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Speech characteristics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738138/vocabulary-facilitates-speech-perception-in-children-with-hearing-aids
#1
Kelsey E Klein, Elizabeth A Walker, Benjamin Kirby, Ryan W McCreery
Purpose: We examined the effects of vocabulary, lexical characteristics (age of acquisition and phonotactic probability), and auditory access (aided audibility and daily hearing aid [HA] use) on speech perception skills in children with HAs. Method: Participants included 24 children with HAs and 25 children with normal hearing (NH), ages 5-12 years. Groups were matched on age, expressive and receptive vocabulary, articulation, and nonverbal working memory. Participants repeated monosyllabic words and nonwords in noise...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736897/taking-culture-seriously-can-we-improve-the-developmental-health-and-well-being-of-australian-aboriginal-children-in-out-of-home-care
#2
S Raman, S Ruston, S Irwin, P Tran, P Hotton, S Thorne
BACKGROUND: Children in out-of-home care have well-documented health and developmental needs. Research suggests that Aboriginal children in care have unmet health and intervention needs. In metropolitan Sydney, Kari Aboriginal Resources Inc. (KARI), an Aboriginal organization, provides support to indigenous children in care, including clinical assessment and intervention. We wanted to determine the health and developmental needs of a subset of children in out-of-home care with KARI, who had been in stable care for at least a year...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736116/central-nervous-system-anomalies-in-craniofacial-microsomia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
R W Renkema, C J J M Caron, E B Wolvius, D J Dunaway, C R Forrest, B L Padwa, M J Koudstaal
Extracraniofacial anomalies, including central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, may occur in craniofacial microsomia (CFM). This systematic review was performed to provide an overview of the literature on the prevalence and types of CNS anomalies and developmental disorders in CFM, in order to improve the recognition and possible treatment of these anomalies. A systematic search was conducted and data on the number of patients, patient characteristics, type and prevalence of CNS anomalies or developmental delay, and correlations between CFM and CNS anomalies were extracted...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732259/dravet-syndrome-characteristics-comorbidities-and-caregiver-concerns
#4
Nicole Villas, Mary Anne Meskis, Sue Goodliffe
The Dravet Syndrome Foundation (DSF) conducted the largest in-depth survey of parents and caregivers of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS) to date, in order to (1) identify top concerns among caregivers, (2) establish an approximate frequency of characteristics and comorbidities of DS beyond seizures, and (3) provide direction for clinicians and researchers looking to study the effects of DS on the patient and family unit. Two hundred fifty-six responses were received representing a patient age range of 9months to 32years with a median age group of 7-10years (IQR=8)...
July 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727477/national-survey-describing-and-quantifying-students-with-communication-needs
#5
Natalie R Andzik, John M Schaefer, Robert T Nichols, Yun-Ching Chung
PURPOSE: Research literature has yet to quantify and describe how students with complex communication needs are supported in the classroom and how special educators are being prepared to offer support. This study sought out special educators to complete a survey about their students with complex communication needs. METHOD: Over 4,000 teachers representing 50 states reported on the communicative and behavioral characteristics of 15,643 students. Teachers described the training they have received and instructional approaches they used...
July 20, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723828/social-disparities-in-early-intervention-service-use-and-provider-reported-outcomes
#6
Mary A Khetani, Zachary Richardson, Beth M McManus
OBJECTIVE: To describe social disparities in early intervention (EI) service use and provider-reported outcomes. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of administrative data to ascertain EI service use of all EI and discipline-specific services and child and family characteristics. Adjusted logistic regression models estimated the odds of receiving each type of core EI service. Adjusted median regression models estimated differences in EI intensity for each type of core EI service...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#7
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712601/the-effects-of-uvulopalatal-flap-operation-on-speech-nasalance-and-the-acoustic-parameters-of-the-final-nasal-consonants
#8
Soo Kyoung Park, Yong Soo Lee, Young Ae Kang, Jun Xu, Ki Sang Rha, Yong Min Kim
OBJECTIVE: The acoustic characteristics of voice are determined by the source of the sound and shape of the vocal tract. Various anatomical changes after uvulopalatal flap (UPF) operation can change nasalance and/or other voice characteristics. Our aim was to explore the possible effects of UPF creation on speech nasalance and the resonatory features of the final nasal consonants, and thus voice characteristics. METHODS: A total of 30 patients (26 males, 4 females) with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent UPF operation were recruited...
