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Speech characteristics

Tijana Simic, Carol Leonard, Laura Laird, Jennifer Cupit, Fiona Höbler, Elizabeth Rochon
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the usability of delivering the Phonological Components Analysis treatment for anomia (Leonard, Rochon, & Laird, 2008) remotely via the Internet to individuals with chronic poststroke aphasia. A secondary aim was to probe the experiences and satisfaction of clinicians in administering treatment at a distance. Method: Six individuals with mild-moderate aphasia and 2 trained clinicians participated in this usability study. Participants and clinicians underwent approximately 6 hr of treatment under observation by an independent observer...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Arizona Child Acoustic Database project was to obtain a large set of acoustic recordings, primarily vowels, collected from a cohort of children over a critical period of growth and development. METHOD: Data was recorded longitudinally from 63 children between the ages of 2;0 and 7;0 at 3-month intervals. The protocol included individual American English vowels and diphthongs, nonsense multi-vowel transitions, word level multi-vowel sequences (e...
October 27, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
P A Kir'yanov, A Sh Kaganov
The objective of the present article is to discuss the theoretical foundations and the methodological basis for the use of the apparatus of spectral analysis for the purpose of medico-criminalistic personality identification from the characteristics of the subject's voice and sounding speech. The article is based on the review of the literature sources and the methodological approaches developed by the author.
2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Peter Appelros, Maria Háls Berglund, Jakob O Ström
BACKGROUND: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context. METHODS: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Erika Barioni Mantello, Carla Dias da Silva, Eduardo Tanaka Massuda, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa Dos Reis
Introduction Hearing difficulties can be minimized by the use of hearing aids. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the speech perception and satisfaction of hearing aids users before and after aid adaptation and to determine whether these measures are correlated. Methods The study was conducted on 65 individuals, 54% females and 46% males aged 63 years on average, after the systematic use of hearing aids for at least three months. We characterized subjectś personal identification data, the degree, and configuration of hearing loss, as well as aspects related to adaptation...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Colleen G Le Prell, Odile Clavier
Speech communication often takes place in noisy environments; this is an urgent issue for military personnel who must communicate in high-noise environments. The effects of noise on speech recognition vary significantly according to the sources of noise, the number and types of talkers, and the listener's hearing ability. In this review, speech communication is first described as it relates to current standards of hearing assessment for military and civilian populations. The next section categorizes types of noise (also called maskers) according to their temporal characteristics (steady or fluctuating) and perceptive effects (energetic or informational masking)...
October 12, 2016: Hearing Research
T Steffens
BACKGROUND: The impact of hearing loss on the ability to participate in verbal communication can be directly quantified through the use of speech audiometry. Advances in technology and the associated reduction in background noise interference for hearing aids have allowed the reproduction of very complex acoustic environments, analogous to those in which conversations occur in daily life. These capabilities have led to the creation of numerous advanced speech audiometry measures, test procedures and environments, far beyond the presentation of isolated words in an otherwise noise-free testing booth...
October 14, 2016: HNO
Stefan Rampp, Leonhard Rensch, Sebastian Simmermacher, Torsten Rahne, Christian Strauss, Julian Prell
OBJECTIVE Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) have been used for intraoperative monitoring of the auditory nerve for many years. However, BAEPs yield limited information about the expected postoperative hearing quality and speech perception. The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) enables objective audiograms to be obtained in patients under anesthesia. These ASSRs could be used for intraoperative estimation of hearing classes to improve the postoperative outcome and quality of life. Studies investigating the clinical use of ASSRs during total intravenous anesthesia are currently lacking...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Anna Oleszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pisanski, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Agnieszka Sorokowska
The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i...
