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basal ganglia psychosis

Shruti Srivastava, Mukul P Agarwal, Ankur Gautam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Post stroke behavioural manifestations are often not recognized, undiagnosed and hence remain untreated. They may even suffer from misdiagnosis of functional disorders before coming at conclusion of organic pathology. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment helps in lowering the overall morbidity related to stroke and improves quality of life of these patients with rare manifestations. Here, we report two cases of elderly female patients presenting with delusions and hallucinations subsequent to stroke, with lesions in basal ganglia detected on neuro-imaging...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Jessica A Bernard, James R M Goen, Ted Maldonado
Though schizophrenia (SCZ) is classically defined based on positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of the disease prove to be debilitating for many patients, motor deficits are often present as well. A growing literature highlights the importance of motor systems and networks in the disease, and it may be the case that dysfunction in motor networks relates to the pathophysiology and etiology of SCZ. To test this and build upon recent work in SCZ and in at-risk populations, we investigated cortical and cerebellar motor functional networks at rest in SCZ and controls using publically available data...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Mark Oldham
OBJECTIVE: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice. METHODS: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy...
May 2017: Psychosomatics
E Maggioni, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally conceptualised as one diagnostic entity, the heterogeneity of pathophysiological manifestations in BD suggests the need to classify the subtypes of the illness based on neural markers. Specifically, the presence of psychotic symptoms seems to be relevant for the clinical outcome and may have specific neuroanatomical bases. The main objective of the present review was to assess whether the distinction between psychotic BD (PBD) and non-psychotic BD (NPBD) can improve the identification of the neurobiological markers of this complex illness...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Carolina Makowski, Sophie Béland, Penelope Kostopoulos, Nikhil Bhagwat, Gabriel A Devenyi, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, M Mallar Chakravarty
Accurate automated quantification of subcortical structures is a greatly pursued endeavour in neuroimaging. In an effort to establish the validity and reliability of these methods in defining the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, we investigated differences in volumetry between manual delineation and automated segmentations derived by widely used FreeSurfer and FSL packages, and a more recent segmentation method, the MAGeT-Brain algorithm. In a first set of experiments, the basal ganglia and thalamus of thirty subjects (15 first episode psychosis [FEP], 15 controls) were manually defined and compared to the labels generated by the three automated methods...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
Rangaswamy, V Ranjith, L Vikas, R Santosh
Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal symmetrical calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, sub-cortical hemispheric white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei. It can be idiopathic or associated with an endocrinopathy, frequently with parathyroid disorder. Clinical spectrum of the disease is wide ranging from neurological features like seizure, syncope, stroke like events, extra-pyramidal symptoms often combined with frontal sub-cortical pattern of behavioural dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis, mood disorder and dementia...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Natasha L Lethbridge, Paul L Chazot
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a serious age-dependent human neurodegenerative disease, with multiple debilitating symptoms, including dementia, psychosis and significant motor deficits, but with little or no effective treatments. This comparative ligand autoradiographical study has quantified histamine H3 receptors (H3R) in a series of major cortical and basal ganglia structures in human DLB and Alzheimer's (AD) post-mortem cases using the highly selective radioligand, [(3)H] GSK189254. In the main, the levels of H3 receptor were largely preserved in DLB cases when compared with aged-matched controls...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Mark J Millan
Though a multi-facetted disorder, Parkinson's disease is prototypically characterized by neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to a severe disruption of motor function. Accordingly, L-DOPA, the metabolic precursor of dopamine (DA), is well-established as a treatment for the motor deficits of Parkinson's disease despite long-term complications such as dyskinesia and psychiatric side-effects. Paradoxically, however, despite the traditional assumption that L-DOPA is transformed in residual striatal dopaminergic neurons into DA, the mechanism of action of L-DOPA is neither simple nor entirely clear...
