Read by QxMD icon Read

Speech characteristics

Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Patrick S C D'Haese, Marc De Bodt, Vincent Van Rompaey, Paul Van de Heyning
The objectives of this study were to assess the factors which contribute to individuals' health motivation to address hearing loss and to gather baseline data that could then be used to measure the impact of an awareness campaign. An online questionnaire with 13 closed set questions was completed by 100 subjects in each country including Austria, Germany, France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The questionnaire was based around the Health Belief Model, which describes how, in order to take action to address a medical problem, the individual must perceive that the condition presents a threat to their well-being that exceeds any barriers to treatment...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
Wang Li, Qian Zhaopeng, Feng Yijun, Niu Haijun
An electrolarynx (EL) is one of the most popular voice rehabilitation technologies used after laryngectomy. However, most ELs generate monotonic EL speech, which has been shown to create a particular deficit in speech intelligibility, especially for Chinese Mandarin (Mandarin). Mandarin is a tonal language that makes lexical distinctions using variations in tone. Our purpose is to design an EL that can produce the four Mandarin tones, and to evaluate its performance. We designed a fundamental frequency (F0) control method for Mandarin EL speech and manufactured a touch-controlled electrolarynx (T-EL) prototype...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Jolien Faes, Steven Gillis
Purpose: This study evaluates intraword or token-to-token variability in the spontaneous speech of Dutch-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) longitudinally up to 5 years of age in comparison with intraword variability in age-matched peers with normal hearing (NH). Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 9 children with CI were collected longitudinally up to age 5. The data of the NH control group consisted of cross-sectional recordings. Children's word productions were categorized into 4 response types of the variability score (consistent correct, consistent incorrect, variable with hits, variable with no hits), and the proportion of whole-word variation (PWV) was calculated...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Thomas A Terleph, S Malaivijitnond, U H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to document song phrases of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), an Asian ape that produces elaborate songs, often in well-coordinated male/female duets. We focused on the male coda, which is produced during vocal turn-taking with one's mate, and particularly its phrases containing rapid spectral and temporal variation, to investigate if modulation rates resemble those of lip-smacking in other nonhuman primates and human speech rhythm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We produced recordings from a large population of wild gibbons...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Agostino Brugnera, Cristina Zarbo, Mika P Tarvainen, Paolo Marchettini, Roberta Adorni, Angelo Compare
Acute psychosocial stress is typically investigated in laboratory settings using protocols with distinctive characteristics. For example, some tasks involve the action of speaking, which seems to alter Heart Rate Variability (HRV) through acute changes in respiration patterns. However, it is still unknown which task induces the strongest subjective and autonomic stress response. The present cross-over randomized trial sought to investigate the differences in perceived stress and in linear and non-linear analyses of HRV between three different verbal (Speech and Stroop) and non-verbal (Montreal Imaging Stress Task; MIST) stress tasks, in a sample of 60 healthy adults (51...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jessica Brown, Amber Thiessen
Purpose: Visuographic supports in the form of images are utilized during assessment and treatment for individuals with aphasia to supplement speech, language, and cognitive losses limiting communication. Clinicians rely on prior experience and intuition to make decisions regarding image-based support design and selection (e.g., augmentative and alternative communication strategies). Researchers have begun to focus on the relationship between the images and the benefits they provide for adults with aphasia...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Manaswita Dutta, Laura Murray, Wendy Miller, Doyle Groves
Purpose: This study involved a scoping review to identify possible gaps in the empirical description of language functioning in epilepsy in adults. With access to social network data, data mining was used to determine if individuals with epilepsy are expressing language-related concerns. Method: For the scoping review, scientific databases were explored to identify pertinent articles. Findings regarding the nature of epilepsy etiologies, patient characteristics, tested language modalities, and language measures were compiled...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Melina J West, David A Copland, Wendy L Arnott, Nicole L Nelson, Anthony J Angwin
The current study investigated whether those with higher levels of autism-like traits process emotional information from speech differently to those with lower levels of autism-like traits. Neurotypical adults completed the autism-spectrum quotient and an emotional priming task. Vocal primes with varied emotional prosody, semantics, or a combination, preceded emotional target faces. Prime-target pairs were congruent or incongruent in their emotional content. Overall, congruency effects were found for combined prosody-semantic primes, however no congruency effects were found for semantic or prosodic primes alone...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Andrew J Vermiglio, Sigfrid D Soli, Xiangming Fang
