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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088752/microfluidic-approaches-for-isolation-detection-and-characterization-of-extracellular-vesicles-current-status-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Shima Gholizadeh, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Maryam Zarghooni, Amir Sanati-Nezhad, Saeid Ghavami, Hadi Shafiee, Mohsen Akbari
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived vesicles present in body fluids that play an essential role in various cellular processes, such as intercellular communication, inflammation, cellular homeostasis, survival, transport, and regeneration. Their isolation and analysis from body fluids have a great clinical potential to provide information on a variety of disease states such as cancer, cardiovascular complications and inflammatory disorders. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest in this field, there are still no standardized procedures available for the purification, detection, and characterization of EVs...
December 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#2
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088449/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-ageing-and-senescent-decline
#3
REVIEW
Andrea Princz, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Posttranslational protein modifications are playing crucial roles in essential cellular mechanisms. SUMOylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of specific target proteins by the attachment of a small ubiquitin-like protein. Although the mechanism of conjugation of SUMO to proteins is analogous to ubiquitination, it requires its own, specific set of enzymes. The consequences of SUMOylation are widely variable, depending on the physiological state of the cell and the attached SUMO isoform. Accumulating recent findings have revealed a prominent role of SUMOylation in molecular pathways that govern senescence and ageing...
January 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080975/neural-correlates-of-heart-focused-interoception-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Stefan M Schulz
Interoception is the ability to perceive one's internal body state including visceral sensations. Heart-focused interoception has received particular attention, in part due to a readily available task for behavioural assessment, but also due to accumulating evidence for a significant role in emotional experience, decision-making and clinical disorders such as anxiety and depression. Improved understanding of the underlying neural correlates is important to promote development of anatomical-functional models and suitable intervention strategies...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080971/interoceptive-dimensions-across-cardiac-and-respiratory-axes
#6
Sarah N Garfinkel, Miranda F Manassei, Giles Hamilton-Fletcher, Yvo In den Bosch, Hugo D Critchley, Miriam Engels
Interoception refers to the sensing of signals concerning the internal state of the body. Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity are proposed to account for differences in affective processing, including the expression of anxiety. The majority of investigations of interoceptive accuracy focus on cardiac signals, typically using heartbeat detection tests and self-report measures. Consequently, little is known about how different organ-specific axes of interoception relate to each other or to symptoms of anxiety...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080968/interoception-homeostatic-emotions-and-sympathovagal-balance
#7
Irina A Strigo, Arthur D Bud Craig
We briefly review the evidence for distinct neuroanatomical substrates that underlie interoception in humans, and we explain how they substantialize feelings from the body (in the insular cortex) that are conjoined with homeostatic motivations that guide adaptive behaviours (in the cingulate cortex). This hierarchical sensorimotor architecture coincides with the limbic cortical architecture that underlies emotions, and thus we regard interoceptive feelings and their conjoint motivations as homeostatic emotions We describe how bivalent feelings, emotions and sympathovagal balance can be organized and regulated efficiently in the bicameral forebrain as asymmetric positive/negative, approach/avoidance and parasympathetic/sympathetic components...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080965/feeling-learning-from-and-being-aware-of-inner-states-interoceptive-dimensions-in-neurodegeneration-and-stroke
#8
Indira García-Cordero, Lucas Sedeño, Laura de la Fuente, Andrea Slachevsky, Gonzalo Forno, Francisco Klein, Patricia Lillo, Jesica Ferrari, Clara Rodriguez, Julian Bustin, Teresa Torralva, Sandra Baez, Adrian Yoris, Sol Esteves, Margherita Melloni, Paula Salamone, David Huepe, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibañez
Interoception is a complex process encompassing multiple dimensions, such as accuracy, learning and awareness. Here, we examined whether each of those dimensions relies on specialized neural regions distributed throughout the vast interoceptive network. To this end, we obtained relevant measures of cardiac interoception in healthy subjects and patients offering contrastive lesion models of neurodegeneration and focal brain damage: behavioural variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-insular stroke...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080962/-bodily-precision-a-predictive-coding-account-of-individual-differences-in-interoceptive-accuracy
#9
REVIEW
Vivien Ainley, Matthew A J Apps, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Manos Tsakiris
Individuals differ in their awareness of afferent information from within their bodies, which is typically assessed by a heartbeat perception measure of 'interoceptive accuracy' (IAcc). Neural and behavioural correlates of this trait have been investigated, but a theoretical explanation has yet to be presented. Building on recent models that describe interoception within the free energy/predictive coding framework, this paper applies similar principles to IAcc, proposing that individual differences in IAcc depend on 'precision' in interoceptive systems, i...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080961/interoception-beyond-homeostasis-affect-cognition-and-mental-health
#10
Manos Tsakiris, Hugo Critchley
Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080219/adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes
#11
Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Aaron T Poole, Gayle Olson, Michel Makhlouf, Hanaa S Sallam, Shwetha Thukuntla, Sucharitha Kankanala, Obos Ekhaese, Guillermo Gomez, Manisha Chandalia, Nicola Abate
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1...
