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basal ganglia delusion

Natasha L Lethbridge, Paul L Chazot
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a serious age-dependent human neurodegenerative disease, with multiple debilitating symptoms, including dementia, psychosis and significant motor deficits, but with little or no effective treatments. This comparative ligand autoradiographical study has quantified histamine H3 receptors (H3R) in a series of major cortical and basal ganglia structures in human DLB and Alzheimer's (AD) post-mortem cases using the highly selective radioligand, [(3)H] GSK189254. In the main, the levels of H3 receptor were largely preserved in DLB cases when compared with aged-matched controls...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
E P Bello, R Casas-Cordero, G L Galiñanes, E Casey, M A Belluscio, V Rodríguez, D Noaín, M G Murer, M Rubinstein
Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Shingo Yasumoto, Hiromichi Motooka, Yuji Ito, Naohisa Uchimura
We report a patient with epilepsy who experienced interictal and postictal psychoses. Her psychiatric symptoms consisted of grandiose and fantastic delusions during both psychotic states. During remission, electroencephalography showed bitemporal epileptiform discharges that were predominant in the right temporal region. Epileptiform discharges present during the psychotic states were predominant in the left temporal region. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed hyperperfusion in the left basal ganglia during the interictal psychotic state and hyperperfusion in the right temporal lobe and left basal ganglia during the postictal psychotic state...
2015: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
M S Bhatia, Priyanka Gautam, Jaswinder Kaur
Ekbom Syndrome is characterized by delusion that small living being infests skin. The clinical profile of this disorder has shown it to be associated with organic conditions. Neuroimaging studies implicate putamen as the brain structure involved in the pathophysiology. These are also known as organic delusional disorder and provide an opportunity to study biological causation of delusional disorder. We report a patient presented with a complaint of insects crawling on her body for last two years. She collected the peeled skin in a jar and claimed that these are insects...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Aaron McMurtray, Ben Tseng, Natalie Diaz, Julia Chung, Bijal Mehta, Erin Saito
Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system...
2014: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Chikako Ikeda, Osamu Yokota, Shigeto Nagao, Hideki Ishizu, Yumi Morisada, Seishi Terada, Yoshihiko Nakashima, Haruhiko Akiyama, Yosuke Uchitomi
BACKGROUND: Clinical presentations of pathologically confirmed corticobasal degeneration (CBD) vary, and the heterogeneity makes its clinical diagnosis difficult, especially when a patient lacks any motor disturbance in the early stage. METHODS: We compared clinical and pathological features of four pathologically confirmed CBD cases that initially developed non-motor symptoms, including behavioural and psychiatric symptoms but without motor disturbance (CBD-NM), and five CBD cases that initially developed parkinsonism and/or falls (CBD-M)...
September 2014: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Richard Salazar, Mirela Cerghet, Virginia Ramachandran
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with bilateral hearing loss at onset and literature review of the scarce cases of CJD with similar audiologic manifestations at presentation. CASE REPORT: A 67-yr-old man presented to the hospital for evaluation of rapid progression of behavioral decline, unsteady gait, and bilateral hearing loss. Three months before admission, he abruptly developed bilateral hypoacusis without associated tinnitus or vertigo...
September 2014: Otology & Neurotology
Amir A Mufaddel, Ghanem A Al-Hassani
Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders...
July 2014: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Ürün Özer, Yasemin Görgülü, Ferda Can Güngör, Mert Gençtürk
Fahr's disease is a rare neuropsychiatric disease characterized by bilateral intracranial calcification, primarily in the basal ganglia. The more general term, Fahr's syndrome, is used for primary and secondary basal ganglia calcification, regardless of the etiology, but the term Fahr's disease is used to describe primary, idiopathic cases. Fahr's disease may present with neurological symptoms, such as parkinsonism and extrapyramidal symptoms, dysarthria, paresis, convulsion, and syncope. Psychiatric disorders, including behavioral disorders, psychosis, and mood disorders, as well as cognitive disorders can occur...
2014: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Rachel L Gore, Emma R L C Vardy, John T O'Brien
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is recognised as the second most common form of dementia in older people. Delirium is a condition of acute brain dysfunction for which a pre-existing diagnosis of dementia is a risk factor. Conversely delirium is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. The reasons for this bidirectional relationship are not well understood. Our aim was to review possible similarities in the clinical presentation and pathophysiology between delirium and DLB, and explore possible links between these diagnoses...