July 13, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697751/influence-of-functional-dentition-on-satisfaction-with-oral-health-and-impacts-on-daily-performance-among-brazilian-adults-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#9
Loliza Luiz Figueiredo Houri Chalub, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Andréa Maria Duarte Vargas
BACKGROUND: Dental esthetics, chewing and speech should be preserved in a dentition denominated functional and are closely related to satisfaction with oral health (SOH), impacts caused by oral problems and have a possible association with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of different concepts of functional dentition (FD) on both SOH and impacts on daily performance (IDP) among Brazilian adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 9564 adults (35-44 years)...
July 11, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686378/-common-benign-lesions-of-the-vocal-fold-diagnostic-criteria-and-management
#10
Anne-Claude Guinchard, Valérie Schweizer
The vocal cord or vocal fold is a remarkable structure, capable to support significant physical constraints. When the voice malmenage becomes chronic, it may appear an organic alteration causing nodules, polyps or Reinke edema even a lesion of the posterior glottis, the granuloma. These lesions are benign but lead to dysphonia that can be invalidating. Treatment can be a speech therapy with correction of breath and posture and, in some cases, a surgical treatment. In this article, we describe these common lesions with their histological characteristics and pathophysiological hypotheses which lead to their appearance and treatment...
October 5, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684925/the-electrolarynx-voice-restoration-after-total-laryngectomy
#11
REVIEW
Rachel Kaye, Christopher G Tang, Catherine F Sinclair
The ability to speak and communicate with one's voice is a unique human characteristic and is fundamental to many activities of daily living, such as talking on the phone and speaking to loved ones. When the larynx is removed during a total laryngectomy (TL), loss of voice can lead to a devastating decrease in a patient's quality of life, and precipitate significant frustration over their inability to communicate with others effectively. Over the past 50 years there have been many advances in techniques of voice restoration after TL...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679275/an-investigation-of-the-systematic-use-of-spectral-information-in-the-determination-of-apparent-talker-height
#12
Santiago Barreda
The perception of apparent-talker height is mostly determined by the fundamental frequency (f0) and spectral characteristics of a voice. Although it is traditionally thought that spectral cues affect apparent-talker height by influencing apparent vocal-tract length, a recent experiment [Barreda (2016). J. Phon. 55, 1-18] suggests that apparent-talker height can vary significantly within-talker on the basis of phonemically-determined spectral variability. In this experiment, listeners were asked to estimate the height of 10 female talkers based on manipulated natural productions of bVd words containing one of /i æ ɑ u ɝ/...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679252/acoustic-correlates-of-sexual-orientation-and-gender-role-self-concept-in-women-s-speech
#13
Sven Kachel, Adrian P Simpson, Melanie C Steffens
Compared to studies of male speakers, relatively few studies have investigated acoustic correlates of sexual orientation in women. The present investigation focuses on shedding more light on intra-group variability in lesbians and straight women by using a fine-grained analysis of sexual orientation and collecting data on psychological characteristics (e.g., gender-role self-concept). For a large-scale women's sample (overall n = 108), recordings of spontaneous and read speech were analyzed for median fundamental frequency and acoustic vowel space features...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675808/delayed-primary-palatal-closure-in-resource-poor-countries-speech-results-in-ugandan-older-children-and-young-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#14
Laura Bruneel, Anke Luyten, Kim Bettens, Evelien D'haeseleer, Cleo Dhondt, Andrew Hodges, George Galiwango, Hubert Vermeersch, Kristiane Van Lierde
AIMS: Unrepaired clefts still regularly occur in resource-poor countries as a result of limited health-care access. The purpose of the present study was to report resonance, airflow and articulation characteristics following delayed (≥8years) primary palatal closure. METHODS: Fifteen Ugandan participants with cleft (lip and) palate (CP±L) were included as well as 15 age- and gender-matched Ugandan subjects without clefts. Palatal closure was performed at a mean age of 15;10 years using the Sommerlad technique...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675079/cochlear-nerve-aplasia-and-hypoplasia-predictors-of-cochlear-implant-success
#15
Kevin A Peng, Edward C Kuan, Suzannah Hagan, Eric P Wilkinson, Mia E Miller
Objective To identify factors predicting performance outcomes following cochlear implantation in patients with cochlear nerve aplasia or hypoplasia. Data Sources Individual patient data extracted from published case series and reports. Review Methods The MEDLINE database, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were queried for "cochlear implant" in conjunction with "aplasia" or "hypoplasia" between 1985 and 2015. Eighteen studies were included describing 97 subjects with individual postimplant auditory data...
