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Population-based study

Manolis Kogevinas, Ana Espinosa, Adela Castelló, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Marcela Guevara, Vicente Martin, Pilar Amiano, Juan Alguacil, Rosana Peiro, Victor Moreno, Laura Costas, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Jose Juan Jimenez, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Beatriz Perez-Gomez, Javier Llorca, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Tania Fernández-Villa, Madalen Oribe, Nuria Aragones, Kyriaki Papantoniou, Marina Pollán, Gemma Castano-Vinyals, Dora Romaguera
Modern life involves mistimed sleeping and eating patterns that in experimental studies are associated with adverse health effects. We assessed whether timing of meals is associated with breast and prostate cancer risk taking into account lifestyle and chronotype, a characteristic correlating with preference for morning or evening activity. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Spain, 2008-2013. In this analysis we included 621 cases of prostate and 1,205 of breast cancer and 872 male and 1,321 female population controls who had never worked night shift...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
José Rivera-Chávez, Tamam El-Elimat, Jacklyn M Gallagher, Tyler N Graf, Jacques Fournier, Gati K Panigrahi, Gagan Deep, Rick L Bunch, Huzefa A Raja, Nicholas H Oberlies
In research focused on the discovery of new chemical diversity from freshwater fungi, a peak library was built and evaluated against a prostate cancer cell line, E006AA-hT, which was derived from an African American, as this population is disproportionately affected by prostate cancer. The chemical study of the bioactive sample accessioned as G858 ( Delitschia sp.) led to the isolation of eight new α -pyrone derivatives (1:  - 7: , and 11: ), as well as the new 3 S* ,4 S* -7-ethyl-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1( 2H )-one (15: )...
July 17, 2018: Planta Medica
Deana J Hussamy, Christina L Herrera, Diane M Twickler, Donald D Mcintire, Jodi S Dashe
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factor prevalence in pregnancies with fetal Down syndrome, in an effort to characterize efficacy of population-based screening. STUDY DESIGN:  Retrospective review of singleton pregnancies with delivery of live born or stillborn infant with Down syndrome from 2009 through 2015. Risk factor categories included maternal age ≥35 years, abnormal serum screening, identification of ≥1 ultrasound marker at 16 to 22 weeks (nuchal thickness ≥6 mm, echogenic intracardiac focus, echogenic bowel, renal pelvis dilatation, femur length <third percentile), and detection of a major fetal anomaly...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Hiroko Iwami, Tetsuya Isayama, Abhay Lodha, Rody Canning, Ayman Abou Mehrem, Shoo K Lee, Anne Synnes, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between neonatal seizure and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 24 months in extremely preterm neonates. The association between anticonvulsants use and NDI was also assessed. STUDY DESIGN:  In this retrospective cohort study of infants born at <29 weeks' gestation from the Canadian Neonatal Network and Canadian Neonatal Follow-Up Network databases, we compared mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants who had neonatal seizures with those without seizures after adjusting for confounders...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Lea Katalinic, Branimir Krtalic, Bojan Jelakovic, Nikolina Basic-Jukic
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is a growing body of evidence that the long-term hemodialysis (HD) treatment leads to disturbances of carnitine homeostasis but the results of L-carnitine supplementation in HD patients have been conflicting. In the present prospective study, we investigated the effectiveness of intravenous L-carnitine in mitigating dialysis-related protein-energy wasting (PEW) based on pre-treatment albumin levels. METHODS: Fifty patients (46% male, mean age 63±18...
July 17, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Ylva Almquist, Can Liu, Bo Vinnerljung, Anders Hjern
The objective of this study is to examine the intergenerational transmission of out-of-home care. This population-based study used data from the Swedish National Registers and included all children born in Sweden between 1990 and 2012 (followed for up to 13 years), whose parents were both born in Sweden between 1973 and 1980 (278 327 children; 145 935 mothers; 146 896 fathers). Cox regression models are used to obtain crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of OHC placement among children based on parents' history of OHC...