BACKGROUND: The primary components of a diagnostic accuracy study are an index test, the target condition (or disorder), and a reference standard. According to the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy statement, the reference standard should be the best method available to independently determine if the results of an index test are correct. Pure-tone thresholds have been used as the "gold standard" for the validation of some tests used in audiology. Many studies, however, have shown a lack of agreement between the audiogram and the patient's perception of hearing ability...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Michael P Broderick, Andrew J Anderson, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Michael J Crosse, Edmund C Lalor
People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120-200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words' meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking for continuous speech. Although valuable insights into semantic processing have been provided by the "N400 component" of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated by paradigms using incongruous words within specially constructed sentences, with less emphasis on natural, narrative speech comprehension...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Daisuke Fukushi, Kenichiro Yamada, Kaoru Suzuki, Mie Inaba, Noriko Nomura, Yasuyo Suzuki, Kimiko Katoh, Seiji Mizuno, Nobuaki Wakamatsu
Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (OMIM: 616803) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, speech delay, and mild characteristic facial appearance caused by SOX5 haploinsufficiency on chromosome 12p12.1. There are clinical variabilities among the patients with genomic alterations, such as intragenic deletions, a point mutation, and a chromosomal translocation of t(11;12)(p13;p12.1), in SOX5. We report herein a 5-year-old Japanese male with a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(12;20)(p12...
February 22, 2018: Gene
Li-Mei Chen, Katherine C Hustad, Ray D Kent, Yu Ching Lin
Purpose: This study explored the speech characteristics of Mandarin-speaking children with cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) children to determine (a) how children in the 2 groups may differ in their speech patterns and (b) the variables correlated with speech intelligibility for words and sentences. Method: Data from 6 children with CP and a clinical diagnosis of moderate dysarthria were compared with data from 9 TD children using a multiple speech subsystems approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Thea Knowles, Scott Adams, Anita Abeyesekera, Cynthia Mancinelli, Greydon Gilmore, Mandar Jog
Purpose: The settings of 3 electrical stimulation parameters were adjusted in 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) to examine their effects on vowel acoustics and speech intelligibility. Method: Participants were tested under permutations of low, mid, and high STN-DBS frequency, voltage, and pulse width settings. At each session, participants recited a sentence. Acoustic characteristics of vowel production were extracted, and naive listeners provided estimates of speech intelligibility...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rosa S Gisladottir, Sara Bögels, Stephen C Levinson
Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kristen M Allison, Katherine C Hustad
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to identify acoustic characteristics of connected speech that differentiate children with dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (CP) from typically developing children and to identify acoustic measures that best detect dysarthria in children with CP. Method: Twenty 5-year-old children with dysarthria secondary to CP were compared to 20 age- and sex-matched typically developing children on 5 acoustic measures of connected speech...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Yu-Hsiang Wu, Elizabeth Stangl, Octav Chipara, Syed Shabih Hasan, Anne Welhaven, Jacob Oleson
OBJECTIVES: The first objective was to determine the relationship between speech level, noise level, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), as well as the distribution of SNR, in real-world situations wherein older adults with hearing loss are listening to speech. The second objective was to develop a set of prototype listening situations (PLSs) that describe the speech level, noise level, SNR, availability of visual cues, and locations of speech and noise sources of typical speech listening situations experienced by these individuals...
March 2018: Ear and Hearing
Beth Sprunt, Manjula Marella
PURPOSE: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the rights to communication and education and measuring access to these rights for children with disabilities is fundamental. The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module (CFM) is being promoted to measure progress against the Sustainable Development Goals for children with disabilities. This cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study in Fiji compares parent and teacher CFM responses to the Intelligibility in Context Scale for 463 primary-aged students with and without speech difficulties...
February 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
John B West
One of the most interesting unanticipated findings by André Cournand and Dickinson Richards in their groundbreaking studies of cardiac catheterization was the very low pressure in the normal pulmonary circulation. At the time, in the 1940s, the significance of this was not appreciated. For example, in their speeches at the Nobel Prize ceremony, neither of these laureates referred to the low pressure, although they did discuss other features of the pulmonary circulation. It was up to the cardiologist, William Dock, to point out that these low pressures implied a very uneven distribution of blood flow in the lung, and in particular that in the normal upright lung, the blood flow to the apex would be extremely small...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"