stroke cases and 23 age-matched controls. Nine candidate reference genes (PES1, POLR2A, IPO8, HMBS, SDHA, GAPDH, UBC, B2M, ACTB) were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of 10 forensic autopsy cases (5 heat stroke and 5 controls), using the geNorm module in qBase(plus) software. SDHA, POLR2A, IPO8 and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes. Using these validated reference genes, mRNA expressions of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, MMP2 and MMP9), Claudin5 (CLDN5), Occludin (OCLN), Zona occludens protein-1 (ZO1) and Aquaporins (AQPs, AQP1 and AQP4) in the cerebral cortex were examined...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488128/ki-67-and-cell-cycle-regulators-p53-p63-and-cyclind1-as-prognostic-markers-for-recurrence-progression-of-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#7
Saba El-Gendi, Ghada Abu-Sheasha
Deregulation of the cell cycle regulating genes is common in urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC). We aimed to examine the prognostic significance of ki-67, p53, p63 and cyclinD1expression in UBC and to identify optimal cut-off points to help identifying patients at high risk of tumor recurrence. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of ki-67, p53, p63 and cyclinD1 in 100 UBCs. The conventional and the classification and regression trees-guided (CART-guided) methods were utilized to determine the independent predictors of tumor recurrence...
May 9, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473518/randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-short-term-analgesic-effect-of-topical-diclofenac-on-chronic-achilles-tendon-pain-a-pilot-study
#8
Erin Rebecca Bussin, Brian Cairns, Jim Bovard, Alexander Scott
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a topically applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) can provide short-term pain relief for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (CAT), in order to inform the development of a new rehabilitation protocol. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pilot double-blind, cross-over randomised controlled trial providing participants with tertiary care. The study was conducted at a single research centre in Vancouver, BC. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen adults with unilateral CAT and three adults with bilateral CAT participated...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468590/ubc-%C3%A2-rapid-test-for-detection-of-carcinoma-in-situ-for-bladder-cancer
#9
Thorsten H Ecke, Sarah Weiß, Carsten Stephan, Steffen Hallmann, Dimitri Barski, Thomas Otto, Holger Gerullis
UBC(®) Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC(®) Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459201/altered-expression-of-small-leucine-rich-proteoglycans-decorin-biglycan-and-lumican-plausible-diagnostic-marker-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-bladder
#10
Sandeep Appunni, Vivek Anand, Madhuram Khandelwal, Amlesh Seth, Sandeep Mathur, Alpana Sharma
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans are components of extracellular matrix that regulates neoplastic transformation. Among small leucine rich proteoglycans, Decorin, Biglycan and Lumican are most commonly implicated markers, and their expression is well studied in various malignancies. In this novel study, we have collectively evaluated expression of these three molecules in urothelial carcinoma of bladder. Thirty patients of confirmed untreated bladder cancer, 30 healthy controls for blood and 30 controls for adjacent non-tumour tissue were enrolled...
May 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453515/reliable-reference-genes-for-normalization-of-gene-expression-data-in-tea-plants-camellia-sinensis-exposed-to-metal-stresses
#11
Ming-Le Wang, Qing-Hui Li, Hua-Hong Xin, Xuan Chen, Xu-Jun Zhu, Xing-Hui Li
Tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] are an important leaf-type crop that are widely used for the production of non-alcoholic beverages in the world. Exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affects the quality and yield of tea leaves. To analyze the molecular responses of tea plants to heavy metals, a reliable quantification of gene expression is important and of major importance herein is the normalization of the measured expression levels for the target genes. Ideally, stably expressed reference genes should be evaluated in all experimental systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422550/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-ubc-%C3%A2-rapid-in-bladder-cancer-a-swedish-multicentre-study
#13
Johan Styrke, Helene Henriksson, Börje Ljungberg, Mudhar Hasan, Ingrid Silfverberg, Roland Einarsson, Per-Uno Malmström, Amir Sherif
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of UBC(®) Rapid - a urine-based marker for bladder cancer - in patients with bladder cancer and controls, and to compare the test results across risk groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective phase II study was conducted at four Swedish hospitals. UBC Rapid was evaluated in four groups: A, newly diagnosed bladder cancer (n = 94); B, follow-up of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (n = 75); C, benign urinary tract diseases (n = 51); and D, healthy controls (n = 50)...
