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Speech characteristics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156093/functional-and-molecular-outcomes-of-the-human-masticatory-muscles
#1
REVIEW
Gaetano Isola, Giuseppe Anastasi, Giovanni Matarese, Ray C Williams, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Pietro Bracco, Maria Grazia Piancino
The masticatory muscles achieve a broad range of different activities such as chewing, sucking, swallowing and speech. In order to accomplish these duties, masticatory muscles have a unique and heterogeneous structure and fibre composition, enabling them to produce their strength and contraction speed largely dependent on their motor units and myosin proteins that can change in response to genetic and environmental factors. Human masticatory muscles express unique myosin isoforms, including a combination of thick fibers, expressing myosin light chains (MyLC) and myosin class I and II heavy chains (MyHC) -IIA, -IIX, α-cardiac, embryonic and neonatal and thin fibers, respectively...
November 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154509/technology-assisted-rehabilitation-interventions-following-pediatric-brain-injury
#2
Shari L Wade, Megan E Narad, Emily L Shultz, Brad G Kurowski, Aimee E Miley, Jessica M Aguilar, Anna-Lynne R Adlam
INTRODUCTION: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), children experience a variety of physical, motor, speech, and cognitive deficits that can have a long-term detrimental impact. The emergence and popularity of new technologies has led to research into the development of various apps, gaming systems, websites, and robotics that might be applied to rehabilitation. The objective of this narrative review was to describe the current literature technologically-assisted interventions for the rehabilitation of motor, neurocognitive, behavioral, and family impairments following pediatric TBI...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153335/the-acoustic-voice-quality-index-version-03-01-for-the-japanese-speaking-population
#3
Kiyohito Hosokawa, Ben Barsties V Latoszek, Toshihiko Iwahashi, Mio Iwahashi, Shinobu Iwaki, Chieri Kato, Misao Yoshida, Hisanori Sasai, Akira Miyauchi, Naoki Matsushiro, Hidenori Inohara, Makoto Ogawa, Youri Maryn
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the most appropriate syllable number for analyzing the Acoustic Voice Quality Index for the Japanese-speaking population (AVQIv3-JP) and to validate AVQIv3-JP using the determined syllable number. METHODS: First, we counted how many syllables should be included in each continuous speech (CS) sample to achieve time-balanced analysis between CS and sustained vowel samples using our previous dataset including 336 CS samples with 58 syllables...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149697/characteristics-of-motor-speech-phenotypes-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Jan Rusz, Barbora Benova, Hana Ruzickova, Michal Novotny, Tereza Tykalova, Jan Hlavnicka, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Andelova, Klara Novotna, Lucie Kadrnozkova, Dana Horakova
BACKGROUND: Motor speech disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood and their quantitative, objective acoustic characterization remains limited. Additionally, little data regarding relationships between the severity of speech disorders and neurological involvement in MS, as well as the contribution of pyramidal and cerebellar functional systems on speech phenotypes, is available. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 141 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140965/long-term-hearing-preservation-after-resection-of-vestibular-schwannoma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Syed F Ahsan, Farhan Huq, Michael Seidman, Andrew Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the long-term results of hearing preservation after vestibular schwannoma resection. DATA SOURCES: Ovid/Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library from January 1980 to January 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, minimum 10 patients in the treatment group, hearing preserving microsurgery, no previous radiation treatment, serviceable hearing at immediate postop follow-up, hearing outcomes reported using Gardner Robinson or the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgeons hearing grading scales, and average follow-up of 5 years...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135876/effectiveness-of-directional-microphones-in-bilateral-bimodal-cochlear-implant-users-impact-of-spatial-and-temporal-noise-characteristics
#6
Tobias Weissgerber, Tobias Rader, Uwe Baumann
OBJECTIVE: To measure speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in co-located (S0N0) and diffuse noise conditions (multi-source noise field, MSNF) and to assess the impact of beamforming algorithms in MSNF in cochlear implant (CI) users. STUDY DESIGN: Non-randomized, open, prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral cochlear implantation center. PATIENTS: Participants included 14 CI users (7 bimodal, 7 bilateral) and 14 normal hearing young adults...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131743/integration-and-temporal-processing-of-asynchronous-audiovisual-speech
#7
David M Simon, Mark T Wallace
