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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821962/influence-of-aerobic-fitness-on-vasoreactivity-in-young-men
#2
Preston L Bell, Edward T Kelley, Stephanie M McCoy, Daniel P Credeur
Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and vasodilatory function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD); however, the relation between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., low flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC), and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) is unclear. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that L-FMC and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) will be related to aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. METHODS: Twenty men (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited, and divided evenly into a higher (HF) vs...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820420/alterations-in-placenta-redox-status-during-experimental-model-of-hypoxia-induced-preeclampsia
#3
A Sharashenidze, L Panchulidze, T Sanikidze
An important pathogenetic link of preeclampsia (PE) is hypoxia of uterine-placental tissues, accompanied by damage of the vascular endothelium and the release of vasoactive mediators, violate vascular tone and microcirculation in the maternal organism and placenta and development of a number of pathological processes in the mother's and fetus body. The aim of the study was to establish metabolic abnormalities of oxidative metabolism of the placenta during experimental model of PE (uterine/placental hypoxia)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820401/intraepidermal-nerve-fiber-density-in-vulvar-lichen-sclerosus-and-normal-vulvar-tissues
#4
K Milian-Ciesielska, L Chmura, G Dyduch, C Jagers, E Radwanska, D Adamek
Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease causing sensory symptoms such as itch and pain and affecting most frequently genital skin of women. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was examined immunohistologically in 20 vulvar skin biopsies of patients affected by LS and in 20 control vulvar skin biopsies, in order to determine if these sensory sensations originate in changes in the epidermal innervation. Obtained results show fewer protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) positive intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) in LS tissues compared to controls (P = 0...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817803/developmental-dysfunction-of-vip-interneurons-impairs-cortical-circuits
#5
Renata Batista-Brito, Martin Vinck, Katie A Ferguson, Jeremy T Chang, David Laubender, Gyorgy Lur, James M Mossner, Victoria G Hernandez, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Michael J Higley, Jessica A Cardin
GABAergic interneurons play important roles in cortical circuit development. However, there are multiple populations of interneurons and their respective developmental contributions remain poorly explored. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its interneuron-specific receptor ERBB4 are critical genes for interneuron maturation. Using a conditional ErbB4 deletion, we tested the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the postnatal maturation of cortical circuits in vivo. ErbB4 removal from VIP interneurons during development leads to changes in their activity, along with severe dysregulation of cortical temporal organization and state dependence...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814529/selective-hif-1-regulation-under-nonhypoxic-conditions-by-the-p42-p44-map-kinase-inhibitor-pd184161
#6
Maroua Jalouli, Sophie Mokas, Catherine A Turgeon, Laurent Lamalice, Darren E Richard
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key gene regulator for cellular adaptation to low oxygen. In addition to hypoxia, several nonhypoxic stimuli, including hormones and growth factors, are an essential part for cell-specific HIF-1 regulation. Our studies have highlighted angiotensin II (AngII), a vasoactive hormone, as a potent HIF-1 activator in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). AngII increases HIF-1 transcriptional activity by modulating specific signaling pathways. In VSMC, p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation is essential for HIF-1-mediated transcription during AngII treatment...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#7
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811655/a-tissue-engineered-blood-vessel-model-of-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-using-human-ipsc-derived-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