July 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Christian Lopez, Scott Tucker, Tarik Salameh, Conrad Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Many chronic disorders have genomic etiology, disease progression, clinical presentation, and response to treatment that vary on a patient-to-patient basis. Such variability creates a need to identify characteristics within patient populations that have clinically relevant predictive value in order to advance personalized medicine. Unsupervised machine learning methods are suitable to address this type of problem, in which no a priori class label information is available to guide this search...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Juan Ignacio Leal, Soraya Villaseca, Andrea Beyer, Gabriela Toro-Tapia, Marcela Torrejón
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population that migrates extensively during development. Ric-8A, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for different Gα subunits regulates cranial NC (CNC) cell migration in Xenopus through a mechanism that still remains to be elucidated. To properly migrate, CNC cells establish an axis of polarization and undergo morphological changes to generate protrusions at the leading edge and retraction of the cell rear. Here, we aim to study the role of Ric-8A in cell polarity during CNC cell migration by examining whether its signaling affects the localization of GTPase activity in Xenopus CNC using GTPase-based probes in live cells and aPKC and Par3 as polarity markers...
July 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Tamara Villaverde, Lisa Pokorny, Sanna Olsson, Mario Rincón-Barrado, Matthew G Johnson, Elliot M Gardner, Norman J Wickett, Julià Molero, Ricarda Riina, Isabel Sanmartín
Reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at the micro- and macroevoutionary levels within the same tree is problematic because of the need to use different data types and analytical frameworks. We test the power of target enrichment to provide phylogenetic resolution based on DNA sequences from above species to within populations, using a large herbarium sampling and Euphorbia balsamifera (Euphorbiaceae) as a case study. Target enrichment with custom probes was combined with genome skimming (Hyb-Seq) to sequence 431 low-copy nuclear genes and partial plastome DNA...
July 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Q Sue Huang, Don Bandaranayake, Tim Wood, E Claire Newbern, Ruth Seeds, Jacqui Ralston, Ben Waite, Ange Bissielo, Namrata Prasad, Angela Todd, Lauren Jelley, Wendy Gunn, Anne McNicholas, Thomas Metz, Shirley Lawrence, Emma Collis, Amanda Retter, Sook-San Wong, Richard Webby, Judy Bocacao, Jennifer Haubrock, Graham Mackereth, Nikki Turner, Barbara McArdle, John Cameron, Gary Reynolds, Michael G Baker, Cameron C Grant, Colin McArthur, Sally Roberts, Adrian Trenholme, Conroy Wong, Susan Taylor, Paul Thomas, Jazmin Duque, Diane Gross, Mark G Thompson, Marc-Alain Widdowson
Background: Understanding the attack rate of influenza infection and the proportion who become ill by risk group is key to implementing prevention measures. While population-based studies of anti-haemagglutinin antibody responses have been described previously, studies examining both anti-haemagglutinin and anti-neuraminidase antibodies are lacking. Methods: In 2015, we conducted a sero-epidemiologic cohort study of individuals randomly selected from a population in New Zealand...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elise M Philips, Linda G Kahn, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Yongzhao Shao, Alexandros G Asimakopoulos, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Eric A P Steegers, Leonardo Trasande
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to synthetic chemicals such as bisphenols and phthalates can influence fecundability. The current study describes associations of first trimester urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), BPA analogues and phthalate metabolites with time to pregnancy (TTP). Methods: Among 877 participants in the population-based Generation R pregnancy cohort, we measured first trimester urinary concentrations of bisphenols and phthalates (median gestational age 12...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
F Fabregues, I González-Foruria, J Peñarrubia, F Carmona
STUDY QUESTION: Is the length of the anogenital distance (AGD) a biomarker of ovarian reserve and response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Shorter AGD is associated with presence of poor ovarian response. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Organ development during prenatal life is influenced by the prevailing intrauterine environment, and it has been suggested that nutritional, environmental and toxic factors could affect ovarian reserve set prenatally...
