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Speech characteristics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926572/automatic-initial-and-final-segmentation-in-cleft-palate-speech-of-mandarin-speakers
#1
Ling He, Yin Liu, Heng Yin, Junpeng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Jiang Zhang
The speech unit segmentation is an important pre-processing step in the analysis of cleft palate speech. In Mandarin, one syllable is composed of two parts: initial and final. In cleft palate speech, the resonance disorders occur at the finals and the voiced initials, while the articulation disorders occur at the unvoiced initials. Thus, the initials and finals are the minimum speech units, which could reflect the characteristics of cleft palate speech disorders. In this work, an automatic initial/final segmentation method is proposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922047/long-term-average-speech-spectra-of-turkish
#2
Mustafa Yüksel, Bülent Gündüz
Long-term average speech spectra (LTASS) are a voice analysis method that is recommended to be used in various areas, such as hearing aid fittings, automatic speaker recognition and voice disorders. Evaluations of LTASS in different languages have been published; however, this analysis has not been conducted for the Turkish. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to conduct this analysis, generate normative values and compare the obtained LTASS curve for the Turkish with those obtained for other languages reported in the literature...
September 18, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915783/prediction-of-agreement-and-phonetic-overlap-shape-sublexical-identification
#3
Andrea E Martin, Philip J Monahan, Arthur G Samuel
The mapping between the physical speech signal and our internal representations is rarely straightforward. When faced with uncertainty, higher-order information is used to parse the signal and because of this, the lexicon and some aspects of sentential context have been shown to modulate the identification of ambiguous phonetic segments. Here, using a phoneme identification task (i.e., participants judged whether they heard [o] or [a] at the end of an adjective in a noun-adjective sequence), we asked whether grammatical gender cues influence phonetic identification and if this influence is shaped by the phonetic properties of the agreeing elements...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915514/developmental-stuttering-in-children-who-are-hard-of-hearing
#4
Richard M Arenas, Elizabeth A Walker, Jacob J Oleson
Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of hearing (CHH). Method: Three hundred three parents of CHH who participated in the Outcomes of Children With Hearing Loss study (Moeller & Tomblin, 2015) were sent questionnaires asking about their child's history of stuttering...
September 15, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911819/non-neurogenic-language-disorders-a-preliminary-classification
#5
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Few publications deal with non-neurogenic language disorders (NNLDs), distinct from psychogenic speech disorders such as psychogenic dysphonia or stuttering. NNLDs are alterations in language owing to psychosomatic preoccupations, conversion disorder, psychiatric disorders, or other psychological reasons. OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify the range of NNLDs and their characteristics. METHODS: This review summarizes the literature on disturbances in language, broadly defined as the use of symbols for communication, which may have a psychogenic or psychiatric etiology...
August 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906244/hearing-aid-use-and-mild-hearing-impairment-learnings-from-big-data
#6
Barbra H B Timmer, Louise Hickson, Stefan Launer
BACKGROUND: Previous research, mostly reliant on self-reports, has indicated that hearing aid (HA) use is related to the degree of hearing impairment (HI). No large-scale investigation of the relationship between data-logged HA use and HI has been conducted to date. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate if objective measures of overall daily HA use and HA use in various listening environments are different for adults with mild HI compared to adults with moderate HI...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902802/audiological-outcomes-and-map-characteristics-in-children-with-perimodiolar-and-slim-straight-array-cochlear-implants-in-opposite-ears
#7
Lisa R Park, Holly F B Teagle, Kevin D Brown, Erika B Gagnon, Jennifer S Woodard, Craig A Buchman
OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in outcomes and map characteristics in pediatric bilateral cochlear implants with modiolar conforming and lateral wall arrays in opposite ears. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric referral center. PATIENTS: Fourteen children who received a perimodiolar array in one ear and a slim straight array in the opposite ear in sequential surgeries. INTERVENTIONS: None...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898887/angelman-syndrome-due-to-a-maternally-inherited-intragenic-deletion-encompassing-exons-7-and-8-of-the-ube3a-gene
#8
Athina Ververi, Lily Islam, Beverley Bewes, Louise Busby, Caroline Sullivan, Natalie Canham
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterised by developmental delay, lack of speech, seizures, a characteristic behavioural profile with a happy demeanour, microcephaly, and ataxia. More than two-thirds of cases are due to an approximately 5-Mb interstitial deletion of the imprinted region 15q11.2q13, which is usually de novo. The rest are associated with point mutations in the UBE3A gene, imprinting defects, and paternal uniparental disomy. Small intragenic UBE3A deletions have rarely been described. They are usually maternally inherited, increasing the recurrence risk to 50%, and may be missed by conventional testing (methylation studies and UBE3A gene sequencing)...