April 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
Kate Merritt, Alice Egerton, Matthew J Kempton, Matthew J Taylor, Philip K McGuire
IMPORTANCE: Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission may be fundamental to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the glutamatergic system is a target for novel therapeutic interventions in the disorder. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature of brain glutamate alterations in schizophrenia by conducting a meta-analysis of glutamate proton magnetic resonance (MRS) spectroscopy studies. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched for studies published from January 1, 1980, to April 1, 2015...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Beatrice Roiter, Giorgio Pigato, Giulio Perugi
Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as "secondary" forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Jan Lošák, Jitka Hüttlová, Petra Lipová, Radek Marecek, Martin Bareš, Pavel Filip, Jozef Žubor, Libor Ustohal, Jirí Vanícek, Tomáš Kašpárek
Abnormalities in both time processing and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission have been observed in schizophrenia. Time processing seems to be linked to DA neurotransmission. The cognitive dysmetria hypothesis postulates that psychosis might be a manifestation of the loss of coordination of mental processes due to impaired timing. The objective of the present study was to analyze timing abilities and their corresponding functional neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a predictive motor timing paradigm in 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched healthy controls (HC)...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Wing Chung Chang, James A Waltz, James M Gold, Tracey Chi Wan Chan, Eric Yu Hai Chen
Numerous studies have identified reinforcement learning (RL) deficits in schizophrenia. Most have focused on chronic patients with longstanding antipsychotic treatment, however, and studies of RL in early-illness patients have produced mixed results, particularly regarding gradual/procedural learning. No study has directly contrasted both rapid and gradual RL in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples. We examined probabilistic RL in 34 FEP patients and 36 controls, using Go/NoGo (GNG) and Gain vs Loss-Avoidance (GLA) paradigms...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Satyakam Mohapatra, Ashirbad Satapathy
Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare idiopathic degenerative neurological disorder, which can be present in different heterogeneous manifestations and characterized by bilateral symmetrical cerebral calcification. We present a case of a 55-year-old male who presented with the psychotic feature, bilateral tremors of hand and bilateral symmetrical calcification of basal ganglia. Hence our case suggests that psychiatrists should evaluate the cases of psychosis thoroughly when the age of presentation is atypical, and they should consider the diagnosis of FD when psychosis presents with motor abnormalities...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Paul Allen, Christopher A Chaddock, Alice Egerton, Oliver D Howes, Ilaria Bonoldi, Fernando Zelaya, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Robin Murray, Philip McGuire
OBJECTIVE: Animal models suggest that the development of psychosis involves hyperactivity in the hippocampus that drives increased activity in the midbrain and basal ganglia. The authors examined this hypothesis by measuring resting perfusion in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and midbrain in people at high risk of psychosis. METHOD: Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging was used to measure resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in 27 healthy volunteers...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bing Pan, Weibo Liu, Qiaozhen Chen, Leilei Zheng, Yingying Bao, Huichun Li, Risheng Yu
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium in the brain and variable combinations of movement disorders, gait impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Few reports have described psychiatric manifestations as early symptoms of IBGC. The present study reports the case of a middle-aged man with schizophrenia-like psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as the first manifestations of IBGC. The response of the patient to olanzapine and fluoxetine suggests that low-dose olanzapine is effective and should be increased cautiously to avoid worsening parkinsonism and that fluoxetine is an effective drug for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in IBGC...
August 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Derek J Dean, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous movement abnormalities, occurring independent of medication status, are thought to reflect basal ganglia pathology in patients at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. To date, the research literature has primarily focused on movements associated with elevated striatal dopamine (i.e., hyperkinesia) while little is known about motor symptoms associated with low levels of subcortical dopamine (i.e., spontaneous parkinsonisms; SPs). As SPs (e.g., bradykinesia) may be governed by distinct neural mechanisms, this line of research can provide a clearer picture of the etiological processes in the prodrome...
2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
Laura Pina-Camacho, Ángel Del Rey-Mejías, Joost Janssen, Miquel Bioque, Ana González-Pinto, Celso Arango, Antonio Lobo, Salvador Sarró, Manuel Desco, Julio Sanjuan, Maria Lacalle-Aurioles, Manuel J Cuesta, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo, Mara Parellada
Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12-35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software...
March 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jennifer J Johnston, Monica Y Sanchez-Contreras, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Julie Sapp, Molly Crenshaw, NiCole A Finch, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Rosa Rademakers, Virginia P Sybert, Leslie G Biesecker
Penttinen syndrome is a distinctive disorder characterized by a prematurely aged appearance with lipoatrophy, epidermal and dermal atrophy along with hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acro-osteolysis. All individuals have been simplex cases. Exome sequencing of an affected individual identified a de novo c.1994T>C p.Val665Ala variant in PDGFRB, which encodes the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β. Three additional unrelated individuals with this condition were shown to have the identical variant in PDGFRB...
September 3, 2015: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jonathan Tomas Lockwood, Gary Remington
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotic drugs (APs) represent the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder associated with the ongoing use of APs and is characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements that are potentially irreversible. Current treatment is wanting, due in part to our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying TD. AREAS COVERED: Risk of TD associated with APs appears linked to continuous blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the basal ganglia...
September 2015: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Nese Sinmaz, Mazen Amatoury, Vera Merheb, Sudarshini Ramanathan, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
In recent years, autoantibodies to proteins or receptors expressed on the surface of neurons have been detected in movement and psychiatric disorders. These autoantibodies can assist in better recognition of clinical syndromes and offer novel treatment opportunities via immunotherapies, potentially leading to improved patient outcome. In this review, we describe several autoimmune syndromes associated with movement and psychiatric disorders, including anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Sydenham chorea, and autoantibody-associated psychosis and schizophrenia...
September 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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