Leigh Atchison, Haoyue Zhang, Kan Cao, George A Truskey
Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, accelerated aging disorder caused by nuclear accumulation of progerin, an altered form of the Lamin A gene. The primary cause of death is cardiovascular disease at about 14 years. Loss and dysfunction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vasculature may cause defects associated with HGPS. Due to limitations of 2D cell culture and mouse models, there is a need to develop improved models to discover novel therapeutics. To address this need, we produced a functional three-dimensional model of HGPS that replicates an arteriole-scale tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived SMCs from an HGPS patient...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#10
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810191/structure-function-studies-of-bpp-brachynh2-and-synthetic-analogues-thereof-with-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme
#11
Daniel D R Arcanjo, Andreanne G Vasconcelos, Lucas A Nascimento, Ana Carolina Mafud, Alexandra Plácido, Michel M M Alves, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Marcelo P Bemquerer, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, Eduardo B Oliveira, Francisco C A Lima, Yvonne P Mascarenhas, Fernando Aécio A Carvalho, Ulf Simonsen, Ricardo M Ramos, José Roberto S A Leite
The vasoactive proline-rich oligopeptide termed BPP-BrachyNH2 (H-WPPPKVSP-NH2) induces in vitro inhibitory activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in rat blood serum. In the present study, the removal of N-terminal tryptophan or C-terminal proline from BPP-BrachyNH2 was investigated in order to predict which structural components are important or required for interaction with ACE. Furthermore, the toxicological profile was assessed by in silico prediction and in vitro MTT assay. Two BPP-BrachyNH2 analogues (des-Trp(1)-BPP-BrachyNH2 and des-Pro(8)-BPP-BrachyNH2) were synthesized, and in vitro and in silico ACE inhibitory activity and toxicological profile were assessed...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806738/partial-igf-1-deficiency-is-sufficient-to-reduce-heart-contractibility-angiotensin-ii-sensibility-and-alter-gene-expression-of-structural-and-functional-cardiac-proteins
#12
José Luis González-Guerra, Inma Castilla-Cortazar, Gabriel A Aguirre, Úrsula Muñoz, Irene Martín-Estal, Elena Ávila-Gallego, Miriam Granado, Juan E Puche, Ángel Luis García-Villalón
Circulating levels of IGF-1 may decrease under several circumstances like ageing, metabolic syndrome, and advanced cirrhosis. This reduction is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, progression to type 2 diabetes, and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, underlying mechanisms between IGF-1 deficiency and cardiovascular disease remain elusive. The specific aim of the present work was to study whether the partial IGF-1 deficiency influences heart and/or coronary circulation, comparing vasoactive factors before and after of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804659/fatal-systemic-vasoconstriction-in-a-case-of-metastatic-small-intestinal-net
#13
Stenzel Jochen, Noe Sebastian, Holzapfel Konstantin, Erlmeier Franziska, Eyer Florian
An increased release of serotonin secreted by ileal NETs is thought to be the major factor causing the carcinoid syndrome. However, in acutely arising carcinoid crisis also other vasoactive factors may lead to hazardous fluctuations in blood pressure and bronchial constriction. In rare cases, systemic vasoconstriction can be observed, probably caused by catecholamines or similar acting substances. Here, we report a fatal case of fulminant systemic vasoconstriction possibly caused by catecholamines in a patient with metastasized ileal NET...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803485/raynaud-s-phenomenon-and-its-impact-on-activities-in-daily-life-during-one-year-of-follow-up-in-early-systemic-sclerosis
#14
G Sandqvist, P Wollmer, A Scheja, M Wildt, R Hesselstrand
OBJECTIVE: To investigate Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and its impact on daily life activities during 1 year of follow-up in early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHOD: Fourteen SSc patients with a median disease duration of 2 years were enrolled in the study. Every 7 weeks the patients completed a 7 day diary documenting the frequency and duration of RP attacks, the activity causing the attack, and how they handled the attack. The patients also recorded in the diary daily self-assessments of the difficulties with RP, using a 0-10 ordinal scale according to the Raynaud's Condition Score...
