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Carbon monoxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913790/do-cigarette-graphic-warnings-encourage-smokers-to-attend-a-smoking-cessation-programme-a-quasi-experimental-study
#1
Joseph Guydish, Barbara Tajima, Thao Le, Catherine Henderson, Deborah Yip, Valerie Gruber, Wayne Garcia, Kevin L Delucchi
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether exposure to cigarette graphic warning labels (GWLs) increased attendance to a smoking cessation programme. METHOD: From 2014 to 2016, alternating cohorts of smokers in 3 residential drug treatment programmes received either GWLs (experimental) or transparent (control) labels placed on their cigarette packs for 30 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who chose to attend a smoking cessation group after the labelling period...
December 2, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913735/preoperative-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-marginal-function-lung-cancer-patients
#2
Asra Hashmi, Frank A Baciewicz, Ayman O Soubani, Shirish M Gadgeel
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation in lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary resection surgery with marginal lung function. METHODS: Short-term outcomes of 42 patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s < 1.6 L who underwent lung resection between 01/2006 and 12/2010 were reviewed retrospectively. They were divided into group A (no preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation) and group B (receiving pulmonary rehabilitation)...
December 2, 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909862/combined-characterization-of-bovine-polyhemoglobin-microcapsules-by-uv-vis-absorption-spectroscopy-and-cyclic-voltammetry
#3
Marcos Camargo Knirsch, Filippo Dell'Anno, Marco Salerno, Claudio Larosa, Bronislaw Polakiewicz, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Attilio Converti
Polyhemoglobin produced from pure bovine hemoglobin by reaction with PEG bis(N-succynimidil succinate) as a cross-linking agent was encapsulated in gelatin and dehydrated by freeze-drying. Free carboxyhemoglobin and polyhemoglobin microcapsules were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy in the absorption range 450-650 nm and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range from -0.8 to 0.6 mV to evaluate the ability to break the bond with carbon monoxide and to study the carrier's affinity for oxygen, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908997/genome-sequence-of-the-acetogenic-bacterium-butyribacterium-methylotrophicum-dsm-3468t
#4
Frank R Bengelsdorf, Anja Poehlein, Bettina Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Rolf Daniel, Peter Dürre
Butyribacterium methylotrophicum DSM 3468(T) is an acetogenic methylotrophic, anaerobic, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium that produces acetate, butyrate, and butanol. The genome consists of a single chromosome (4.3 Mb) and harbors 3,989 predicted protein-encoding genes.
December 1, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908489/parental-smoking-during-pregnancy-shortens-offspring-s-legs
#5
E Żądzińska, S Kozieł, B Borowska-Strugińska, I Rosset, A Sitek, W Lorkiewicz
One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire...
June 29, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906108/heme-oxygenase-and-carbon-monoxide-protect-from-muscle-dystrophy
#6
Mun Chun Chan, Olivia Ziegler, Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Saumya Das, Leo E Otterbein, Zoltan Arany
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases of children worldwide and is 100% fatal. Steroids, the only therapy currently available, are marred by poor efficacy and a high side-effect profile. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we leverage PGC-1α, a powerful transcriptional coactivator known to protect against dystrophy in the mdx murine model of DMD, to search for novel mechanisms of protection against dystrophy...
November 28, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#7
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902753/emphysema-distribution-and-diffusion-capacity-predict-emphysema-progression-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Janice M Leung, Andrea Malagoli, Antonella Santoro, Giulia Besutti, Guido Ligabue, Riccardo Scaglioni, Darlene Dai, Cameron Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Don D Sin, Sf Paul Man, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are common amongst patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the clinical factors that are associated with emphysema progression in HIV. METHODS: 345 HIV-infected patients enrolled in an outpatient HIV metabolic clinic with ≥2 chest computed tomography scans made up the study cohort. Images were qualitatively scored for emphysema based on percentage involvement of the lung...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901152/an-atomic-level-insight-into-the-basic-mechanism-responsible-for-the-enhancement-of-the-catalytic-oxidation-of-carbon-monoxide-on-a-cu-ceo2-surface
#9
Kenichi Koizumi, Katsuyuki Nobusada, Mauro Boero
The reaction mechanisms of CO molecules interacting with a Cu/CeO2 surface and related morphological modifications occurring upon removal of O atoms to generate CO2 are investigated by first-principles dynamical simulations complemented by a free-energy sampling technique. We show that the reactivity of oxygen atoms located in the first layer in the vicinity of the Cu site is remarkably high because of a reduction of the O coordination number. Moreover, we evidence that the doped Cu atoms are responsible for an enhancement of the exposure of other surrounding O atoms, even below the first surface layer, which can then easily react with CO and are gradually removed from the system in the oxidation process...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900830/enyne-4-4-cycloaddition-oxidation-ring-contraction-via-cyclopropanones-and-their-anionic-ring-opening-reactions
#10
Svitlana Kulyk, Buddha B Khatri, Scott McN Sieburth
Irradiation of a 1,3-enyne tethered to a 2-pyridone, in the presence of oxygen, leads to formation of a seven-membered ring product, an overall [4+4-1] reaction. This transformation involves two unstable intermediates and a sequence of unusual reactions. An initial [4+4] photocycloaddition of the enyne with the pyridone yields a 1,2,5-cyclooctatriene. Photooxidation of this triene forms a cyclopropanone and subsequent photoextrusion of carbon monoxide gives the observed 1,4-cycloheptadiene product. The first-formed cyclooctatriene and the cyclopropanone could be observed and characterized spectroscopically...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899751/air-pollution-is-associated-with-ischemic-stroke-via-cardiogenic-embolism
