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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346791/social-and-behavioural-determinants-of-the-difference-in-survival-among-older-adults-in-japan-and-england
#1
Jun Aida, Noriko Cable, Paola Zaninotto, Toru Tsuboya, Georgios Tsakos, Yusuke Matsuyama, Kanade Ito, Ken Osaka, Katsunori Kondo, Michael G Marmot, Richard G Watt
BACKGROUND: A rapidly ageing population presents major challenges to health and social care services. Cross-country comparative studies on survival among older adults are limited. In addition, Japan, the country with the longest life expectancy, is rarely included in these cross-country comparisons. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relative contributions of social and behavioural factors on the differences in survival among older people in Japan and England. METHODS: We used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES; n = 13,176) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n = 5,551) to analyse all-cause mortality up to 9...
January 18, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346738/first-record-of-leucocytozoon-haemosporida-leucocytozoidae-in-amazonia-evidence-for-rarity-in-neotropical-lowlands-or-lack-of-sampling-for-this-parasite-genus
#2
Alan Fecchio, Patricia Silveira, Jason Weckstein, Janice Dispoto, Marina Anciães, Mariane Bosholn, Vasyl Tkach, Jeffrey Bell
Birds harbor an astonishing diversity of haemosporidian parasites belonging to the genera Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Plasmodium. Currently there are over 250 morphologically described avian haemosporidian species and 2828 unique lineages infecting virtually all avian clades and zoogeographic regions, except for Antarctica. Our report is based on PCR and microscopic screening of 1302 individual avian samples from Brazil to detect the underrepresented genus Leucocytozoon. This survey primarily focuses on passerine birds collected from Amazonia, Atlantic Rain Forest, and Pantanal...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346679/risk-stratification-in-takotsubo-syndrome-a-role-of-mitral-annular-plane-systolic-excursion
#3
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Uzair Ansari, Siegfried Lang, Christian Fastner, Xiaobo Zhou, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
Aims: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients have a higher mortality rate than the general population. Our study was conducted to determine the short- and long-term outcome of TTS patients associated with a significantly compromised mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) on hospital admission. Methods and results: Our institutional database constituted a collective of 53 patients diagnosed with TTS between 2003 and 2016. The patients were classified into two groups based on the MAPSE, with those presenting with a MAPSE <1 cm on admission categorized into one group (n = 20, 38%) and those presenting with MAPSE ≥1 cm (n = 33, 62%) categorized into another group...
January 15, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346678/case-study-of-an-adaptation-and-implementation-of-a-diabetes-prevention-program-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness
#4
Maria M Quiñones, Judy Lombard-Newell, Daryl Sharp, Valerie Way, Wendi Cross
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is an evidence-based lifestyle intervention developed to decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and promote weight loss in individuals at risk for diabetes. Individuals with serious mental illness have a greater risk for developing diabetes compared with the general population. In this article, the authors provide a detailed description of the adaptation process of the DPP for individuals with serious mental illness (DPP-SMI). The adaptation process was based on a cultural adaptation framework for modifying evidence-based interventions...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346644/genome-wide-analysis-of-disease-progression-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#5
Qi Yan, Ying Ding, Yi Liu, Tao Sun, Lars G Fritsche, Traci Clemons, Rinki Ratnapriya, Michael L Klein, Richard J Cook, Yu Liu, Ruzong Fan, Lai Wei, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Anand Swaroop, Emily Y Chew, Daniel E Weeks, Wei Chen
Family- and population-based genetic studies have successfully identified multiple disease-susceptibility loci for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), one of the first batch and most successful examples of genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, most genetic studies to date have focused on case-control studies of late AMD (choroidal neovascularization [CNV] or geographic atrophy [GA]). The genetic influences on disease progression are largely unexplored. We assembled unique resources to perform a genome-wide bivariate time-to-event analysis to test for association of time-to-late-AMD with ∼9 million variants on 2,721 Caucasians from a large multi-center randomized clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study...
