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Population-based study

Christina Carlander, Gaetano Marrone, Johanna Brännström, Aylin Yilmaz, Kristina Elfgren, Pär Sparén, Anders Sönnerborg
OBJECTIVES: To analyze if the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV among (1) all women in Sweden and (2) migrant women, diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) reaches the threshold of 0.1%, which has been suggested cost-effective for HIV-testing. DESIGN: Population-based register study. SETTING: Counties of Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden, 1990-2014. POPULATION: All women, born between 1940 and 1990, with at least one cervical cytology or histology registered in the Swedish National Cervical Screening Register (NKCx)...
February 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
L Kibsgaard, M Rasmussen, A Lamberg, M Deleuran, A B Olesen, C Vestergaard
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a disease of the elderly, and may be associated to neurological, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Mortality rates strongly exceed that of the background population. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the frequency of comorbidities and their temporal relation to BP. METHODS: A register-based matched cohort study on all Danish patients with a hospital-based diagnosis of BP (n = 3,281). Main outcomes were MS, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke (ST), diabetes (DM I and II), malignancies (MAL), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertension (HYP) and eventually death...
February 24, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Carmen Dingemann, Janine Dietrich, Jan Zeidler, Jochen Blaser, Jan Hendrik Gosemann, Martin Lacher, Benno Ure
Introduction We aimed to analyze for the first time the characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes in infants with congenital abdominal wall defects (CAWDs) in Germany and to compare the results with current literature reports. Patients and Methods Data of a health insurance covering approximately 10% of the German population were analyzed. Patients who had undergone CAWD closure during a period of nearly 6 years were included. Surgical approach was categorized into primary versus secondary closure...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Cory M Vela, Todd C Knepper, Nancy K Gillis, Christine M Walko, Howard L McLeod, J Kevin Hicks
INTRODUCTION: Moffitt Cancer Center's Personalized Medicine Clinical Service (PMCS) reviews somatic next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay results, provides interpretations, and identifies potential therapeutic options. The number of individuals reviewed by our clinical service who are eligible for on-label or off-label drug therapy based on genetic test results has previously not been quantitated. Herein, we determined the number of patients harboring an actionable mutation that would qualify a patient for an on-label drug or consideration for off-label drug treatment...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
Francesco Ria, Joshua Mark Wilson, Yakun Zhang, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: Modern CT systems adjust x-ray flux accommodating for patient size to achieve certain image noise values. The effectiveness of this adaptation is an important aspect of CT performance and should ideally be characterized in the context of real patient cases. The objective of this study was to characterize CT performance with a new metric that includes image noise and radiation dose across a clinical patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1526 examinations performed by three CT scanners (one GE Healthcare Discovery CT750HD, one GE Healthcare Lightspeed VCT, and one Siemens SOMATOM definition Flash) used for two routine clinical protocols (abdominopelvic with contrast and chest without contrast)...
February 24, 2017: Medical Physics
Núria Farré, Emili Vela, Montse Clèries, Montse Bustins, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Cristina Enjuanes, Pedro Moliner, Sonia Ruiz, José María Verdú-Rotellar, Josep Comín-Colet
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is frequent and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features of HF patients, the 1-year follow-up outcomes and the independent predictors of those outcomes at a population level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Population-based longitudinal study including all prevalent HF cases in Catalonia (Spain) on December 31st, 2012. Patients were divided in 3 groups: patients without a previous HF hospitalization, patients with a remote (>1 year) HF hospitalization and patients with a recent (<1 year) HF admission...
2017: PloS One
Sarah M Dry, Sarah B Garrett, Barbara A Koenig, Arleen F Brown, Michael M Burgess, Jen R Hult, Holly Longstaff, Elizabeth S Wilcox, Sigrid Karina Madrigal Contreras, Arturo Martinez, Elizabeth A Boyd, Daniel Dohan
United States-based biorepositories are on the cusp of substantial change in regulatory oversight at the same time that they are increasingly including samples and data from large populations, e.g. all patients in healthcare system. It is appropriate to engage stakeholders from these populations in new governance arrangements. We sought to describe community recommendations for biorepository governance and oversight using deliberative community engagement (DCE), a qualitative research method designed to elicit lay perspectives on complex technical issues...
2017: PloS One
Matthew Smuck, Christy Tomkins-Lane, Ma Agnes Ith, Renata Jarosz, Ming-Chih Jeffrey Kao
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of physical performance in individuals with musculoskeletal pain is essential. Accelerometry is a powerful tool for this purpose, yet the current methods designed to evaluate energy expenditure are not optimized for this population. The goal of this study is to empirically derive a method of accelerometry analysis specifically for musculoskeletal pain populations. METHODS: We extracted data from 6,796 participants in the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) including: 7-day accelerometry, health and pain questionnaires, and anthropomorphics...
2017: PloS One
Sergio A Balaguera-Reina, Ariel S Espinosa-Blanco, Mónica A Morales-Betancourt, Andrés E Seijas, Carlos A Lasso, Rafael Antelo, Llewellyn D Densmore
Conservation of large predator species has historically been a challenge because they often overlap in resource utilization with humans; furthermore, there is a general lack of in-depth knowledge of their ecology and natural history. We assessed the conservation status of the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius), defining regional habitat priorities/crocodile conservation units (RHP/CCU) and regional research priorities (RRP) for this species. We also estimated a species distribution model (SDM) to define current suitable areas where the species might inhabit and/or that might be successfully colonized...
