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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035000/use-of-sacubitril-valsartan-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-a-case-report
#1
Taison D Bell, Adrien J Mazer, P Elliott Miller, Jeffrey R Strich, Vandana Sachdev, Mary E Wright, Michael A Solomon
Refractory heart failure typically requires costly long-term, continuous intravenous inodilator infusions while patients await mechanical circulatory support or cardiac transplantation. The combined angiotensin receptor blocker-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, is a novel therapy that can increase levels of endogenous vasoactive peptides. This therapy has been recommended as an alternative agent in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and New York Heart Association class II-III symptoms...
October 16, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033730/intentional-intra-arterial-injection-of-midazolam-in-a-patient-with-status-epilepticus-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#2
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Muhammad Yahya
Fundamental medical care includes intravenous (IV) access which provides prompt resuscitation and reliable delivery of analgesics, antibiotics, and vasoactive medication. Difficult access populations, especially in critical area, continue to challenge providers to consider and utilize alternative means to provide IV access. Potential options under such circumstances include intramuscular, intraosseous, and intratracheal drug administration, but in extreme cases where no other options are available, intra-arterial route might be considered...
October 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033572/role-of-heart-rate-variability-in-preoperative-assessment-of-physiological-reserves-in-patients-undergoing-major-abdominal-surgery
#3
Petr Reimer, Jan Máca, Pavel Szturz, Ondřej Jor, Roman Kula, Pavel Ševčík, Michal Burda, Milan Adamus
BACKGROUND: Major abdominal surgery (MAS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the predictive value of heart-rate variability (HRV) concerning development of postoperative complications in patients undergoing MAS. The secondary objectives were to identify the relationship of HRV and use of vasoactive drugs during anesthesia, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS), and hospital length of stay (H-LOS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients scheduled for elective MAS were enrolled in a prospective, single-center, observational study...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032103/mast-cells-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-activators-and-actions
#4
Petri T Kovanen, Ilze Bot
Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031532/neuroimaging-of-vascular-reserve-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Meher R Juttukonda, Manus J Donahue
Cerebrovascular reactivity, defined broadly as the ability of brain parenchyma to adjust cerebral blood flow in response to altered metabolic demand or a vasoactive stimulus, is being measured with increasing frequency and may have a use for portending new or recurrent stroke risk in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to outline (i) the physiological basis of variations in cerebrovascular reactivity, (ii) available approaches for measuring cerebrovascular reactivity in research and clinical settings, and (iii) clinically-relevant cerebrovascular reactivity findings in the context of patients with cerebrovascular disease, including atherosclerotic arterial steno-occlusion, non-atherosclerotic arterial steno-occlusion, anemia, and aging...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#6
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025706/no-augments-endothelial-reactivity-by-reducing-myoendothelial-calcium-signal-spreading-a-novel-role-for-cx37-connexin-37-and-shp-2
#7
Kristin Pogoda, Hanna Mannell, Stephanie Blodow, Holger Schneider, Kai Michael Schubert, Jiehua Qiu, Andreas Schmidt, Axel Imhof, Heike Beck, Laurentia Irina Tanase, Alexander Pfeifer, Ulrich Pohl, Petra Kameritsch
OBJECTIVE: Because of its strategic position between endothelial and smooth muscle cells in microvessels, Cx37 (Connexin 37) plays an important role in myoendothelial gap junctional intercellular communication. We have shown before that NO inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication through gap junctions containing Cx37. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet identified. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using channel-forming Cx37 mutants exhibiting partial deletions or amino acid exchanges in their C-terminal loops, we now show that the phosphorylation state of a tyrosine residue at position 332 (Y332) in the C terminus of Cx37 controls the gap junction-dependent spread of calcium signals...
October 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023881/review-article-the-role-of-the-microcirculation-in-liver-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
T Davies, S Wythe, J O'Beirne, D Martin, E Gilbert-Kawai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic microvascular derangements and microcirculatory dysfunction are key in the development of liver cirrhosis and its associated complications. While much has been documented relating to cirrhosis and the dysfunction of the microcirculation in the liver parenchyma, far less is known about the state of the extrahepatic microcirculation and the role this may have in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in end stage liver cirrhosis. AIM: To provide an update on the role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and its associated complications and briefly discuss some of the imaging techniques which may be used to directly investigate the microcirculation...