July 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674020/brain-regions-and-functional-interactions-supporting-early-word-recognition-in-the-face-of-input-variability
#16
Silvia Benavides-Varela, Roma Siugzdaite, David Maximiliano Gómez, Francesco Macagno, Luigi Cattarossi, Jacques Mehler
Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies' memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion similar to everyday learning situations-namely, in the presence of interfering stimuli. To address this question, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to test 40 healthy newborns on their ability to encode words presented in concomitance with other words...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666804/cardiovascular-responses-associated-with-the-moving-beans-task-influence-of-psychological-characteristics
#17
Kazuaki Iokawa, Masanori Munakata, Tomomi Hattori, Shuko Saiki, Toshimasa Sone, Masahiro Kohzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. However, exercise training or speech therapy for patients with stroke can raise the BP. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular responses during the moving beans task (MBT) used in occupational therapy and to study the influence of psychological characteristics on cardiovascular responses during this task in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 34 healthy volunteers, the BP and the heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the baseline period, the 5-minute MBT, and the 1-minute cold pressor test (CPT)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661176/can-the-first-letter-advantage-be-shaped-by-script-specific-characteristics
#18
Heather Winskel, Theeraporn Ratitamkul, Manuel Perea
We examined whether the first letter advantage that has been reported in the Roman script disappears, or even reverses, depending on the characteristics of the orthography. We chose Thai because it has several "nonaligned" vowels that are written prior to the consonant but phonologically follow it in speech (e.g., แฟน <ε:fn> is spoken as /fɛ:n/) whereas other "aligned" vowels are written and spoken in a corresponding order, as occurs in English (e.g., ฟาก <fa:k> is spoken as /fa:k/)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661081/centre-level-variation-in-treatment-and-outcomes-and-predictors-of-outcomes-in-5-year-old-children-with-non-syndromic-unilateral-cleft-lip-treated-within-a-centralized-service-the-cleft-care-uk-study-part-6-summary-and-implications
#19
A R Ness, A K Wills, O Mahmoud, A Hall, D Sell, J Smallridge, L Southby, D Stokes, S Toms, A Waylen, Y Wren, J R Sandy
OBJECTIVES: To summarize and discuss centre-level variation across a range of treatment and outcome measures and examine individual and ecological determinants of outcome in children in Cleft Care UK (CCUK). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Two hundred and sixty-eight 5-year-old British children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) recruited to CCUK and treated within a centralized service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children had a range of treatment and outcome measures collected at a 5-year audit clinic...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655064/range-and-precision-of-formant-movement-in-pediatric-dysarthria
#20
Kristen M Allison, Lucas Annear, Marisa Policcicio, Katherine C Hustad
Purpose: This study aimed to improve understanding of speech characteristics associated with dysarthria in children with cerebral palsy by analyzing segmental and global formant measures in single-word and sentence contexts. Method: Ten 5-year-old children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria and 10 age-matched, typically developing children participated in this study. Vowel space area and second formant interquartile range were measured from children's elicited productions of single words and sentences...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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