January 2015: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
H Förstl, A Burns, N Cairns, P Luthert, R Levy
Fifty patients from a longitudinal study on 178 cases of Alzheimer's disease were examined at postmortem. The clinical features, CT-scans and neuropathological findings of five patients, with verified Alzheimer's disease, who had bilateral basal ganglia mineralization (BGM; 2 male, 3 female; age 78-91 years) were compared with the data of five age- and sex-matched Alzheimer patients without BGM and of five control subjects. Persecutory and other delusions (4 patients), persistent depression (2), parkinsonism (4), myoclonus (1) and epileptic seizures (1) were observed more frequently in the patients with BGM than was expected...
1992: Behavioural Neurology
Andrew Kertesz, Lee Cyn Ang, Sarah Jesso, Julia MacKinley, Matt Baker, Patricia Brown, Christen Shoesmith, Rosa Rademakers, Elizabeth C Finger
OBJECTIVE: To specify the presenting symptoms and clinical course of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) repeat expansion. BACKGROUND: The 2011 discovery of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion causing familial FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has permitted retrospective evaluation of potential defining clinical characteristics that may distinguish carriers of the C9ORF72 mutation from other patients with FTD...
September 2013: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
S El Hechmi, S Bouhlel, W Melki, Z El Hechmi
UNLABELLED: Fahr's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex associated with many neurological and psychiatric abnormalities such as a rigid hypokinetic syndrome, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. Fahr's syndrome is secondary to some disorders, such as hypoparathyroidism. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 56 year-old man, with a history of cataract, who was admitted to our psychiatric hospital for the first time in his life because of psychotic symptoms associated with irritability and aggressiveness...
June 2014: L'Encéphale
Justin M Johnson, Benalfew Legesse, Joan A Camprodon, Evan Murray, Bruce H Price
The authors present the case of a 37-year-old man who developed a psychotic manic episode and was found to have bilateral basal ganglia calcification (BGC). The authors present this case report along with a discussion of the literature on the neuropsychiatry of BGC.
2013: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Christine Esslinger, Urs Braun, Frederike Schirmbeck, Andreia Santos, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC) bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants...
2013: PloS One
H Karbasforoushan, N D Woodward
Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of altered brain connectivity (i.e. dysconnectivity). Until relatively recently, it was not feasible to test dysconnectivity hypotheses of schizophrenia in vivo. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful tool for mapping functional networks of the brain, such as the default mode network (DMN), and investigating the systems-level pathology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this article, we review the latest findings from resting-state fMRI studies on schizophrenia...
2012: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jonathan P Roiser, Oliver D Howes, Christopher A Chaddock, Eileen M Joyce, Philip McGuire
The "aberrant salience" model proposes that psychotic symptoms first emerge when chaotic brain dopamine transmission leads to the attribution of significance to stimuli that would normally be considered irrelevant. This is thought to occur during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders, but this prediction has not been tested previously. In the present study, we tested this model in 18 healthy volunteers and 18 unmedicated individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Subjects performed the Salience Attribution Test, which provides behavioral measures of adaptive and aberrant motivational salience, during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to relevant and irrelevant stimulus features...
November 2013: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Gaël Nicolas, Olivier Guillin, Alaina Borden, Sandrine Bioux, Romain Lefaucheur, Didier Hannequin
We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with auditory hallucinations and delusions responsive to antipsychotic drugs. Computerized tomography scans revealed basal ganglia calcifications in the proband and in her two asymptomatic parents. Extensive etiological clinicobiological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and diagnose familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric symptoms are common in IBGC. Nevertheless, purely psychiatric presentations, as demonstrated by the present case, are possible...
September 2013: General Hospital Psychiatry
Anne Pankow, Astrid Knobel, Martin Voss, Andreas Heinz
Dopamine dysfunction is a mainstay of theories aimed to explain the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia symptoms, particularly positive symptoms such as delusions and passivity phenomena. Based on studies revealing dopamine dysfunction in addiction research, it has been suggested that phasic or chaotic firing of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the (ventral) striatum attribute salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli and thus contribute to delusional mood and delusion formation. Indeed, several neuroimaging studies revealed that neuronal encoding of usually irrelevant versus relevant stimuli is blunted in unmedicated schizophrenia patients, suggesting that some stimuli that are irrelevant for healthy controls acquire increased salience for psychotic patients...
2012: Neuropsychobiology
Paola Invernizzi, Martina Gandola, Daniele Romano, Laura Zapparoli, Gabriella Bottini, Eraldo Paulesu
We describe the clinical manifestations and the lesion patterns of five patients with somatoparaphrenia, the denial of ownership for a paralyzed limb, who showed the rare dissociation from anosognosia for hemiplegia. Similar cases have been only occasionally cited in the literature with scanty descriptions of their symptoms and no detailed anatomical assessment. All patients had extrapersonal and at least mild personal neglect. The lesions pattern was mainly subcortical, with a significant involvement of the right thalamus, the basal ganglia and the internal capsule...
2013: Behavioural Neurology
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