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Ultrasound newborn

Sujith S Pereira, Stephen T Kempley, David F Wertheim, Ajay K Sinha, Joan K Morris, Divyen K Shah
Background: Cerebral electrical activity in extremely preterm infants is affected by various factors including blood gas and circulatory parameters. Objective: To investigate whether continuously measured invasive mean arterial blood pressure (BP) is associated with electroencephalographic (EEG) discontinuity in extremely preterm infants. Study design: This prospective observational study examined 51 newborn infants born <29 weeks gestation in the first 3 days after birth...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Yasuhiro Shirai, Kenjiro Wakabayashi, Ikuo Wada, Hideyuki Goto, Yoshino Ueki, Atsushi Tsuchiya, Yoshiaki Tsuboi, Myongsu Ha, Takanobu Otsuka
PURPOSE: The objective screening of infant hips using ultrasonography (Graf method) is gaining favor in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Japan. However, the accuracy of the Graf method is dependent on the examiner's experience and technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of acquiring ultrasonic hip images and their evaluation after examiners attended an infant hip ultrasound training course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrasonic images of 70 hips of 35 newborns who were screened by ultrasonography using the Graf method, were evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Biagio Castaldi, Giulia Bordin, Valentina Favero, Daniel Nardo, Francesca Previati, Sabrina Salvadori, Eugenio Baraldi, Ornella Milanesi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preterm newborns undergo hemodynamic challenges in the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial mechanics changes in the postnatal period in preterm infants using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-nine preterm infants ≤34 weeks' gestation underwent cardiac ultrasound evaluation during the first 96 hours of life. A repeated echocardiogram at 3 weeks of age was performed. Echocardiographic assessment involved left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral E/A ratio, S' and E' velocities, E/E' ratio, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), left atrium-to-aorta ratio, ductal diameter and ductal shunt pattern...
March 6, 2018: Echocardiography
Alessandra Mendelski Pereira, Denise Leite Maia Monteiro, Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Bianca Guedes, Gabriele Tonni, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
The recent epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Central and South America is one of the most serious global public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. In Brazil, especially in the north, northeast, and southeast parts of the country, the ZIKV outbreak is a cause of concern for pregnant women because ZIKV intrauterine infection has been found to be associated with multiple brain malformations and microcephaly. In Brazil, the number of newborns with confirmed microcephaly per year recorded during the ZIKV outbreak, has been approximately 15 times greater than previously reported...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Matthew Wong, Janette Reyes, Eveline Lapidus-Krol, Monping Chiang, Tilman Humpl, Malikah Al-Faraj, Greg Ryan, Priscilla P L Chiu
Prenatal observed/expected lung-to-head ratio (O/E LHR) by ultrasound correlates with postnatal mortality for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) patients. The aim of this study is to determine if O/E LHR correlates with pulmonary hypertension (PH) outcomes for CDH patients. METHODS: A single center retrospective chart review was performed for CDH neonates from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, (REB #1000053124) to include prenatal O/E LHR, liver position, first arterial blood gas, repair type, echocardiogram (ECHO), and lung perfusion scan (LPS) results up to 5years of age...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
G Donatini, J L Kraimps, C Caillard, E Mirallie, F Pierre, Loïc De Calan, Hamy Antoine, O Larin, O Tovkay, S Cherenko
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in pregnancy is a life-threatening condition. Its management is challenging with regards to the timing and type of surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of the management of ten patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma during pregnancy was performed. Data were collected on the initial diagnostic workup, symptoms, treatment, and follow-up. RESULTS: PHEO was diagnosed in ten patients who were between the 10th and the 29th weeks of pregnancy...
February 27, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Charlotte Rosenkrantz Bodin, Mikkel Mylius Rasmussen, Ann Tabor, Lena Westbom, Eleonor Tiblad, Charlotte Kvist Ekelund, Camilla Bernt Wulff, Ida Vogel, Olav Bjørn Petersen
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, the prenatal detection rate by ultrasound, and the pregnancy outcome of spina bifida (SB) in Denmark (DK) in 2008-2015 and to compare results to national data from Sweden. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, which includes International Classification of Diseases- (ICD-) 10 codes for pre- or postnatally diagnoses and pregnancy outcome. Missing data were obtained from the National Patient Register...
2018: BioMed Research International
Etty Daniel-Spiegel, Micha Mandel, Simcha Yagel
BACKGROUND: Sonographic estimated fetal weight is performed by measuring the fetal organs' biometry and introducing the data into a formula. The calculated value is then compared with reference charts and serves as a critical component in pregnancy follow-up. Ideally the charts should be appropriate to the specific population. OBJECTIVES: To display and validate sonographic based Israeli-matched, intrauterine fetal weight curves. METHODS: The international Hadlock and Souka formulas, were chosen and assessed using over 70,000 ultrasound examinations from Israel...
February 2018: Harefuah
Nicholas R Zessis, Jennifer L Nicholas, Stephen I Stone
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Michael Narvey, Kenny K Wong, Anne Fournier
Pulse oximetry screening is safe, noninvasive, easy to perform and proven to enhance detection of critical congenital heart disease in newborns. However, this test has yet to be adopted as routine practice in Canada. The present practice point highlights essential details and recommendations for screening, which research has shown to be highly specific, with low false-positive rates. Optimal screening for critical congenital heart disease should include prenatal ultrasound, physical examination and pulse oximetry screening...