January 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078804/a-low-protein-diet-induces-body-weight-loss-and-browning-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-through-enhanced-expression-of-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21
#12
Albert Pérez-Martí, Maite Garcia-Guasch, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Alexandra Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Ramon Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Rosa Lamuela-Raventós, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
SCOPE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077341/irisin-and-oxytocin-as-predictors-of-metabolic-parameters-in-obese-children
#13
Ciğdem Binay, Cem Paketçi, Savaş Güzel, Nedim Samancı
OBJECTIVE: Irisin and oxytocin can affect energy homeostasis and have been proposed to play an important role in reducing obesity and diabetes. We aimed to determine the relationship between metabolic parameters (including irisin and oxytocin levels) and anthropometric parameters in obese children. METHODS: Ninety obese children (mean age, 13.85 ± 1.63 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age, 14.32 ± 1.58 years) were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters (glucose, insulin, lipid, oxytocin, and irisin levels) were analysed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#14
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076482/correlation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-features-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-morbidly-obese-patients-in-the-preoperative-assessment-for-bariatric-surgery
#15
Fernando de Barros, Sergio Setúbal, José Manoel Martinho, Loraine Ferraz, Andressa Gaudêncio
Background: Obesity is an epidemic and chronic disease that can bring other comorbidities to the patient. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is present in up to 90% of these patients and can progress to hepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. The relationship of this liver disease and obesity is already well known; however, it is possible that some parameters of the comorbidities are more related than others in the pathophysiology of the disease. Aim: Was analyzed the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the comorbidities of metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073130/testosterone-plasma-concentration-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-male-hypertensive-patients
#16
Gian Piero Carnevale Schianca, Gian Paolo Fra, Fabio Brustia, Mattia Bellan, Alice Pirovano, Alessandro Gualerzi, Michela Gentile, Antonello Gibbin, Mirta Menegatti, Ettore Bartoli, Mario Pirisi
Background: Low testosterone levels are a common finding among men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and are inversely related to insulin resistance. Whether this relationship holds true in patients with hypertension, but normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes, is unclear. Methods: We recruited 87 male outpatients with essential arterial hypertension, aged 35-70 years. Anthropometric data were collected, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) performed, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score calculated...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073125/osteocalcin-improves-metabolic-profiles-body-composition-and-arterial-stiffening-in-an-induced-diabetic-rat-model
#17
Lingning Huang, Liyong Yang, Li Luo, Peiwen Wu, Sunjie Yan
Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of osteocalcin (OCN) on glucose homeostasis and metabolic dysregulation. However, its role in body composition and vascular function remains unknown. This study was designed to examine changes in metabolic parameters and body composition as well as arterial stiffness after OCN treatment in type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and then diabetes was induced with an injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and treated daily with intraperitoneal injections of OCN for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073026/the-role-of-visfatin-in-atherosclerotic-peripheral-arterial-obstructive-disease
#18
Matthaios G Pitoulias, Lemonia Skoura, Apostolos G Pitoulias, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Apostolia Margariti, Minas Arsenakis, Georgios A Pitoulias
Visfatin is an adipokine molecule acting as an essential coenzyme in multiple cellular redox reactions. The increased serum levels of Visfatin have been correlated with metabolic syndrome and endothelial homeostasis. In this study we investigate the possible relationship of Visfatin serum levels with the severity and location of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Study protocol included 45 consecutive PAOD and 20 Control patients with age >55years old. Definition of PAOD was based in Rutherord's classification (RC)...
January 7, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072496/structural-reconstruction-of-the-perivascular-space-in-the-adult-mouse-neurohypophysis-during-an-osmotic-stimulation
#19
K Nishikawa, E Furube, S Morita, N Horii-Hayashi, M Nishi, S Miyata
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), neuropeptides in the neurohypophysis (NH), control lactation and body fluid homeostasis, respectively. Hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons project their axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the NH to make contact with the vascular surface and release OXT and AVP. The neurohypophysial vascular structure is unique, because it has a wide perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes. However, the significance of this unique vascular structure remains unclear; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the perivascular space and its activity-dependent changes during salt loading in adult mice...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070680/a-disturbance-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-population-and-kinetics-in-apc1638t-mice
#20
Tuya Wang, Takanori Onouchi, Nami O Yamada, Shuji Matsuda, Takao Senda
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional protein as well as a tumor suppressor. To determine the functions of the C-terminal domain of APC, we explored APC (1638T/1638T) (APC1638T) mice that express a truncated APC lacking the C-terminal domain. The APC1638T mice were tumor free and exhibited growth retardation. In the present study, we compared small intestinal crypt-villus cells homeostasis in APC (+/+) (WT) mice and APC1638T mice. The body weight of APC1638T mice was significantly smaller than that of WT mice at all ages...
January 9, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
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