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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430371/evaluation-of-circulating-zonulin-as-a-potential-marker-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Olfat M Hendy, Maha M Elsabaawy, Mona M Aref, Fatma M Khalaf, Abdel Moaty A Oda, Helmy M El Shazly
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver disorders ranging from simple hepatic steatosis up to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) evolving to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver biopsy is still the gold standard modality for diagnosing and staging NAFLD. The linkage between intestinal microbiota and NAFLD, might suggest a potential role of serum zonulin in NAFLD diagnosis. To appraise the role of circulating zonulin in NAFLD pathogenesis, 56 subjects with proved NAFLD by ultrasonography and liver biopsy, as well as 20 healthy controls were tested...
April 21, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429171/sleeve-gastrectomy-alters-intestinal-permeability-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#2
Claire Blanchard, François Moreau, Julien Chevalier, Audrey Ayer, Damien Garcon, Lucie Arnaud, Jean-Paul Pais de Barros, Thomas Gautier, Michel Neunlist, Bertrand Cariou, Cédric Le May
BACKGROUND: Increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation due to altered intestinal permeability has been suggested as a mechanism for obesity-associated insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on intestinal barrier permeability in diet-induced obese mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four weeks after surgery, the effects of SG on intestinal permeabilities were assessed ex vivo and in vivo in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a high-fat diet...
April 20, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428756/neck-circumference-is-associated-with-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-men-but-not-women
#3
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Paul J Nestel, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Markus P Schlaich, Sarah E Phillips, Elisabeth A Lambert
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of NC to muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) within an overweight and obese population. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Un-medicated persons (72 men, 53 postmenopausal women) aged 56 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM) with body mass index (BMI) 32.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), were studied. NC was measured together with traditional anthropometric measures, supine blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, insulin, and glucose...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428029/relationship-between-high-white-blood-cell-count-and-insulin-resistance-homa-ir-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2010
#4
J-M Park, D-C Lee, Y-J Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents...
March 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427557/oxidative-stress-love-and-hate-history-in-central-nervous-system
#5
Genaro Gabriel Ortiz, Fermín P Pacheco Moisés, Mario Mireles-Ramírez, Luis J Flores-Alvarado, Héctor González-Usigli, Víctor J Sánchez-González, Angélica L Sánchez-López, Lorenzo Sánchez-Romero, Eduardo I Díaz-Barba, J Francisco Santoscoy-Gutiérrez, Paloma Rivero-Moragrega
Molecular oxygen is essential for aerobic organisms in order to synthesize large amounts of energy during the process of oxidative phosphorylation and it is harnessed in the form of adenosine triphosphate, the chemical energy of the cell. Oxygen is toxic for anaerobic organisms but it is also less obvious that oxygen is poisonous to aerobic organisms at higher concentrations of oxygen. For instance, oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427413/adiponectin-levels-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-possible-influence-on-neuroinflammation
#6
Patrizia Bossolasco, Raffaella Cancello, Alberto Doretti, Claudia Morelli, Vincenzo Silani, Lidia Cova
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (APN) is a key player in energy homeostasis strictly associated with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Since APN also belongs to anti-inflammatory-acting adipokines and may influence both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes, we decided to study the APN levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We assessed APN levels by ELISA immunoassay in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients, characterized by normal body mass index and absence of dysautonomic symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#7