July 16, 2018: Human Reproduction
N Bennaghmouch, A J W M de Veer, B K Mahmoodi, M Jofre-Bonet, G Y H Lip, K Bode, J M Ten Berg
Aims: Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have consistently demonstrated superior efficacy in terms of stroke prevention and safety in terms of bleeding over vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The potential use of NOACs in AF patients requiring anti-platelet therapy has only been assessed in small meta-analyses reporting consistent benefits of NOACs over VKAs. However, the prescription costs of NOACs are higher than those of VKAs. The aim of his study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of NOACs compared to VKAs in patients with non-valvular AF also requiring anti-platelet therapy with the Dutch healthcare system used as a surrogate of many European healthcare systems...
July 16, 2018: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
Mohammed Feyisso Shaka, Yohannes Addisu Wondimagegne
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by rapid growth and development and iron requirements increase during this time. Adolescents with poor diet in early childhood and/or females with an early onset of menarche may be at greater risk for developing anemia due to the rapid depletion of iron stores in their bodies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of anemia among school adolescents in Wonago district, Gedeo Zone, South Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
Nubwa Medugu, Kenneth Iregbu, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Stephen Obaro
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes invasive infections in neonates and has been implicated as a cause of prelabour rupture of membranes, preterm delivery and stillbirths. The success of phase II trials of polyvalent polysaccharide GBS vaccines indicates that these infections are potentially preventable. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with one of the highest birth rates, one of the highest neonatal sepsis incidence rates and one of the highest mortality rates in the world...
2018: PloS One
Dominika A Kalkowska, Gert Jan Boender, Lidwien A M Smit, Christos Baliatsas, Joris Yzermans, Dick J J Heederik, Thomas J Hagenaars
In a recent study of electronic health records (EHR) of general practitioners in a livestock-dense area in The Netherlands in 2009, associations were found between residential distance to poultry farms and the occurrence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In addition, in a recent cross-sectional study in 2494 adults in 2014/2015 an association between CAP and proximity to goat farms was observed. Here, we extended the 2009 EHR analyses across a wider period of time (2009-2013), a wider set of health effects, and a wider set of farm types as potential risk sources...
2018: PloS One
Misuzu Tajiri, Yutaro Suzuki, Takuro Sugai, Nobuto Tsuneyama, Toshiyuki Someya
It has long been known that antipsychotic drugs (ATP) causes tachycardia, however details such as the differences between ATP are not well known. In recent years, the relationship between the rise in resting heart rate (RHR) and the increased risk of death in the general population has been garnering attention. In this study, we examined the difference in action on RHR between olanzapine (OLZ) and aripiprazole (ARP). The changes in the RHR on switching from OLZ to ARP and on increasing from the starting OLZ dose to the final one were evaluated in 19 outpatients (Study 1) and in 29 outpatients with schizophrenia (Study 2), respectively...
2018: PloS One
Sushila Arya, Zuber D Mulla, Sanja Kupesic Plavsic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maternal outcome in women with very advanced maternal age (VAMA) at childbirth (>45 years) compared to advanced maternal age (35-39 and 40-44 years). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas Public Use Data File, years 2013-2014. Maternal age was a three-level variable: 35-39 (referent), 40-44, and 45-59 years (VAMA). Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for the two older age groups for various obstetrical and nonobstetrical complications were calculated from log-binomial regression models...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Samantha L Heller, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Yiming Gao, Linda Moy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate county-level geographic patterns of mammographic screening uptake throughout the United States and to determine the impact of rural versus urban settings on breast cancer screening uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study used County Health Rankings (CHR) data to identify the percentage of Medicare enrollees 67-69 years old per county who had at least one mammogram in 2013 or 2012 (uptake). Uptake was matched with U...
July 17, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Xiuwen Zhou, Benjamin J Powell
Devices based on deep-blue emitting iridium(III) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have recently been shown to give excellent performance as phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). To facilitate the design of even better deep-blue phosphorescent emitters, we carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the lowest triplet (T1 ) potential-energy surfaces upon lengthening the iridium-ligand (Ir-C) bonds. Relativistic time dependent DFT calculations demonstrate that this changes the nature of T1 from a highly emissive metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3 MLCT) state to a metal centered (3 MC) state where the radiative decay rate is orders of magnitude slower than that of the 3 MLCT state...
July 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
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