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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453425/chronic-treatment-with-fluoride-affects-the-jejunum-insights-from-proteomics-and-enteric-innervation-analysis
#1
Aline Salgado Dionizio, Carina Guimarães Souza Melo, Isabela Tomazini Sabino-Arias, Talita Mendes Silva Ventura, Aline Lima Leite, Sara Raquel Garcia Souza, Erika Xavier Santos, Alessandro Domingues Heubel, Juliana Gadelha Souza, Juliana Vanessa Colombo Martins Perles, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf
Gastrointestinal symptoms are the first signs of fluoride (F) toxicity. In the present study, the jejunum of rats chronically exposed to F was evaluated by proteomics, as well as by morphological analysis. Wistar rats received water containing 0, 10 or 50 mgF/L during 30 days. HuC/D, neuronal Nitric Oxide (nNOS), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), and Substance P (SP) were detected in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum by immunofluorescence. The density of nNOS-IR neurons was significantly decreased (compared to both control and 10 mgF/L groups), while the VIP-IR varicosities were significantly increased (compared to control) in the group treated with the highest F concentration...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451821/protection-from-vascular-dysfunction-in-female-rats-with-chronic-stress-and-depressive-symptoms
#2
Steven D Brooks, Stan Hileman, Paul D Chantler, Samantha Milde, Kent C Lemaster, Stephanie Frisbee, J Kevin Shoemaker, Dwayne N Jackson, Jefferson C Frisbee
The increasing prevalence and severity of clinical depression is strongly correlated with vascular disease risk, creating a comorbid condition with poor outcomes, although demonstrating a sexual disparity where females are at lower risk than males for subsequent cardiovascular events. To determine potential mechanisms responsible for this protection against stress/depression-induced vasculopathy in females, we exposed male and female ({plus minus}ovariectomy) rats to the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model for 8 weeks and determined depressive symptom severity, vascular reactivity in aortic rings (AR) and ex vivo middle cerebral arteries (MCA), and determined the profile of major metabolites regulating vascular tone...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448041/vip-changes-during-daytime-in-chicken-intrinsic-choroidal-neurons
#3
Bettina Hohberger, Carmen Jessberger, Matthias Zenkel, Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Antonio Bergua, Falk Schrödl, Winfried Neuhuber
PURPOSE: Ocular autonomic control is mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres. Their interactions are complemented by primary afferent nerve fibers of and intrinsic choroidal neurons (ICN). As the vasodilatative neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), is expressed in extrinsic and intrinsic ocular neurons, it is of special interest in ophthalmic research. Since circadian changes of ocular blood flow are known in humans and birds, this study aimed at investigating VIP expression at different daytimes in chicken choroid, the preferred model species in ICN research...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441631/respirable-powder-formulation-of-a-shortened-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-analog-for-treatment-of-airway-inflammatory-diseases
#4
Hiroki Suzuki, Takahiro Mizumoto, Yoshiki Seto, Hideyuki Sato, Satomi Onoue
The aim of present study was to develop a respirable powder (RP) of a shortened vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analog for inhalation. VIP and C-terminally truncated VIP analogs were synthesized with a solid-phase method. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was carried out in terms with binding and relaxant activities of the peptides. Prepared RP formulation of a shortened VIP analog was physicochemically characterized by morphological, in vitro aerodynamic, and pharmacological assessments. The SAR study demonstrated that the N-terminal 23 amino acid residues were required for biological activity of VIP...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441350/perioperative-goal-directed-therapy-using-invasive-uncalibrated-pulse-contour-analysis
#5
Bernd Saugel, Daniel A Reuter
"Perioperative goal-directed therapy" (PGDT) aims at an optimization of basic and advanced global hemodynamic variables to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the end-organs. PGDT protocols help to titrate fluids, vasopressors, or inotropes to hemodynamic target values. There is considerable evidence that PGDT can improve patient outcome in high-risk patients if both fluids and inotropes are administered to target hemodynamic variables reflecting blood flow. Despite this evidence, PGDT strategies aiming at an optimization of blood flow seem to be not well implemented in routine clinical care...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439683/elevated-central-venous-pressure-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-pediatric-septic-shock-patients
#6
Seung Jun Choi, Eun-Ju Ha, Won Kyoung Jhang, Seong Jong Park
BACKGROUND: Central venous pressure (CVP) is an important factor affecting capillary blood flow, and it is associated with poor outcomes in adult septic shock patients. However, whether a similar association exists in pediatric patients remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between February 2009 and July 2015. Patients were divided into two groups-survivors and nonsurvivors-according to 28-day mortality...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434174/macrophages-highly-express-carbonic-anhydrase-2-and-play-a-significant-role-in-demineralization-of-the-ectopic-calcification
#7
Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Koji Ikeda, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Vascular calcification is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and is closely associated with all-cause mortality. Recently, it has been revealed that vascular calcification is not a passive precipitation of circulating minerals, but is a process actively regulated through machinery similar to bone formation. During the bone remodeling, osteoclasts execute the bone resorption by releasing hydrogen ions to dissolve minerals; however, molecular mechanisms underlying decalcification of ectopically calcified lesions remain largely unknown...