November 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023376/altered-protein-expression-of-cardiac-cyp2j-and-hepatic-cyp2c-cyp4a-and-cyp4f-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-ii-diabetes-a-link-in-the-onset-and-development-of-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Benoit Drolet, Sylvie Pilote, Carolanne Gélinas, Alida-Douce Kamaliza, Audrey Blais-Boilard, Jessica Virgili, Dany Patoine, Chantale Simard
Arachidonic acid can be metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes in a tissue- and cell-specific manner to generate vasoactive products such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs-cardioprotective) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs-cardiotoxic). Type II diabetes is a well-recognized risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. A mouse model of Type II diabetes (C57BLKS/J-db/db) was used. After sacrifice, livers and hearts were collected, washed, and snap frozen. Total proteins were extracted...
October 12, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023316/septic-shock-resuscitation-in-the-first-hour
#10
Nicholas Simpson, Francois Lamontagne, Manu Shankar-Hari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the recent advances in the initial approach to resuscitation of sepsis and septic shock patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening emergencies. Two key interventions in the first hour include timely antibiotic therapy and resuscitation. Before any laboratory results, the need for resuscitation is considered if a patient with suspected infection has low blood pressure (BP) or impaired peripheral circulation found at clinical examination...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022765/polymorphisms-in-genes-involved-in-vasoactive-eicosanoids-synthesis-affect-cardiovascular-risk-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#11
Guillermo Gervasini, Enrique Luna, Guadalupe Garcia-Pino, Lilia Azevedo, Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Juan José Cubero
OBJECTIVE: Arachidonic acid metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases lead to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which eicosanoids with vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. We aim to determine whether genetic variability in these routes may contribute to cardiovascular (CV) risk in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: In a cohort of 355 patients, we determined the presence of two polymorphisms, CYP2C8*3 and CYP2J2*7, known to affect eicosanoids levels...
October 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016380/comparison-of-del-nido-cardioplegia-with-blood-cardioplegia-in-adult-combined-surgery
#12
Raphael Hamad, Anthony Nguyen, Éric Laliberté, Denis Bouchard, Yoan Lamarche, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Philippe Demers
OBJECTIVE: del Nido solution (DNS) is a single-dose cardioplegia designed for pediatric use proposed to offer superior myocardial protection in adults. However, few data support this claim. We hypothesized that DNS and modified blood cardioplegia solution (BS) provide equivalent safety in combined adult valve surgery. METHODS: Between November 2014 and December 2015, 25 patients underwent primary aortic valve replacement and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with DNS...
October 7, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992877/perioperative-fluid-management-in-major-hepatic-resection-an-integrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Osamu Yoshino, Marcos Vinicius Perini, Christopher Christophi, Laurence Weinberg
BACKGROUND: Fluid intervention and vasoactive pharmacological support during hepatic resection depend on the preference of the attending clinician, institutional resources, and practice culture. Evidence-based recommendations to guide perioperative fluid management are currently limited. Therefore, we provide a contemporary clinical integrative overview of the fundamental principles underpinning fluid intervention and hemodynamic optimization for adult patients undergoing major hepatic resection...
October 15, 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991483/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-nanomedicine-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Dulari Jayawardena, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Grace Guzman, Pradeep K Dudeja, Hayat Onyuksel
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disorder of the intestine, with increasing incidence worldwide. At present, the management of IBD is an unmet medical need due to the ineffectiveness of currently available drugs in treating all patients and there is strong demand for novel therapeutics. In this regard, vasoactive intestinal peptide, a potent anti-inflammatory endogenous hormone, has shown promise in managing multiple immune disorders in animal models. However, when administered in the free form, VIP undergoes rapid degradation in vivo, and with continuous infusion, causes severe dose limiting side effects...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986814/effect-of-shen-fu-injection-on-hemodynamics-in-early-volume-resuscitation-treated-septic-shock-patients
#15
Kai-Liang Fan, Jun-Hui Wang, Li Kong, Fei-Hu Zhang, Hao Hao, Hao Zhao, Zheng-Yun Tian, Ming-Xin Yin, Hua Fang, Hui-Hui Yang, Yang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hemodynamic effect of Shen-Fu Injection (, SFI) in early volume resuscitation treated septic shock patients by monitoring pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PICCO). METHODS: All septic shock patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 1st, 2014 to December 31th, 2015, were reviewed, and totally 65 were enrolled in this study. They were assigned to SFI group (33 cases) and control group (32 cases)...
