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Body homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817652/metabolomics-reveals-an-entanglement-of-fasting-leptin-concentrations-with-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-gluconeogenesis-in-healthy-children
#1
Franca Fabiana Kirchberg, Stephanie Brandt, Anja Moß, Wolfgang Peissner, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Hermann Brenner, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth, Martin Wabitsch
BACKGROUND: Leptin and adiponectin communicate with organ systems in order to regulate energetic and metabolic homeostasis. Their different points of action have been well characterized; however, no study has investigated their interrelationship with the metabolism at the molecular level in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of leptin and adiponectin with the metabolic profile reflecting the intercellular and interorgan communication as well as activated metabolic pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817063/changes-in-lipids-and-inflammatory-markers-after-consuming-diets-high-in-red-meat-or-dairy-for-four-weeks
#2
Kirsty M Turner, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter J Meikle, Peter M Clifton
There is a body of evidence linking inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Our previous research found that insulin sensitivity decreased after a four-week diet high in dairy compared to a control diet and to one high in red meat. Our aim was to determine whether a relationship exists between changes in insulin sensitivity and inflammatory biomarkers, or with lipid species. Fasting Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor II (sTNF-RII), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lipids were measured at the end of each diet...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#3
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814665/fatty-acid-oxidation-by-the-osteoblast-is-required-for-normal-bone-acquisition-in-a-sex-and-diet-dependent-manner
#4
Soohyun P Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L Zoch, Julie L Frey, Caitlyn E Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A Ryan, Brian C Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E Kershaw, Daniel L J Thorek, Thomas L Clemens, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814609/tail-regeneration-and-other-phenomena-of-wound-healing-and-tissue-restoration-in-lizards
#5
REVIEW
Kathy Jacyniak, Rebecca P McDonald, Matthew K Vickaryous
Wound healing is a fundamental evolutionary adaptation with two possible outcomes: scar formation or reparative regeneration. Scars participate in re-forming the barrier with the external environment and restoring homeostasis to injured tissues, but are well understood to represent dysfunctional replacements. In contrast, reparative regeneration is a tissue-specific program that near-perfectly replicates that which was lost or damaged. Although regeneration is best known from salamanders (including newts and axolotls) and zebrafish, it is unexpectedly widespread among vertebrates...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814531/patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-have-a-low-response-rate-to-vitamin-d-supplementation
#6
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Rony Varghese, Abram Feldman, Amer Khiyami, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814527/effects-of-nicotine-on-homeostatic-and-hedonic-components-of-food-intake
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Stojakovic, Enma P Espinosa, Osman T Farhad, Kabirullah Lutfy
Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides...
October 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814497/extracellular-acid-base-balance-and-ion-transport-between-body-fluid-compartments
#8
REVIEW
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813453/metabolomics-reveals-that-vine-tea-ampelopsis-grossedentata-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolism-disorder-by-improving-glucose-homeostasis-in-rats
#9
Wenting Wan, Baoping Jiang, Le Sun, Lijia Xu, Peigen Xiao
BACKGROUND: Vine tea (VT), derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD) in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#10
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812446/higher-dietary-intake-of-vitamin-d-may-influence-total-cholesterol-and-carbohydrate-profile-independent-of-body-composition-in-men-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Christopher Beal, Ashraf Gorgey, Pamela Moore, Nathan Wong, Robert A Adler, David Gater
STUDY DESIGN: A case-control design. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812260/zinc-metabolism-and-metallothioneins
#12
REVIEW
Abdulkerim Kasim Baltaci, Kemal Yuce, Rasim Mogulkoc
Among the trace elements, zinc is one of the most used elements in biological systems. Zinc is found in the structure of more than 2700 enzymes, including hydrolases, transferases, oxyreductases, ligases, isomerases, and lyases. Not surprisingly, it is present in almost all body cells. Preserving the stability and integrity of biological membranes and ion channels, zinc is also an intracellular regulator and provides structural support to proteins during molecular interactions. It acts as a structural element in nucleic acids or other gene-regulating proteins...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#13
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808555/phenotypic-convergence-of-artificially-reared-and-wild-trout-is-mediated-by-shape-plasticity
#14
Jorge Ruben Sánchez-González, Alfredo G Nicieza
Phenotypic plasticity can be viewed as the first level of defense of organism homeostasis against environmental stress and therefore represents the potential to deal with rapid environmental changes. Transitions between low complexity, artificial environments and complex, natural habitats can promote phenotypic plasticity. Here, we conducted an experimental introduction with juvenile brown trout to evaluate the plasticity of shape in response to a transition between contrasting environments. We released 202 juvenile trout reared under hatchery conditions in a natural stream and analyzed changes in shape and morphological variability after 5 months...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808264/knockdown-of-lncrna-mir31hg-inhibits-adipocyte-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-via-histone-modification-of-fabp4
#15
Yiping Huang, Chanyuan Jin, Yunfei Zheng, Xiaobei Li, Shan Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Lingfei Jia, Weiran Li
Adipogenesis plays an important role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and is inextricably related to obesity. Several studies have highlighted the relevance of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation, but the contributions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are still largely uncharacterized. Here, we determined that lncRNA MIR31HG is related to adipocyte lineage commitment. We demonstrated that knockdown of MIR31HG inhibited adipocyte differentiation, whereas overexpression of MIR31HG promoted adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808191/shunts-channels-and-lipoprotein-endosomal-traffic-a-new-model-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-the-hepatocyte
#16
Robert Scott Kiss, Allan Sniderman
The liver directs cholesterol metabolism in the organism. All the major fluxes of cholesterol within the body involve the liver: dietary cholesterol is directed to the liver; cholesterol from peripheral cells goes to the liver; the liver is a major site of cholesterol synthesis for the organism; cholesterol is secreted from the liver within the bile, within apoB lipoproteins and translocated to nascent HDL. The conventional model of cholesterol homeostasis posits that cholesterol from any source enters a common, rapidly exchangeable pool within the cell, which is in equilibrium with a regulatory pool...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805588/weight-in-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypical-significance
#17
Jagdish C Sharma, Anna Lewis
Body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a significant nonmotor feature. Weight homeostasis is a complex physiological process and gets deranged in PD patients leading to changes in weight. While both the low and high body weight have been reported as risk factors for PD, the majority of PD patients have a lower weight and a subset of patients lose weight during the course of the disease, while a small proportion gain weight. A number of clinical parameters such as older age, impaired cognition, severity of disease, and an imbalance of food intake determined by satiety and hunger hormones have been reported to be associated with but not the cause of weight change...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#18
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804462/heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-origins-in-within-life-epigenetics
#19
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce "ON CALL" molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance-HACT). The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803831/localization-of-connexin-43-gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-in-tanycytes-of-adult-mice
#20
Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Edina Varga, Zsuzsa Beliczai, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the lateral walls and the floor of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm. In addition to functioning as barrier cells, they also have an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. To determine whether tanycytes communicate with each other via Connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions, individual tanycytes were loaded with Lucifer yellow (LY) through a patch pipette. In all cases, LY filled a larger group of tanycytes as well as blood vessels adjacent to tanycyte processes...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
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