September 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892819/input-subject-diversity-accelerates-the-growth-of-tense-and-agreement-indirect-benefits-from-a-parent-implemented-intervention
#9
Pamela A Hadley, Matthew Rispoli, Janet K Holt
Purpose: This follow-up study examined whether a parent intervention that increased the diversity of lexical noun phrase subjects in parent input and accelerated children's sentence diversity (Hadley et al., 2017) had indirect benefits on tense/agreement (T/A) morphemes in parent input and children's spontaneous speech. Method: Differences in input variables related to T/A marking were compared for parents who received toy talk instruction and a quasi-control group: input informativeness and full is declaratives...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891284/a-highly-stretchable-nanofiber-based-electronic-skin-with-pressure-strain-and-flexion-sensitive-properties-for-health-and-motion-monitoring
#10
Kun Qi, Jianxin He, Hongbo Wang, Yuman Zhou, Xiaolu You, Nan Nan, Weili Shao, Lidan Wang, Bin Ding, Shizhong Cui
The development of flexible and stretchable electronic skins that can mimic the complex characteristics of natural skin is of great value for applications in human motion detection, healthcare, speech recognition, and robotics. In this work, we propose an efficient and low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive and stretchable electronic skin that enables the detection of dynamic and static pressure, strain, and flexion based on an elastic graphene oxide(GO) doped polyurethane (PU) nanofiber membrane with an ultrathin conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating layer...
September 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889797/an-experimental-study-of-executive-function-and-social-impairment-in-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#11
Lisa Nelson, Hayley Crawford, Donna Reid, Joanna Moss, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: Extreme shyness and social anxiety is reported to be characteristic of adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS); however, the nature of these characteristics is not well documented. In this study, we develop and apply an experimental assessment of social anxiety in a group of adolescents and adults with CdLS to determine the nature of the social difficulties and whether they are related to impairments in executive functioning. METHODS: A familiar and unfamiliar examiner separately engaged in socially demanding tasks comprising three experimental conditions with a group of individuals with CdLS (n = 25; % male = 44; mean age = 22...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888426/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-children-and-adolescents-clinical-characteristics-and-age-related-prognosis
#12
Jin Youp Kim, Jae Joon Han, Woong Sang Sunwoo, Ja-Won Koo, Seung-Ha Oh, Min-Hyun Park, Young Ho Kim
OBJECTIVE: Although many studies have investigated sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in adults, there were few studies on SSNHL in the pediatric population; especially research on treatment and prognosis of pediatric SSNHL was limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in children and adolescents with SSNHL. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 67 pediatric patients (67 ears) who had diagnosed with SSNHL at our hospitals was performed to analyze patients' clinical manifestations and audiograms...
September 6, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884486/are-sound-abatement-measures-necessary-in-the-cytology-reading-room-a-study-of-auditory-distraction
#13
A Evered, A Watt, N Perham
OBJECTIVE: Listening to music and other auditory material during microscopy work is common practice among cytologists. While many cytologists would claim several benefits of such activity, research in other fields suggests that it might adversely affect diagnostic performance. Using a cross-modal distraction paradigm, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory stimulation on the visual interpretation of cell images. METHODS: Following initial training, 34 participants undertook cell interpretation tests under four auditory conditions (liked music, disliked music, speech and silence) in a counterbalanced repeated-measures study...