#11
Jong-Won Chung, Oh Young Bang, Kangmo Ahn, Sang-Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Jae Guk Kim, Youngchai Ko, SooJoo Lee, Kyung Bok Lee, Jun Lee, Kyusik Kang, Jong-Moo Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Keun-Sik Hong, Hyun-Wook Nah, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jae-Kwan Cha, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Joon-Tae Kim, Jay Chol Choi, Mi-Sun Oh, Kyung-Ho Yu, Byung-Chul Lee, Ji Sung Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Hong-Kyun Park, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assessed the impact of short-term exposure to air pollution on ischemic stroke subtype, while focusing on stroke caused via cardioembolism. METHODS: From a nationwide, multicenter, prospective, stroke registry database, 13 535 patients with acute ischemic stroke hospitalized to 12 participating centers were enrolled in this study. Data on the hourly concentrations of particulate matter <10 μm, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) were collected from 181 nationwide air pollution surveillance stations...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#12
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895421/carbon-monoxide-contributes-to-the-constipating-effects-of-granisetron-in-rat-colon
#13
Carmela Nacci, Margherita Fanelli, Maria Assunta Potenza, Valentina Leo, Monica Montagnani, Maria Antonietta De Salvia
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS: For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893704/activation-and-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-by-nitrogenase-iron-proteins
#14
Johannes G Rebelein, Martin T Stiebritz, Chi Chung Lee, Yilin Hu
The iron (Fe) proteins of molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V) nitrogenases mimic carbon monoxide (CO) dehydrogenase in catalyzing the interconversion between CO2 and CO under ambient conditions. Catalytic reduction of CO2 to CO is achieved in vitro and in vivo upon redox changes of the Fe-protein-associated [Fe4S4] clusters. These observations establish the Fe protein as a model for investigation of CO2 activation while suggesting its biotechnological adaptability for recycling the greenhouse gas into useful products...
November 28, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892932/reciprocal-regulation-of-carbon-monoxide-metabolism-and-the-circadian-clock
#15
Roman Klemz, Silke Reischl, Thomas Wallach, Nicole Witte, Karsten Jürchott, Sabrina Klemz, Veronika Lang, Stephan Lorenzen, Miriam Knauer, Steffi Heidenreich, Min Xu, Jürgen A Ripperger, Michael Schupp, Ralf Stanewsky, Achim Kramer
Circadian clocks are cell-autonomous oscillators regulating daily rhythms in a wide range of physiological, metabolic and behavioral processes. Feedback of metabolic signals, such as redox state, NAD(+)/NADH and AMP/ADP ratios, or heme, modulate circadian rhythms and thereby optimize energy utilization across the 24-h cycle. We show that rhythmic heme degradation, which generates the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO), is required for normal circadian rhythms as well as circadian metabolic outputs. CO suppresses circadian transcription by attenuating CLOCK-BMAL1 binding to target promoters...
November 28, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890648/bupropion-sustained-release-for-pregnant-smokers-a%C3%A2-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Cheryl Oncken, Valentina M Fokina, Richard S Feinn, Shannon M Clark, Holly West, Sunil K Jain, Mahmoud S Ahmed, Gary D V Hankins
BACKGROUND: Bupropion is used to treat depression during pregnancy. However, its usefulness as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Pregnant women who smoked daily received individualized behavior counseling and were randomly assigned to a 12 week, twice-a-day treatment with 150 mg bupropion sustained release or placebo...
November 25, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890445/acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-mr-imaging-findings-with-clinical-correlation
#17
D M Kim, I H Lee, J Y Park, S-B Hwang, D S Yoo, C J Song
PURPOSE: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and correlate MRI findings with carboxyhemoglobin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI examinations and medical records of seven men with a mean age of 43±16.0years (SD) (range: 25-63 years) with acute CO poisoning were reviewed. MRI examinations were analyzed with respect to lesion location, imaging presentation on T1- and T2-weighted images, and diffusion characteristics on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps...
November 24, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888395/utility-of-fvc-dlco-ratio-to-stratify-the-risk-of-mortality-in-unselected-subjects-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Lacedonia Donato, Carpagnano Giovanna Elisiana, Galgano Giuseppe, Schino Pietro, Correale Michele, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Ventura Valentina, Di Biase Matteo, Foschino Barbaro Maria Pia
In patients with systemic sclerosis, a ratio between forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO, FCV%/DLCO%) >1.5 might be a predictor of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim of this study is, therefore, to evaluate whether this index can be used in patients with PH, regardless of etiology. 83 consecutive outpatients with suspected PH at non-invasive work-up underwent spirometry and DLCO test before right heart catheterization (RHC); FVC%/DLCO% ratio was then calculated and compared with mean pulmonary-artery-pressure (mPAP) and mortality at 5-year follow-up...
November 25, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886305/dipolar-dissociation-dynamics-in-electron-collisions-with-carbon-monoxide
#19
Dipayan Chakraborty, Pamir Nag, Dhananjay Nandi
Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. By probing ion-pair states, both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886140/english-stop-smoking-services-one-year-outcomes
#20
Linda Bauld, Rosemary Hiscock, Fiona Dobbie, Paul Aveyard, Tim Coleman, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Hayden McRobbie, Andy McEwen
The UK is a global leader in stop-smoking support-providing free behavioral support and cessation medication via stop smoking services (SSS) without charge to smokers. This study aimed to explore the client and service characteristics associated with abstinence 52 weeks after quitting. A prospective cohort study of 3057 SSS clients in nine different areas of England who began their quit attempt between March 2012 and March 2013 was conducted. Important determinants of long-term quitting were assessed through quit rates and multivariable logistic regression...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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