October 13, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Daniel Chen, Yosh Halberstam, Alan C L Yu
Previous studies suggest a significant role of language in the court room, yet none has identified a definitive correlation between vocal characteristics and court outcomes. This paper demonstrates that voice-based snap judgments based solely on the introductory sentence of lawyers arguing in front of the Supreme Court of the United States predict outcomes in the Court. In this study, participants rated the opening statement of male advocates arguing before the Supreme Court between 1998 and 2012 in terms of masculinity, attractiveness, confidence, intelligence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Ji Eun Choi, Sung Hwa Hong, Jong Ho Won, Hee-Sung Park, Young Sang Cho, Won-Ho Chung, Yang-Sun Cho, Il Joon Moon
Adults who score 50% correct or less in open-set sentence recognition test under the best aided listening condition may be considered as candidates for cochlear implant (CI). However, the requirement for 'the best aided listening condition' needs significant time and clinical resources to ensure such condition. As speech signals are composed of dynamic spectral and temporal modulations, psychoacoustic sensitivity to the combinations of spectral and temporal modulation cues may be a strong predictor for aided speech recognition...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Julia Merrill, Marc Bangert, Daniela Sammler, Angela D Friederici
Song and speech represent two auditory categories the brain usually classifies fairly easily. Functionally, this classification ability may depend to a great extent on characteristic features of pitch patterns present in song melody and speech prosody. Anatomically, the temporal lobe (TL) has been discussed as playing a prominent role in the processing of both. Here we tested individuals with congenital amusia and patients with unilateral left and right TL lesions in their ability to categorize song and speech...
October 11, 2016: Neurocase
Sangwon Han, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Hee Kyung Park, Jae Seung Kim
Importance: Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by freezing of gait, handwriting, and speech without abnormal eye movement or cognitive impairment. Several studies have suggested that PAGF may be a variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the characteristics of striatal dopamine transporter loss in PAGF are unknown. Objective: To investigate the subregional pattern of striatal dopamine transporter loss in patients with PAGF in comparison with patients with PSP and those with Parkinson disease (PD)...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
B J Heijnen, R Speyer, B Kertscher, R Cordier, K W J Koetsenruijter, K Swan, H Bogaardt
Introduction. Patients with head and neck cancer suffer from various impairments due to the primary illness, as well as secondary consequences of the oncological treatment. This systematic review describes the effects of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy on the functions of the upper aerodigestive tract in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. All dates up to May 2016 were included...
2016: BioMed Research International
J Baker
In this chapter, an overview of the heterogeneous group of functional voice disorders is given, including the psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and hyperfunctional or muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) subgroups. Reference is made to prevalence and demographic data, with empiric evidence for psychosocial factors commonly associated with the onset and maintenance of these disorders. Clinical features that distinguish between the different presentations of PVD and MTVD are described. While there are some shared characteristics, key differences between these two subgroups indicate that PVD more closely resembles the psychogenic movement disorders and a range of other functional neurologic disorders...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
J R Duffy
Acquired psychogenic or functional speech disorders are a subtype of functional neurologic disorders. They can mimic organic speech disorders and, although any aspect of speech production can be affected, they manifest most often as dysphonia, stuttering, or prosodic abnormalities. This chapter reviews the prevalence of functional speech disorders, the spectrum of their primary clinical characteristics, and the clues that help distinguish them from organic neurologic diseases affecting the sensorimotor networks involved in speech production...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Maya Matheis, Johnny L Matson, Claire O Burns, Xinrui Jiang, W Jason Peters, Michael Moore, Kaitlin A de Back, Jasper Estabillo
PURPOSE: The age of first concern (AOC) of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has substantial implications for early diagnosis and intervention. The current study sought to determine the average AOC, what types of first concerns are most common, and what factors predict earlier AOC in toddlers with ASD. METHODS: This study analyzed the predictive influence of the type of concern, symptom severity, medical diagnoses, and other independent variables on AOC among toddlers with ASD using multiple regressions...
August 11, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Ann W Kummer
Children with craniofacial anomalies often demonstrate disorders of speech and/or resonance. Anomalies that affect speech and resonance are most commonly caused by clefts of the primary palate and secondary palate. This article discusses how speech-language pathologists evaluate the effects of dental and occlusal anomalies on speech production and the effects of velopharyngeal insufficiency on speech sound production and resonance. How to estimate the size of a velopharyngeal opening based on speech characteristics is illustrated...
November 2016: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Carol A Boliek, Cynthia M Fox
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to validate and extend the evaluation of treatment outcomes following LSVT LOUD® in children with dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Seven children (5 females, 6-10 years) with spastic quadriplegia and dysarthria received LSVT LOUD. Outcomes included: (a) quantitative and qualitative indices of communication and social functioning representing therapeutic effects and (b) features of the acoustic signal representing physiological effects on the speech mechanism...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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