September 7, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881224/accent-modulates-access-to-word-meaning-evidence-for-a-speaker-model-account-of-spoken-word-recognition
#14
Zhenguang G Cai, Rebecca A Gilbert, Matthew H Davis, M Gareth Gaskell, Lauren Farrar, Sarah Adler, Jennifer M Rodd
Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863035/same-or-different-the-overlap-between-children-with-auditory-processing-disorders-and-children-with-other-developmental-disorders-a-systematic-review
#15
Ellen de Wit, Pim van Dijk, Sandra Hanekamp, Margot I Visser-Bochane, Bert Steenbergen, Cees P van der Schans, Margreet R Luinge
OBJECTIVES: Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral characteristics of children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder, such as specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorder (LD), or autism spectrum disorder...
August 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862007/-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-at-presbycusis
#16
Olga Dlouhá, Jan Vokřál, Libor Černý
Evaluation of speech recognition is possible by presenting testing material in sentence form with presence of competitive noise. We developed new test of sentence intelligibility in noise in the Czech language. This article demonstrates results of the influence of the babble noise on sentence intelligibility in hearing impaired listeners with presbycusis. The time characteristics of babble noise are similar to human voice. That is the reason why this noise masking is more enhanced at the central hearing level than any other noise masking...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851443/the-pd-comm-trial-a-protocol-for-the-process-evaluation-of-a-randomised-trial-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-two-types-of-slt-for-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Patricia Masterson-Algar, Christopher R Burton, Marian C Brady, Avril Nicoll, Carl E Clarke, Caroline Rick, Max Hughes, Pui Au, Christina H Smith, Catherine M Sackley
BACKGROUND: The PD COMM trial is a phase III multi-centre randomised controlled trial whose aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two approaches to speech and language therapy (SLT) compared with no SLT intervention (control) for people with Parkinson's disease who have self-reported or carer-reported problems with their speech or voice. Our protocol describes the process evaluation embedded within the outcome evaluation whose aim is to evaluate what happened at the time of the PD COMM intervention implementation and to provide findings that will assist in the interpretation of the PD COMM trial results...
August 29, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851244/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-novel-non-linear-frequency-compression-scheme-for-use-in-children
#18
Jace Wolfe, Mila Duke, Erin C Schafer, Julia Rehmann, Siddhartha Jha, Silvia Allegro Baumann, Andrew John, Christine Jones
OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a new form of non-linear frequency compression (NLFC) in children. The new NLFC processing scheme is adaptive and potentially allows for a better preservation of the spectral characteristics of the input sounds when compared to conventional NLFC processing. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design was utilised to compare the speech perception of the participants with two configurations of the new adaptive NLFC processing to their performance with the existing NLFC...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838582/cost-offset-associated-with-early-start-denver-model-for-children-with-autism
#19
Zuleyha Cidav, Jeff Munson, Annette Estes, Geraldine Dawson, Sally Rogers, David Mandell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for treatment of young children with autism on health care service use and costs. METHOD: We used data from a randomized trial that tested the efficacy of the ESDM, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents, for 2 years. Parents were interviewed about their children's service use every 6 months from the onset of the intervention to follow-up (age 6 years)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829842/voice-in-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-among-naturally-cycling-women-and-users-of-hormonal-contraceptives
#20
Irena Pavela Banai
Previous studies have shown changes in women's behavior and physical appearance between the non-fertile and fertile phases of the menstrual cycle. It is assumed that these changes are regulated by fluctuations in sex hormone levels across the cycle. Receptors for sex hormones have been found on the vocal folds, suggesting a link between hormone levels and vocal fold function, which might cause changes in voice production. However, attempts to identify changes in voice production across the menstrual cycle have produced mixed results...
2017: PloS One
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