October 16, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433330/endothelial-nanomechanics-in-the-context-of-endothelial-dys-function-and-inflammation
#8
Johannes Fels, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog
SIGNIFICANCE: Stiffness of endothelial cells is closely linked to the function of the vasculature as it regulates the release of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The outer layer of endothelial cells, consisting of the glycocalyx above and the cortical zone beneath the plasma membrane, is a vulnerable compartment able to adapt its nanomechanical properties to any changes of forces exerted by the adjacent blood stream. Sustained stiffening of this layer contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and vascular pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#9
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432701/plasticity-of-light-induced-concurrent-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-quantal-events-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#10
Juan Cheng, Xu Huang, Yue Liang, Tian Xue, Liecheng Wang, Jin Bao
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) exhibit circadian variation in their neuronal activities. Here, we show that their input synapses undergo daily regulation. We discovered daily variation in the frequencies, but not the peak amplitudes, of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) for both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. In addition, the changes in the frequencies of mPSCs from glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses were antiphasic: An increase in the glutamatergic mPSC frequency and a decrease in the GABAergic mPSC frequency co-occurred during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle...
February 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431216/mast-cell-neural-interactions-contribute-to-pain-and-itch
#11
REVIEW
Kalpna Gupta, Ilkka T Harvima
Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430946/mesenteric-arteries-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-stroke-prone-rats-exhibit-an-increase-in-no-dependent-vasorelaxation
#12
Brandi Wynne, Hicham Labazi, Victor Lima, Fernando Carneiro, R Clinton Webb, Rita C Tostes, Fernanda Regina Giachini
The endothelium is crucial for the maintenance of vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive substances, including nitric oxide (NO). Systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) is primarily regulated by the resistance vasculature, which has been shown to exhibit increased vascular reactivity, and decreased vasorelaxation during hypertension. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism for mesenteric artery vasorelaxation of the spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rat (SHRSP). We hypothesized that eNOS is up-regulated in SHRSP vessels, increasing NO production to compensate for the endothelial dysfunction...
February 10, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430560/epilepsy-is-associated-with-ventricular-alterations-following-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#13
Wail Ali, Beth A Bubolz, Linh Nguyen, Danny Castro, Jorge Coss-Bu, Michael M Quach, Curtis E Kennedy, Anne E Anderson, Yi-Chen Lai
Objective: Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. Methods: We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430404/spectrum-of-cardiac-manifestations-and-its-relationship-to-outcomes-in-patients-admitted-with-scrub-typhus-infection
#14
Gunasekaran Karthik, Thomas Isaiah Sudarsan, John Victor Peter, Thambu Sudarsanam, George M Varghese, Paul Kundavaram, Sowmya Sathyendra, Ramya Iyyadurai, Kishore Pichamuthu
AIM: To study the spectrum of cardiac manifestations in scrub typhus infection and assess its relationship to outcomes. METHODS: Demographic data, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, myocardial injury (defined as troponin T > 14 pg/mL), and pericardial effusion were documented. Myocarditis was diagnosed when myocardial injury was associated with global LV systolic dysfunction. The relationship between myocarditis and outcomes was assessed using logistic regression analysis and expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI...