Multisensory integration of visual mouth movements with auditory speech is known to offer substantial perceptual benefits, particularly under challenging (i.e., noisy) acoustic conditions. Previous work characterizing this process has found that ERPs to auditory speech are of shorter latency and smaller magnitude in the presence of visual speech. We sought to determine the dependency of these effects on the temporal relationship between the auditory and visual speech streams using EEG. We found that reductions in ERP latency and suppression of ERP amplitude are maximal when the visual signal precedes the auditory signal by a small interval and that increasing amounts of asynchrony reduce these effects in a continuous manner...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129311/speech-disfluencies-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#8
Kurt Eggers, Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh
PURPOSE: Speech and language development in individuals with Down syndrome is often delayed and/or disordered and speech disfluencies appear to be more common. These disfluencies have been labeled over time as stuttering, cluttering or both. FINDINGS: were usually generated from studies with adults or a mixed age group, quite often using different methodologies, making it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the speech disfluencies of a group, only consisting of children with Down Syndrome between 3 and 13 years of age...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124669/shunt-occlusion-for-portosystemic-shunt-syndrome-related-refractory-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-single-center-experience-in-21-patients-from-kerala
#9
Cyriac Abby Philips, Lijesh Kumar, Philip Augustine
INTRODUCTION: Large spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSS) are seen in a subset of patients with liver disease and medically refractory recurrent/persistent hepatic encephalopathy (MRHE). Shunt occlusion has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, SPSS attributes, procedural features, baseline clinical and investigational parameters, neurological outcomes, adverse effects (procedure and portal hypertension related), and risk factors predicting outcomes in liver disease patients undergoing shunt occlusion procedure for MRHE...
November 10, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121152/diagnostic-accuracy-of-traditional-measures-of-phonological-ability-for-bilingual-preschoolers-and-kindergarteners
#10
Leah Fabiano-Smith, Katherine Hoffman
Purpose: Bilingual children whose phonological skills are evaluated using measures designed for monolingual English speakers are at risk for misdiagnosis of speech sound disorders (De Lamo White & Jin, 2011). Method: Forty-four children participated in this study: 15 typically developing monolingual English speakers, 7 monolingual English speakers with phonological disorders, 14 typically developing bilingual Spanish-English speakers, and 8 bilingual children with phonological disorders...
November 9, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117296/polygenic-risk-of-spasmodic-dysphonia-is-associated-with-vulnerable-sensorimotor-connectivity
#11
Gregory Garbès Putzel, Giovanni Battistella, Anna F Rumbach, Laurie J Ozelius, Mert R Sabuncu, Kristina Simonyan
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is an isolated task-specific dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology that selectively affects speech production. Using next-generation whole-exome sequencing in SD patients, we computed polygenic risk score from 1804 genetic markers based on a genome-wide association study in another form of similar task-specific focal dystonia, musician's dystonia. We further examined the associations between the polygenic risk score, resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities within the sensorimotor network, and SD clinical characteristics...
November 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112533/abo-blood-group-and-cochlear-status-otoacoustic-emission-markers
#12
Welen Weilu Chen, Kin Tsun Chow, Bradley McPherson
OBJECTIVES: There are an increasing number of research studies examining the effects of ABO blood group on susceptibility to disease. However, little is known regarding the potential relationship between blood group and hearing. Higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss was linked to blood group O in several occupational health studies. Based on this finding, a recent study of cochlear status was conducted with normal-hearing female participants representing equal numbers of the four blood groups in the ABO blood group system...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109068/obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-women-study-of-speech-and-craniofacial-characteristics
#13
Marina Tyan, Fernando Espinoza-Cuadros, Rubén Fernández Pozo, Doroteo Toledano, Eduardo Lopez Gonzalo, Jose Daniel Alcazar Ramirez, Luis Alfonso Hernandez Gomez
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by frequent cessation of breathing lasting 10 seconds or longer. The diagnosis of OSA is performed through an expensive procedure, which requires an overnight stay at the hospital. This has led to several proposals based on the analysis of patients' facial images and speech recordings as an attempt to develop simpler and cheaper methods to diagnose OSA. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze possible relationships between OSA and speech and facial features on a female population and whether these possible connections may be affected by the specific clinical characteristics in OSA population and, more specifically, to explore how the connection between OSA and speech and facial features can be affected by gender...