January 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346606/characteristics-of-cases-with-repeated-sexually-transmitted-infections-massachusetts-2014-2016
#6
Katherine K Hsu, Lauren E Molotnikov, Kathleen A Roosevelt, Heather R Elder, R Monina Klevens, Alfred DeMaria, Sevgi O Aral
Background: Persons with prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at high risk for re-infection. No recent studies have examined the frequency with which persons within a geographic area are diagnosed and reported with multiple bacterial STIs over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study of confirmed syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infections reported to the Massachusetts state surveillance system within a two-year period, July 28, 2014 - July 27, 2016...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346526/what-is-the-impact-of-physical-activity-and-physical-function-on-the-development-of-multimorbidity-in-older-adults-over-time-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Aine Ryan, Catriona Murphy, Fiona Boland, Rose Galvin, Susan M Smith
Background: Multimorbidity is recognised internationally as having a serious impact on health outcomes. It is associated with reduced quality of life, increased healthcare utilisation and future functional decline. Physical activity is associated with good health and psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of physical activity and physical function on the development and worsening of multimorbidity over time. Methods: Using The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), we analysed 4,823 participants >50 years with and without multimorbidity...
January 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346518/determinants-of-health-trajectories-in-england-and-the-us-an-approach-to-identify-different-patterns-of-healthy-aging
#8
Javier de la Fuente, Francisco Félix Caballero, Albert Sánchez-Niubó, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Matthew A Prina, Holger Arndt, Josep Maria Haro, Somnath Chatterji, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Background: Aging is a multidimensional process with a remarkable inter-individual variability. This study is focused on identifying groups of population with similar aging patterns, and to define the health trajectories of these groups. Socio-demographic and health determinants of these trajectories are also identified. Methods: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. A set of self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a latent health metric by means of a Bayesian multilevel IRT model, assessing the ability of the metric to predict mortality...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346515/a-brain-based-pain-facilitation-mechanism-contributes-to-painful-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#9
Andrew R Segerdahl, Andreas C Themistocleous, Dean Fido, David L Bennett, Irene Tracey
The descending pain modulatory system represents one of the oldest and most fundamentally important neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to pain. Extensive work in animals and humans has shown how a functional imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory components is linked to exacerbation and maintenance of persistent pain states. Forward translation of these findings into clinical populations is needed to verify the relevance of this imbalance. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic pain; however, the reason why ∼25-30% of patients with diabetes develop pain is not known...
January 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346506/small-and-surrounded-population-size-and-land-use-intensity-interact-to-determine-reliance-on-autonomous-selfing-in-a-monocarpic-plant
#10
Rachel B Spigler
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation has transformed landscapes globally, leaving remnants embedded within a complex matrix that is rapidly becoming more developed. For many plant populations, the associated factors of decreased size and intensification of land use surrounding them are expected to increase pollen limitation ('PL'), unless autonomous self-pollination provides reproductive assurance ('RA'). Decreased pollinator visitation is often assumed to drive these patterns, but other, less studied mechanisms might include increased heterospecific pollen transfer or decreased conspecific pollen availability via florivory...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346494/novel-myopia-genes-and-pathways-identified-from-syndromic-forms-of-myopia
#11
D Ian Flitcroft, James Loughman, Christine F Wildsoet, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that genes known to cause clinical syndromes featuring myopia also harbor polymorphisms contributing to nonsyndromic refractive errors. Methods: Clinical phenotypes and syndromes that have refractive errors as a recognized feature were identified using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. One hundred fifty-four unique causative genes were identified, of which 119 were specifically linked with myopia and 114 represented syndromic myopia (i...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346471/use-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-mammographic-density-plus-classic-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer-risk-prediction
#12
Elke M van Veen, Adam R Brentnall, Helen Byers, Elaine F Harkness, Susan M Astley, Sarah Sampson, Anthony Howell, William G Newman, Jack Cuzick, D Gareth R Evans
Importance: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have demonstrated an association with breast cancer susceptibility, but there is limited evidence on how to incorporate them into current breast cancer risk prediction models. Objective: To determine whether a panel of 18 SNPs (SNP18) may be used to predict breast cancer in combination with classic risk factors and mammographic density. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study enrolled a subcohort of 9363 women, aged 46 to 73 years, without a previous breast cancer diagnosis from the larger prospective cohort of the PROCAS study (Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening) specifically to evaluate breast cancer risk-assessment methods...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346467/modification-of-the-associations-between-duration-of-oral-contraceptive-use-and-ovarian-endometrial-breast-and-colorectal-cancers