February 4, 2018: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429522/neurochemical-characteristics-of-calbindin-like-immunoreactive-coeliac-cranial-mesenteric-ganglion-complex-ccmg-neurons-supplying-the-pre-pyloric-region-of-the-porcine-stomach
#15
Katarzyna Palus, Michał Bulc, Marta Czajkowska, Bartosz Miciński, Jarosław Całka
The present study was designed to determine the distribution, morphology and co-localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) with other neuroactive substances in the coeliac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CCMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. In all animals, a median laparotomy was performed and the fluorescent retrograde neuronal tracer Fast Blue was injected into the wall of the stomach prepyloric area. On the 28th day, all animals were euthanized and the CCMG complexes were then collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence for CB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), galanin (GAL), somatostatin (SOM), leu 5-enkephalin (LENK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), Immunohistochemistry revealed that 8...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429457/-association-between-vasoactive-inotropic-score-and-prognosis-in-children-with-septic-shock
#16
Yan-Ran Qin, Cheng-Jun Liu, Feng Xu, Jing Li, Xiao-Yu Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) and prognosis in children with septic shock. METHODS: A total of 117 children with decompensated septic shock who received the treatment with vasoactive agents were enrolled. According to their prognosis, they were divided into death group with 41 children and survival group with 76 children. With the maximum VIS within the first 24 hours (24hVIS max) as the cut-off value (29.5), the children were divided into low VIS group with 78 children and high VIS group with 39 children...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428841/nitrite-potentiates-the-vasodilatory-signaling-of-s-nitrosothiols
#17
Taiming Liu, Meijuan Zhang, Michael H Terry, Hobe Schroeder, Sean Wilson, Gordon Power, Qian Li, Trent E Tipple, Dan Borchardt, Arlin Blood
Nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are both byproducts of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and are proposed to cause vasodilation via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). We have previously reported that while SNOs are potent vasodilators at physiological concentrations, nitrite itself only produces vasodilation at supraphysiological concentrations. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sub-vasoactive concentrations of nitrite potentiate the vasodilatory effects of SNOs. Multiple exposures of isolated sheep arteries to S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO) resulted in a tachyphylactic decreased vasodilatory response to GSNO but not to NO, suggesting attenuation of signaling steps upstream from sGC...
February 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426683/cardiothoracic-mri-in-the-icu-a-10-year-experience
#18
Narmadan Kumarasamy, Nima Tishbi, Shey Mukundan, Ariel Shiloh, Jeffrey M Levsky, Linda B Haramati
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the feasibility and pitfalls of cardiothoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study identified adult ICU patients scheduled for cardiothoracic MRIs during a 10-year study period. ICU patients scheduled for brain MRIs served as a comparison group. A chart review was performed to identify factors impacting a patient's ability to undergo an MRI...
February 6, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420211/translational-implications-of-platelets-as-vascular-first-responders
#19
REVIEW
Richard C Becker, Travis Sexton, Susan S Smyth
Platelets play a vital role in normal hemostasis to stem blood loss at sites of vascular injury by tethering and adhering to sites of injury, recruiting other platelets and blood cells to the developing clot, releasing vasoactive small molecules and proteins, and assembling and activating plasma coagulation proteins in a tightly regulated temporal and spatial manner. In synchrony with specific end products of coagulation, primarily cross-linked fibrin, a stable thrombus quickly forms. Far beyond physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, emerging evidence supports platelets playing a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, inflammation, cellular repair, regeneration, and wide range of autocrine and paracrine functions...
February 2, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420068/vip-is-involved-in-peripheral-crf-induced-stimulation-of-propulsive-colonic-motor-function-and-diarrhea-in-male-rats
#20
Seiichi Yakabi, Lixin Wang, Hiroshi Karasawa, Pu-Qing Yuan, K Koike, Koji Yakabi, Yvette F Tache
We investigated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and/or prostaglandins contribute to peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced CRF1 receptor mediated stimulation of colonic motor function and diarrhea in rats. The VIP antagonist, [4Cl-D-Phe 6 , Leu 17 ]VIP injected intraperitoneally (ip) completely prevented CRF (10 µg/kg, ip)-induced fecal output and diarrhea occurring within the first hour post injection whereas pretreatment with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin had no effect...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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