November 6, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099841/arytenoid-cartilage-movements-are-hypokinetic-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-quantitative-dynamic-computerised-tomographic-study
#14
Laura Perju-Dumbrava, Ken Lau, Debbie Phyland, Vicki Papanikolaou, Paul Finlay, Richard Beare, Philip Bardin, Stephen Stuckey, Peter Kempster, Dominic Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND: Voice change is one of the earliest features of Parkinson's disease. However, quantitative studies of vocal fold dynamics which are needed to provide insight into disease biology, aid diagnosis, or track progression, are few. METHODS: We therefore quantified arytenoid cartilage movements and glottic area during repeated phonation in 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (symptom duration < 6 years) and 19 controls, with 320-slice computerised tomography (CT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097379/data-science-in-radiology-a-path-forward
#15
Hugo Jwl Aerts
Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, has the potential to fundamentally alter clinical radiology. AI algorithms, which excel in quantifying complex patterns in data, have shown remarkable progress in applications ranging from self-driving cars to speech recognition. The AI application within radiology, known as radiomics, can provide detailed quantifications of the radiographic characteristics of underlying tissues. This information can be used throughout the clinical care path to improve diagnosis and treatment planning, as well as assess treatment response...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097035/-good-practices-with-tinnitus-in-adult
#16
Christine Le Pajolec, Martine Ohresser, Jérome Nevoux
The interrogation is essential to trace the genesis of the tinnitus and to appreciate its repercussion. Clinical examination should look for a local, vascular or cervical cause. The ENT consultation with audiogram and tinnitus evaluation is essential to know the characteristics of the tinnitus and to consider the treatment. If tinnitus is accompanied by a decrease in hearing, then wearing hearing aids can correct deafness and decrease the tinnitus. The psychological impact of tinnitus must always be taken into account and the use of a multidisciplinary team is an interesting solution...
October 30, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095241/effects-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-vessel-conditions-on-speech-recognition-in-patients-with-postlingual-adult-cochlear-implant-predictable-factors-for-the-efficacy-of-cochlear-implant
#17
Takashi Ishino, Mahmoud Ali Ragaee, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Masato Kajikawa, Yukihito Higashi, Toru Sonoyama, Sachio Takeno, Katsuhiro Hirakawa
OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implantation (CI) has been the most successful procedure for restoring hearing in a patient with severe and profound hearing loss. However, possibly owing to the variable brain functions of each patient, its performance and the associated patient satisfaction are widely variable. The authors hypothesize that peripheral and cerebral circulation can be assessed by noninvasive and globally available methods, yielding superior presurgical predictive factors of the performance of CI in adult patients with postlingual hearing loss who are scheduled to undergo CI...
October 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092595/a-cross-linguistic-study-of-speech-modulation-spectra
#18
Léo Varnet, Maria Clemencia Ortiz-Barajas, Ramón Guevara Erra, Judit Gervain, Christian Lorenzi
Languages show systematic variation in their sound patterns and grammars. Accordingly, they have been classified into typological categories such as stress-timed vs syllable-timed, or Head-Complement (HC) vs Complement-Head (CH). To date, it has remained incompletely understood how these linguistic properties are reflected in the acoustic characteristics of speech in different languages. In the present study, the amplitude-modulation (AM) and frequency-modulation (FM) spectra of 1797 utterances in ten languages were analyzed...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092550/acoustic-speech-analysis-of-patients-with-decompensated-heart-failure-a-pilot-study
#19
Olivia M Murton, Robert E Hillman, Daryush D Mehta, Marc Semigran, Maureen Daher, Thomas Cunningham, Karla Verkouw, Sara Tabtabai, Johannes Steiner, G William Dec, Dennis Ausiello
This pilot study used acoustic speech analysis to monitor patients with heart failure (HF), which is characterized by increased intracardiac filling pressures and peripheral edema. HF-related edema in the vocal folds and lungs is hypothesized to affect phonation and speech respiration. Acoustic measures of vocal perturbation and speech breathing characteristics were computed from sustained vowels and speech passages recorded daily from ten patients with HF undergoing inpatient diuretic treatment. After treatment, patients displayed a higher proportion of automatically identified creaky voice, increased fundamental frequency, and decreased cepstral peak prominence variation, suggesting that speech biomarkers can be early indicators of HF...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091112/speech-profile-of-patients-undergoing-primary-palatoplasty
#20
Katia Ignacio Menegueti, Laura Davison Mangilli, Nivaldo Alonso, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
PURPOSE: To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). METHODS: Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy...
October 26, 2017: CoDAS
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