November 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Alaa Eldin A Youssef, Ahmed F Amin, Mohamed Khalaf, Marwa S Khalaf, Mohammed K Ali, Ahmed M Abbas
OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to evaluate a simple method for sonographic measurement of the fetal biacromial diameter for prediction of fetal macrosomia in term pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study was a single center prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary University Hospital from January 2015 to May 2017. We included all consecutive term (37-42 weeks) pregnant women presented to the labor ward for delivery. Ultrasound parameters were measured as biparietal diameter, head circumference, transverse thoracic diameter, mid arm diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, estimated fetal weight and amniotic fluid index...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Alan Leviton, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, T Michael O'Shea, Lynn A Fordham, Karl K C Kuban, Olaf Dammann
AIM: To assess to what extent the blood concentrations of proteins with neurotrophic and angiogenic properties measured during the first postnatal month convey information about the risk of sonographically-identified brain damage among very preterm newborns. METHODS: Study participants were 1219 children who had a cranial ultrasound scan during their stay in the intensive care nursery and blood specimens collected on 2 separate days at least a week apart during the first postnatal month...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
A Ayad, S Lemouakni, L Tami, M Oulja, H Knouni, A Barkat
Arterial thrombosis of the newborn is rare and associated with poor prognosis, often attributed to umbilical arterial catheterization. The aortic and spontaneous forms are exceptional. Its severity requires fast and effective treatment. Although therapeutic means are numerous, no consensus has been established to date although thrombolysis and heparin therapy appear to give good results depending on the site and extent of thrombosis. We report a case of extensive thrombosis of the abdominal aorta in a 5-day-old newborn, revealed by acute hypernatremic dehydration...
February 2018: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
Sudha Rathna Prabhu, Shriraam Mahadevan, Sujatha Jagadeesh, Dharani Dharan, Chandra Ganesh, Seshadri Suresh, Indrani Suresh
OBJECTIVE: To establish normative ultrasound data for thyroid gland volume in South Indian neonates and infants and compare with abnormal sonological features of thyroid in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) to explore thyroid ultrasound utility as a supportive screening tool to newborn screening programs for early detection of CH. METHODS: In view of impact of geo ethnic factors, varying growth velocities and body mass indices of human population worldwide, specific regional, age and gender related reference data for thyroid gland size and volume are vital...
February 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Aris T Papageorghiou, Stephen H Kennedy, Laurent J Salomon, Douglas G Altman, Eric O Ohuma, William Stones, Michael G Gravett, Fernando C Barros, Cesar Victora, Manorama Purwar, Yasmin Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Ruyan Pang, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Ann Lambert, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, José Villar
The purpose of the INTERGROWTH-21st project was to develop international, prescriptive standards for fetal growth assessed by ultrasound and fundal height, preterm postnatal growth, newborn size and body composition, maternal weight gain, and infant development at the age of 2 years. Hence, we have produced, based on World Health Organization recommendations, the first comprehensive set of international standards of optimal fetal and newborn growth that perfectly match the existing World Health Organization child growth standards...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sandeep Chaudhary, Ravi Rohilla, Vijay Kumar, Sandeep Kumar
Introduction: The stagnant performance of countries with regard to maternal and child health is linked to low investment in health and out of pocket expenditure (OOP). To address issue of OOP expenses related to maternal and newborn care, Janani Shishu SUraksha Karyakram (JSSK) was launched in the year 2011 in Mewat district of Haryana with the objective to eliminate OOP expenses of obstetric women and sick infants. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken in rural area of Haryana to know the utilization of JSSK scheme and OOP expenditure...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Umberto Maggi, Giorgio Farris, Alessandra Carnevali, Irene Borzani, Paola Clerici, Massimo Agosti, Giorgio Rossi, Ernesto Leva
BACKGROUND: Double gallbladder is a rare biliary anomaly. Perinatal diagnosis of the disorder has been reported in only 6 cases, and in 5 of them the diagnosis was based on ultrasound imaging only. However, the ultrasound technique alone does not provide a sufficiently precise description of cystic ducts and biliary anatomy, an information that is crucial for a correct classification and for a possible future surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: At 21 weeks of gestational age of an uneventful pregnancy in a 38 year old primipara mother, a routine ultrasound screening detected a biliary anomaly in the fetus suggestive of a double gallbladder...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yogen Singh, Anup C Katheria, Farha Vora
Shock in newborn infants has unique etiopathologic origins that require careful assessment to direct specific interventions. Early diagnosis is key to successful management. Unlike adults and pediatric patients, shock in newborn infants is often recognized in the uncompensated phase by the presence of hypotension, which may be too late. The routine methods of evaluation used in the adult and pediatric population are often invasive and less feasible. We aim to discuss the pathophysiology in shock in newborn infants, including the transitional changes at birth and unique features that contribute to the challenges in early identification...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Hanah Z Nasri, Kara Houde Ng, Marie-Noel Westgate, Anne-Therese Hunt, Lewis B Holmes
BACKGROUND: Infants of diabetic mothers have been shown in several studies to have an increased frequency of malformations. In previous studies, an increased frequency of several specific malformations has been noted, including anencephaly, bilateral renal agenesis, and double outlet right ventricle. Surveillance, used to identify all malformed infants in a consecutive sample of births, can identify a distinctive pattern of malformations among the affected infants. METHODS: The infants of insulin-dependent, pregestational diabetic mothers were identified in the daily review of the medical records of each newborn infant with a malformation and her/his mother's medical record...
January 2018: Birth defects research
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