#13
Kara A Michels, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert
Importance: Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. Objective: To determine whether associations between duration of OC use and risk of specific cancers were modified by lifestyle characteristics...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346408/long-lasting-insecticidal-bed-nets-ownership-access-and-use-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting-before-and-after-a-mass-distribution-campaign-in-uganda
#14
Humphrey Wanzira, Thomas Eganyu, Ronald Mulebeke, Fred Bukenya, Dorothy Echodu, Yeka Adoke
INTRODUCTION: Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. METHODS: Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346387/inferring-the-risk-factors-behind-the-geographical-spread-and-transmission-of-zika-in-the-americas
#15
Lauren M Gardner, András Bóta, Karthik Gangavarapu, Moritz U G Kraemer, Nathan D Grubaugh
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented Zika virus epidemic occurred in the Americas during 2015-2016. The size of the epidemic in conjunction with newly recognized health risks associated with the virus attracted significant attention across the research community. Our study complements several recent studies which have mapped epidemiological elements of Zika, by introducing a newly proposed methodology to simultaneously estimate the contribution of various risk factors for geographic spread resulting in local transmission and to compute the risk of spread (or re-introductions) between each pair of regions...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346375/how-do-we-reach-the-girls-and-women-who-are-the-hardest-to-reach-inequitable-opportunities-in-reproductive-and-maternal-health-care-services-in-armed-conflict-and-forced-displacement-settings-in-colombia
#16
Juan Carlos Rivillas, Raul Devia Rodriguez, Gloria Song, Andréanne Martel
OBJECTIVES: This paper assesses inequalities in access to reproductive and maternal health services among females affected by forced displacement and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict settings in Colombia. This was accomplished through the following approaches: first, we assessed the gaps and gradients in three selected reproductive and maternal health care services. Second, we analyzed the patterns of inequalities in reproductive and maternal health care services and changes over time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346210/significance-errors-power-and-sample-size-the-blocking-and-tackling-of-statistics
#17
Edward J Mascha, Thomas R Vetter
Inferential statistics relies heavily on the central limit theorem and the related law of large numbers. According to the central limit theorem, regardless of the distribution of the source population, a sample estimate of that population will have a normal distribution, but only if the sample is large enough. The related law of large numbers holds that the central limit theorem is valid as random samples become large enough, usually defined as an n ≥ 30. In research-related hypothesis testing, the term "statistically significant" is used to describe when an observed difference or association has met a certain threshold...
February 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346146/use-of-oxidized-regenerated-cellulose-collagen-matrix-in-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-systematic-review
#18
Gisele Chicone, Viviane Fernandes de Carvalho, André Oliveira Paggiaro
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic wounds that do not heal completely usually exhibit inflammatory markers, increased protease activity, and reduced levels of growth factors and cell count. A systematic review was performed to determine whether there is enough evidence to support the use of an oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen matrix (ORC+C) to treat diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). METHODS: Study authors analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on ORC+C dressings for the treatment of DFUs...
February 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346063/linking-data-from-health-surveys-and-electronic-health-records-a-demonstration-project-in-two-chicago-health-center-clinics
#19
Fikirte Wagaw, Catherine A Okoro, Sunkyung Kim, Jessica Park, Fred Rachman
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring and understanding population health requires conducting health-related surveys and surveillance. The objective of our study was to assess whether data from self-administered surveys could be collected electronically from patients in urban, primary-care, safety-net clinics and subsequently linked and compared with the same patients' electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS: Data from self-administered surveys were collected electronically from a convenience sample of 527 patients at 2 Chicago health centers from September through November, 2014...
January 18, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345949/surface-state-dynamics-dictating-transport-in-inas-nanowires
#20
David Lynall, Selvakumar V Nair, David Gutstein, Alexander Shik, Igor Savelyev, Marina Blumin, Harry E Ruda
Because of their high aspect ratio, nanostructures are particularly susceptible to effects from surfaces such as slow electron trapping by surface states. However, non-equilibrium trapping dynamics have been largely overlooked when considering transport in nanoelectronic devices. In this study, we demonstrate the profound influence of dynamic trapping processes on transport in InAs nanowires through an investigation of the hysteretic and time-dependent behaviour of the transconductance. We observe large densities (∽1013 cm-2) of slow surface traps and demonstrate the ability to control and permanently fix their occupation and charge through electrostatic manipulation by the gate potential followed by thermal deactivation by cryogenic cooling...
January 18, 2018: Nano Letters
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