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422951/helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-serum-leptin-obestatin-and-ghrelin-levels-in-mexican-schoolchildren
#8
Carolina Romo-González, Eugenia Mendoza, Robertino M Mera, Rafael Coria-Jiménez, Patricia Chico-Aldama, Rita Gomez-Diaz, Ximena Duque
BACKGROUND: There is little information about the possible role of H. pylori infection on appetite-regulating peptides in children. This study evaluated the association between H. pylori infection and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin in schoolchildren. METHODS: One hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren, students at boarding schools in Mexico City, participated. H. pylori infection status was determined every six months for one year by a breath test using (13)C-urea; schoolchildren with consistently positive or negative results were selected to participate...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422176/the-characteristics-of-newly-diagnosed-adult-early-onset-diabetes-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#9
Xiantong Zou, Xianghai Zhou, Linong Ji, Wenying Yang, Juming Lu, Jianping Weng, Weiping Jia, Zhongyan Shan, Jie Liu, Haoming Tian, Qiuhe Ji, Dalong Zhu, Jiapu Ge, Lixiang Lin, Li Chen, Xiaohui Guo, Zhigang Zhao, Qiang Li, Zhiguang Zhou
To investigate the characteristics of newly diagnosed early-onset diabetes in the Chinese population, 2801 newly diagnosed diabetes participants without known diabetes or pre-diabetes in a national cross-sectional survey were analysed. Participants were divided into quartiles (22-43, 44-52, 53-61 and >61 years) according to age of diabetes onset and the first group were defined as early-onset diabetes group. Early-onset diabetes group had lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 2-hour post prandial blood glucose and urine albumin creatinine ratio...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421113/chronic-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-rats-is-accompanied-by-increased-body-weight-hyperleptinaemia-and-decreased-neuronal-glucose-transporter-levels-in-the-brain
#10
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Melissa Chapman, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421037/lipid-processing-in-the-brain-a-key-regulator-of-systemic-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
Kimberley D Bruce, Andrea Zsombok, Robert H Eckel
Metabolic disorders, particularly aberrations in lipid homeostasis, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia often manifest together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders, the prevalence of the MetS continues to rise. It is becoming increasingly apparent that intermediary metabolism within the central nervous system is a major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. In particular, lipid metabolism within the brain is tightly regulated to maintain neuronal structure and function and may signal nutrient status to modulate metabolism in key peripheral tissues such as the liver...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417197/origin-function-and-fate-of-metallothionein-in-human-blood
#12
Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, Nazmul Haque, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Marc De Ley
Toxic heavy metals, toxic organic compounds, reactive oxygen species (ROS), infections, and temperature are well-known metallothionein (MT) inducers in human blood. The current review aims to summarize synthesis, function, and fate of human blood MT in response to the known MT inducers. Part of the MTs that are synthesized in different organs such as the liver, kidney, and spleen is transported and stored in different blood cells and in plasma. Cells of the circulatory system also synthesize MT. From the circulation, MT returns to the kidney where the metal-bound MTs are degraded to release the metal ion that in turn induces MT expression therein...
April 18, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416203/the-s4-s5-linker-gearbox-of-trp-channel-gating
#13
REVIEW
Laura Hofmann, Hongmei Wang, Wang Zheng, Stephan E Philipp, Patricia Hidalgo, Adolfo Cavalié, Xing-Zhen Chen, Andreas Beck, Veit Flockerzi
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cation channels which participate in a wide variety of physiological processes in organisms ranging from fungi to humans. They fulfill roles in body homeostasis, are sensors for noxious chemicals and temperature in the mammalian somatosensory system and are activated by light stimulated phospholipase C activity in Drosophila or by hypertonicity in yeast. The transmembrane topology of TRP channels is similar to that of voltage-gated cation channels. TRP proteins assemble as tetramers with each subunit containing six transmembrane helices (S1-S6) and intracellular N- and C-termini...