October 6, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986397/potential-mechanisms-of-hypothalamic-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-by-leptin-and-doca-salt-for-the-control-of-resting-metabolism
#16
Sarah A Sapouckey, Guorui Deng, Curt D Sigmund, Justin L Grobe
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), originally described as a circulating hormone system, is an enzymatic cascade in which the final vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (ANG) regulates cardiovascular, hydromineral, and metabolic functions. The RAS is also synthesized locally in a number of tissues including the brain, where it can act in a paracrine fashion to regulate blood pressure, thirst, fluid balance, and resting energy expenditure / resting metabolic rate (RMR). Recent studies demonstrate that ANG AT1A receptors (Agtr1a) specifically in agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coordinate autonomic and energy expenditure responses to various stimuli including deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt, high fat feeding, and leptin...
October 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986330/renal-and-femoral-venous-blood-flows-are-regulated-by-different-mechanisms-dependent-on-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-subtypes-and-nitric-oxide-in-anesthetized-rats
#17
Alexandre C Fioretti, Cristiana A Ogihara, Eduardo M Cafarchio, Daniel P Venancio, Roberto Lopes de Almeida, Bruno B Antonio, Monica A Sato
Venous and arterial walls are responsive to sympathetic system and circulating substances, nevertheless, very few is known about the venous blood flow regulation simultaneously to arterial vascular beds. In this study, we compared the venous and arterial blood flow regulation in visceral and muscular beds upon injection of different doses of vasoactive drugs which act in arterial vascular beds. Anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent to right femoral artery and vein cannulation for hemodynamic recordings and infusion of drugs...
October 3, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985642/farrerol-modulates-aorta-gene-expression-profile-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
Xiaojiang Qin, Xiaomin Hou, Kun Zhang, Qingshan Li
Farrerol, a typical natural flavanone and major active component in Rhododendron dauricum var. ciliatum, has been shown to possess vasoactive ability in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on aorta gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twelve-week-old male normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with orally administered farrerol (50 mg/kg body weight) for 8 wk before they were sacrificed. We found that aorta samples showed 444 upregulated genes in control spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with the control Wistar Kyoto rats...
October 6, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982307/psoralea-corylifolia-extract-induces-vasodilation-in-rat-arteries-through-both-endothelium-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-involving-inhibition-of-trpc3-channel-activity-and-elaboration-of-prostaglandin
#19
Addis Kassahun Gebremeskel, Tharaka Darshana Wijerathne, Ji Hyun Kim, Min Ji Kim, Chang-Seob Seo, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Kyu Pil Lee
CONTEXT: Fructus Psoralea, Psoralea corylifolia L. (Leguminosae), has been widely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of dermatitis, leukoderma, asthma and osteoporosis. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we sought to study mechanisms underlying the vasoactive properties of Psoralea corylifolia extract (PCE) and its active ingredients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study mechanisms underlying the vasoactive properties of PCE prepared by extracting dried seeds of Psoralea corylifolia with 70% ethanol, isometric tension recordings of rat aortic rings and the ionic currents through TRPC3 (transient receptor potential canonical 3) channels were measured with the cumulative concentration (10-600 μg/mL) of PCE or its constituents...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981166/terlipressin-current-and-emerging-indications-in-chronic-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Timothy Papaluca, Paul Gow
Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin that has potent vasoactive properties and has been available for use in most countries for nearly two decades. It has both established roles and emerging indications in the management of complications of decompensated chronic liver disease. We explore historic and emerging literature regarding the use of terlipressin for a range of indications including hepatorenal syndrome, portal hypertensive bleeding and disruptions in sodium homeostasis. Novel methods of infusion based terlipressin administration including the beneficial effect in reduction of adverse events are explored, in addition to new indications for the use of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis in an outpatient setting...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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