August 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801264/vasoactive-properties-of-antihypertensive-lactoferrin-derived-peptides-in-resistance-vessels-effects-in-small-mesenteric-arteries-from-shr-rats
#15
Aurora García-Tejedor, Paloma Manzanares, María Castelló-Ruiz, Antonio Moscardó, José F Marcos, Juan B Salom
AIMS: Bovine lactoferrin (LF) hydrolysates and peptides identified thereof have shown antihypertensive effects in rat models, mainly but not exclusively by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. In this study we aimed to assess the vasoactive effects and mechanisms of an ultrafiltered (<3kDa) pepsin LF hydrolysate (LFH) and a heptapeptide identified in a LF hydrolysate produced by yeast proteolysis (DPYKLRP) in peripheral resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
August 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796938/effect-of-intrapancreatic-fat-on-diabetes-outcomes-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#16
Muhammed Kizilgul, Joshua J Wilhelm, Gregory J Beilman, Srinath Chinnakotla, Ty B Dunn, Timothy L Pruett, Muhamad Abdulla, David Heller, Martin L Freeman, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Bernhard J Hering, Melena D Bellin
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fat might adversely affect beta-cell mass and function, possibly via the local release of non-esterified fatty acids (NE-FAs) and pro-inflammatory and vasoactive factors released by adipose tissue, however, the impact of intrapancreatic fat has never been studied in patients with pancreatitis undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). We aimed to test whether pancreatic fatty infiltration has a negative effect on metabolic outcomes following TPIAT METHODS: We studied the association between pancreatic fatty infiltration and diabetes outcomes in 79 patients undergoing TPIAT with low (LPF; n = 53) or high (HPF; n = 26) pancreatic fat content...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795349/association-between-elevated-central-venous-pressure-and-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Dong-Kai Li, Xiao-Ting Wang, Da-Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Some prior studies have shown that elevated mean central venous pressure in certain patient populations and disease processes may lead to poor prognosis. However, these studies failed to generalize the concept of elevated central venous pressure (ECVP) load to all patients in critical care settings because of the limited cases and exclusive cohorts. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between elevated central venous pressure and outcomes in critical care...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792011/f-36316-a-and-b-novel-vasoactive-compounds-isolated-from-incrucipulum-sp-sank-10414
#18
Yuki Hirota-Takahata, Yoko Ishimoto, Emi Kurosawa, Yuko Iwadate, Yoshiko Onozawa, Isshin Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka, Hideki Kobayashi
In the course of our screening program for vasoactive compounds using co-culture assay of endothelial cells and fibroblast cells, potent activity was detected in the cultured broth of Incrucipulum sp. SANK 10414. Two active compounds, F-36316 A and B, and a non-active homolog, F-36316 C, were isolated from the broth. The structures of F-36316 A, B and C were elucidated by physicochemical data and spectral analyses, and found to be new 3-acylated tetronic acid homologs. F-36316 A and B induced morphological changes of endothelial cells different from vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or vestaines in the assay with EC50 values of 1...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780608/sx-ella-stent-danis-effectively-controls-refractory-variceal-bleed-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#19
Rakhi Maiwall, Kapil Dev Jamwal, Ankit Bhardwaj, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Guresh Kumar, Ankur Jindal, Ashok Choudhury, Lovkesh Anand, Amrish Sahney, Awinash Kumar, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Almost 10% of bleeding episodes are refractory to combination of vasoactive agent and endotherapy, and are associated with a mortality up to 50%. Severity of liver disease and high portal pressure are mainly responsible for it. TIPS cannot be used in these patients due to high MELD score. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of self-expandable DE stents for control of refractory variceal bleeds in patients with ACLF. METHODS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure patients (n = 88, mean age 47...
August 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771434/cutaneous-temperature-sensitivity-alteration-in-subjects-with-chronic-stroke-sequelae-pharmacological-perspectives
#20
Artur Cesar Aquino Santos, Fábio Marcon Alfieri, Linamara Rizzo Battistella
BACKGROUND: Stroke can result in body temperature sensitivity changes. This study analyzed abnormal temperature perception of patients with stroke and the use of vasoactive drugs. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out consisting of 100 patients (55.6±12.9 years old), from both genres, with either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke, with unilateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis. Subjects had axillary temperature and different temperature sensitivities of the limbs measured using a visual analog scale (VAS)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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