April 4, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414295/high-salt-intake-reprioritizes-osmolyte-and-energy-metabolism-for-body-fluid-conservation
#14
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E Dikalova, Sergey I Dikalov, David G Harrison, Dominik N Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C Harris, Friedrich C Luft, David H Wassermann, Jeff M Sands, Jens Titze
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414143/the-use-of-hemoglobin-vesicles-for-delivering-medicinal-gas-for-the-treatment-of-intractable-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Kazuaki Taguchi, Keishi Yamasaki, Hiromi Sakai, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
Bioactive gaseous molecules, such as oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are essential elements for most living organisms to maintain their homeostasis and biological activities. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that such molecules can be used in clinics as a medical gas in the treatment of various intractable disorders. Recent developments in hemoglobin-encapsulated liposomes, namely, Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV), possess great potential for retaining O2 and CO, and could lead to strategies for the development of novel pharmacological agents as medical gas donors...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412308/genistein-prevention-of-hyperglycemia-and-improvement-of-glucose-tolerance-in-adult-non-obese-diabetic-mice-are-associated-with-alterations-of-gut-microbiome-and-immune-homeostasis
#16
Guannan Huang, Joella Xu, Daniel E Lefever, Travis C Glenn, Tamas Nagy, Tai L Guo
Although studies have linked soy phytoestrogen 4,7,4-trihydroxyisoflavone genistein (GEN) to reduced type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk, the mechanism of dietary GEN on T1D remains unknown. In our studies, adult non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model was employed to investigate the effects of GEN exposure on blood glucose level (BGL), glucose tolerance, gut microbiome, and immune responses. Adult male and female NOD mice were fed with either soy-based or casein-based diet, and received GEN at 20mg/kg body weight by gavage daily...
April 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411686/mechanism-underlying-berberine-s-effects-on-hsp70-tnf%C3%AE-under-heat-stress-correlation-with-the-tata-boxes
#17
Jing-Fei Jiang, Fan Lei, Zhi-Yi Yuan, Yu-Gang Wang, Xin-Pei Wang, Xiao-Jin Yan, Xuan Yu, Dong-Ming Xing, Li-Jun DU
Heat stress can stimulate an increase in body temperature, which is correlated with increased expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). The exact mechanism underlying the HSP70 and TNFα induction is unclear. Berberine (BBR) can significantly inhibit the temperature rise caused by heat stress, but the mechanism responsible for the BBR effect on HSP70 and TNFα signaling has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the expression of HSP70 and TNFα and the effects of BBR under heat conditions, using in vivo and in vitro models...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411173/lipin-proteins-and-glycerolipid-metabolism-roles-at-the-er-membrane-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Peixiang Zhang, Karen Reue
The regulation of glycerolipid biosynthesis is critical for homeostasis of cellular lipid stores and membranes. Here we review the role of lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatase enzymes in glycerolipid synthesis. Lipin proteins are unique among glycerolipid biosynthetic enzymes in their ability to transit among cellular membranes, rather than remain membrane tethered. We focus on the mechanisms that underlie lipin protein interactions with membranes and the versatile roles of lipins in several organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, endolysosomes, lipid droplets, and nucleus...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409819/spermicidal-efficacy-of-vrp-a-synthetic-cationic-antimicrobial-peptide-inducing-apoptosis-and-membrane-disruption
#19
Prasanta Ghosh, Arpita Bhoumik, Sudipta Saha, Sandipan Mukherjee, Sarfuddin Azmi, Jimut Kanti Ghosh, Sandhya Rekha Dungdung
Presently available contraceptives are mostly hormonal or detergent in nature with numerous side effects like irritation, lesion, inflammation in vagina, alteration of body homeostasis etc. Antimicrobial peptides with spermicidal activity but without adverse effects may be suitable alternatives. In the present study spermicidal activity of a cationic antimicrobial peptide VRP on human spermatozoa has been elucidated. Progressive forward motility of human spermatozoa was instantly stopped after 100 µM VRP treatment and at 350 µM all kinds of sperm motility ceased within 20 seconds as assessed by the Sander-Cramer assay...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409410/synergistic-cardioprotective-effects-of-combined-chromium-picolinate-and-atorvastatin-treatment-in-triton-x-100-induced-hyperlipidemia-in-rats-impact-on-some-biochemical-markers
#20
Noha M Shafik, Amal Baalash, Abla M Ebeid
Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. Chromium (Cr) mineral is playing a crucial role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of combined chromium picolinate (CrPic) and atorvastatin treatment against hyperlipidemia-induced cardiac injury. Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into five groups (15 rats each). Hyperlipidemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of Triton X-100 (300 mg/kg body weight (b...
April 13, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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