2017: PloS One
Tsuguhiko Kato, Takashi Yorifuji, Michiyo Yamakawa, Sachiko Inoue, Hiroyuki Doi, Akira Eboshida, Ichiro Kawachi
Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children's health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554)...
2017: PloS One
Learnmore Mwadzingeni, Hussein Shimelis, D Jasper G Rees, Toi J Tsilo
This study determined the population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association of agronomic traits of wheat for drought-tolerance breeding. Ninety-three diverse bread wheat genotypes were genotyped using the Diversity Arrays Technology sequencing (DArTseq) protocol. The number of days-to-heading (DTH), number of days-to-maturity (DTM), plant height (PHT), spike length (SPL), number of kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GYLD), assessed under drought-stressed and non-stressed conditions, were considered for the study...
2017: PloS One
Jorge Ruiz-Medrano, José M Ruiz-Moreno, Abhilash Goud, Kiran Kumar Vupparaboina, Soumya Jana, Jay Chhablani
PURPOSE: To analyze the vascular density of the choroid in a healthy population using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: A cross-sectional, noninterventional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: best-corrected visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/25, spherical equivalent between ±3 diopters, no systemic or ocular diseases, and ages ranging between 3 and 85 years. One hundred and thirty-six eyes from 136 subjects were analyzed, 86 eyes (63...
February 23, 2017: Retina
Irina Bancos, Wiebke Arlt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal masses are highly prevalent, found in 5% of the population. Differentiation of benign adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma is currently hampered by the poor specificity and limited evidence base of imaging tests. This review summarizes the results of studies published to date on urine steroid metabolite profiling for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. RECENT FINDINGS: Three studies have described cohorts of at least 100 patients with adrenal tumors showing significant differences between urinary steroid metabolite excretions according to the nature of the underlying lesion, suggesting significant value of steroid metabolite profiling as a highly accurate diagnostic test...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Garry M Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The development of monoclonal antibody-based biologics targeted at inhibition of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 represent potentially effective treatments for asthma and allergic diseases. This short review is based on English-language original articles in PubMed or MedLine that reported significant clinical findings on the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness or otherwise of the targeting of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 or interleukin-13 in asthma or allergic disease...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Priyanka Nandakumar, Dongwon Lee, Melissa A Richard, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Bamidele O Tayo, Erin Ware, Yun J Sung, Babatunde Salako, Adesola Ogunniyi, C Charles Gu, Megan L Grove, Myriam Fornage, Sharon Kardia, Charles Rotima, Richard S Cooper, Alanna C Morrison, Georg Ehret, Aravinda Chakravarti
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a major risk factor for all cardiovascular diseases, especially among African Americans. This study focuses on identifying specific blood pressure (BP) genes using 15 914 individuals of African ancestry from eight cohorts (Africa America Diabetes Mellitus, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in young Adults, Genetics Network, Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy, Howard University Family Study, Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network, and Loyola University Chicago Cohort) to further genetic findings in this population which has generally been underrepresented in BP studies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Barbara Ohlenforst, Adriana A Zekveld, Elise P Jansma, Yang Wang, Graham Naylor, Artur Lorens, Thomas Lunner, Sophia E Kramer
OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review of available evidence on the effect of hearing impairment and hearing aid amplification on listening effort. Two research questions were addressed: Q1) does hearing impairment affect listening effort? and Q2) can hearing aid amplification affect listening effort during speech comprehension? DESIGN: English language articles were identified through systematic searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO from inception to August 2014...
February 23, 2017: Ear and Hearing
Emiliano Bissio, Maria G Barbás, Silvia Kademián, Maria B Bouzas, Horacio Salomón, Analia Cudolá, Silvina Fernández Giuliano, Carlos Falistocco
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine-based regimens are now preferred or alternative first-line regimens according to many HIV treatment guidelines. Recently, a surveillance study conducted in our country determined that prevalence of pretreatment resistance to first-generation NNRTIs was 10%. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of resistance mutations to newer generation NNRTIs in the population starting ART in Argentina. METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of resistance mutations to rilpivirine and etravirine (according to the IAS list), obtained through a nationally representative pretreatment HIV-drug resistance (PDR) surveillance study performed in Argentina in 2014-2015...
February 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Jidong Peng, Weiqiang Wang, Daohui Zeng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Effective treatment of Uterus Cervical Carcinoma (UCC) rely heavily on the precise pre-surgical staging. The conventional International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system based on clinical examination is being applied worldwide for UCC staging. Yet its performance just appears passable. Thus, this study aims to investigate the value of applying Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with clinical examination in staging of UCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective dataset involving 164 patients diagnosed with UCC was enrolled in this study...
February 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Sulaiman Nanji, William J Mackillop, Xuejiao Wei, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (LM) is gaining interest. We describe management and outcomes of patients undergoing simultaneous resection in the general population. METHODS: All patients with CRC who underwent surgical resection of LM between 2002 and 2009 were identified using the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry and linked electronic treatment records. Synchronous disease was defined as having resection of CRCLM within 12 weeks of surgery for the primary tumour...
February 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Ronald G Amedee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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