April 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411115/sponging-off-nature-for-new-drug-leads
#14
REVIEW
Raymond J Andersen
Marine sponges have consistently been the richest source of new marine natural products with unprecedented chemical scaffolds and potent biological activities that have been reported in the chemical literature since the early 1970s. During the last 40years, chemists in the Andersen laboratory at UBC, in collaboration with biologists, have discovered many novel bioactive sponge natural products. Four experimental drug candidates for treatment of inflammation and cancer, that were inspired by members of this sponge natural product collection, have progressed to phase I/II/III clinical trials...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409408/spontaneous-recombinase-activity-of-cre-ert2-in-vivo
#15
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Ryley K Zastrow, Abigail B Radcliff, Robert D Blank
Inducible Cre-ERT recombinase technology is widely used for gene targeting studies. The second generation of inducible Cre-ERT recombinase, hemizygous B6.129S-Tg(UBC-cre/ERT2)1Ejb/J (hereafter abbreviated as Cre-ERT2), a fusion of a mutated estrogen receptor and Cre recombinase, was engineered to be more efficient and specific than the original Cre-ERT. The putative mechanism of selective Cre-mediated recombination is Cre sequestration in the cytoplasm in the basal state with translocation to the nucleus only in the presence of tamoxifen...
June 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400501/contribution-of-minced-muscle-graft-progenitor-cells-to-muscle-fiber-formation-after-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury-in-wild-type-and-immune-deficient-mice
#16
Benjamin T Corona, Beth E P Henderson, Catherine L Ward, Sarah M Greising
Volumetric muscle injury (VML) causes an irrecoverable loss of muscle fibers, persistent strength deficits, and chronic disability. A crucial challenge to VML injury and possible regeneration is the removal of all of the in situ native elements necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Our first goal was to establish a reliable VML model in the mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. In adult male wild-type and nude mice, a non-repaired ≈20% VML injury to the TA muscle resulted in an ≈59% loss in nerve evoked muscle strength, ≈33% loss in muscle mass, and ≈29% loss of muscle fibers at 28 day post-injury...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396613/expression-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#17
Mohamed Reda El Ochi, Mohamed Oukabli, Elarbi Bouaiti, Hafsa Chahdi, Adil Boudhas, Mohamed Allaoui, Ahmed Ameur, Mohamed Abbar, Abderrahmane Al Bouzidi
BACKGROUND: Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in men worldwide. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression has been detected in a wide range of urothelial carcinoma. Despite many reports in the literature, the prognostic significance of this overexpression remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of HER2 in urothelial bladder carcinomas and its association with clinical and pathological parameters. METHODS: 103 cases of UBC were diagnosed in our department between January 2014 and December 2015...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386678/identification-of-novel-potential-genetic-predictors-of-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-susceptibility-in-pakistani-population
#18
Syeda Hafiza Benish Ali, Kashif Sardar Bangash, Abdur Rauf, Muhammad Younis, Khursheed Anwar, Raja Khurram, Muhammad Athar Khawaja, Maleeha Azam, Abid Ali Qureshi, Saeed Akhter, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Raheel Qamar
Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is the most common among urinary bladder neoplasms. We carried out a preliminary study to determine the genetic etiology of UBC in Pakistani population, for this 25 sequence variants from 17 candidate genes were studied in 400 individuals by using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for association analysis of the overall data as well as the data stratified by smoking status, tumor grade and tumor stage. Variants of GSTM1, IGFBP3, LEPR and ACE were found to be associated with altered UBC risk in the overall comparison...
April 6, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381493/recreational-concentrations-of-alcohol-enhance-synaptic-inhibition-of-cerebellar-unipolar-brush-cells-via-pre-and-postsynaptic-mechanisms
#19
Ben David Richardson, David James Rossi
Variation in cerebellar sensitivity to alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) is a heritable trait associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans and high EtOH consumption in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A recently identified cellular substrate of cerebellar sensitivity to EtOH: the GABAergic system of cerebellar granule cells (GCs), shows divergent responses to EtOH paralleling EtOH consumption and motor impairment phenotype. Although GCs are the dominant afferent integrator in the cerebellum, such integration is shared by unipolar brush cells (UBCs) in vestibulocerebellar lobes...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372755/immobilization-of-cu-2-and-cd-2-by-earthworm-manure-derived-biochar-in-acidic-circumstance
#20
Zhanghong Wang, Fei Shen, Dekui Shen, Yahui Jiang, Rui Xiao
Earthworm manure, the by-product obtained from the disposing of biowastes by earthworm breeding, is largely produced and employed as a feedstock for biochar preparation through pyrolysis. For repairing acidic soil or acidic electroplating effluent, biochar physicochemical properties would suffer from some changes like an acidic washing process, which hence affected its application functions. Pristine biochar (UBC) from pyrolysis of earthworm manure at 700°C and biochar treated by HCl (WBC) were comparatively investigated regarding their physicochemical properties, adsorption capability and adsorption mechanism of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution to explore the immobilization characteristics of biochar in acidic environment...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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