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basal ganglia psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209479/a-brief-psychotic-episode-with-depressive-symptoms-in-silent-right-frontal-lobe-infarct
#1
Salziyan Badrin, Noraini Mohamad, Nor Akma Yunus, Maryam Mohd Zulkifli
Psychiatric symptoms may be related to a silent cerebral infarct, a phenomenon that has been described previously in literature. Acute psychosis or other neuropsychiatric symptoms including depression may present in stroke patients and patients with lesions either within the prefrontal or occipital cortices, or in subcortical areas such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, mid-brain, and brainstem. Psychosis in clinical stroke or in silent cerebral infarction is uncommon and not well documented in the literature...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990131/diagnosis-and-management-of-cognitive-and-behavioral-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
REVIEW
Babak Tousi
Proper diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in clinical practice remains suboptimal as many cases are misdiagnosed, usually as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) and, in rare cases, psychosis. Therefore, it is important for patients with dementia to be thoroughly evaluated by a specialist who is familiar with current diagnostic tests and treatment options. New diagnostic criteria from the Dementia with Lewy Bodies Consortium have been developed to increase diagnostic sensitivity for DLB (Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: fourth consensus report of the DLB Consortium; McKeith et al...
October 9, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#3
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963912/basal-ganglia-and-ventricle-volume-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-family-and-clinical-study
#4
Manuel J Cuesta, Pablo Lecumberri, Teresa Cabada, Lucia Moreno-Izco, María Ribeiro, Jose M López-Ilundain, Victor Peralta, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Ana Maria Sánchez-Torres, Marisol Gómez
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) exhibit considerable heterogeneity in subcortical brain volumes. We sought to compare ventricle and basal ganglia volumes in FEP patients (n = 50) with those in unaffected relatives (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24). Participants were assessed with a semistructured interview and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients had significantly larger left lateral, right lateral and third ventricle volumes than their siblings and larger third ventricle volumes than controls...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911048/what-can-different-motor-circuits-tell-us-about-psychosis-an-rdoc-perspective
#5
Vijay A Mittal, Jessica A Bernard, Georg Northoff
Signs of motor dysfunction are evidenced across a range of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Historically, these features have been neglected but emerging theoretical and methodological advancements have shed new light on the utility of considering movement abnormalities. Indeed, the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative has recently met to develop a Motor Systems Domain. This reflects a growing appreciation for the enhanced reliability and validity that can come along with evaluating disturbances relevant to psychiatric illnesses from multiple levels of analysis, and conceptualizing these domains with respect to the complexity of their role in a broader integrated system (ie, weighing contributions and interactions between the cognitive, affective, and motor domains)...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867516/modelling-the-neuromotor-abnormalities-of-psychotic-illness-putative-mechanisms-and-systems-dysfunction
#6
John L Waddington, Colm M O'Tuathaigh
Limitations in access to antipsychotic-naïve patients and in the incisiveness of studies that can be conducted on them, together with the inevitability of subsequent antipsychotic treatment, indicate an enduring role for animal models that can inform on the pathobiology of neuromotor abnormalities in schizophrenia and related psychotic illness. This review focusses particularly on genetically modified mouse models that involve genes associated with risk for schizophrenia and with mechanisms implicated in the neuromotor abnormalities evident in psychotic patients, as well as developmental models that seek to mirror the trajectory, phenomenology and putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658884/post-stroke-psychosis-following-lesions-in-basal-ganglion
#7
Shruti Srivastava, Mukul P Agarwal, Ankur Gautam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Post stroke behavioural manifestations are often not recognized, undiagnosed and hence remain untreated. They may even suffer from misdiagnosis of functional disorders before coming at conclusion of organic pathology. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment helps in lowering the overall morbidity related to stroke and improves quality of life of these patients with rare manifestations. Here, we report two cases of elderly female patients presenting with delusions and hallucinations subsequent to stroke, with lesions in basal ganglia detected on neuro-imaging...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603856/a-case-for-motor-network-contributions-to-schizophrenia-symptoms-evidence-from-resting-state-connectivity
#8
Jessica A Bernard, James R M Goen, Ted Maldonado
Though schizophrenia (SCZ) is classically defined based on positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of the disease prove to be debilitating for many patients, motor deficits are often present as well. A growing literature highlights the importance of motor systems and networks in the disease, and it may be the case that dysfunction in motor networks relates to the pathophysiology and etiology of SCZ. To test this and build upon recent work in SCZ and in at-risk populations, we investigated cortical and cerebellar motor functional networks at rest in SCZ and controls using publically available data...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545782/autoimmune-encephalopathy-for-psychiatrists-when-to-suspect-autoimmunity-and-what-to-do-next
#9
REVIEW
Mark Oldham
OBJECTIVE: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice. METHODS: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy...
May 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343462/exploring-the-neuroanatomical-bases-of-psychotic-features-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
E Maggioni, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although bipolar disorder (BD) is traditionally conceptualised as one diagnostic entity, the heterogeneity of pathophysiological manifestations in BD suggests the need to classify the subtypes of the illness based on neural markers. Specifically, the presence of psychotic symptoms seems to be relevant for the clinical outcome and may have specific neuroanatomical bases. The main objective of the present review was to assess whether the distinction between psychotic BD (PBD) and non-psychotic BD (NPBD) can improve the identification of the neurobiological markers of this complex illness...
March 27, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259781/evaluating-accuracy-of-striatal-pallidal-and-thalamic-segmentation-methods-comparing-automated-approaches-to-manual-delineation
#11
Carolina Makowski, Sophie Béland, Penelope Kostopoulos, Nikhil Bhagwat, Gabriel A Devenyi, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, M Mallar Chakravarty
Accurate automated quantification of subcortical structures is a greatly pursued endeavour in neuroimaging. In an effort to establish the validity and reliability of these methods in defining the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, we investigated differences in volumetry between manual delineation and automated segmentations derived by widely used FreeSurfer and FSL packages, and a more recent segmentation method, the MAGeT-Brain algorithm. In a first set of experiments, the basal ganglia and thalamus of thirty subjects (15 first episode psychosis [FEP], 15 controls) were manually defined and compared to the labels generated by the three automated methods...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762118/fahr-s-disease-with-seizure-presentation
#12
Rangaswamy, V Ranjith, L Vikas, R Santosh
Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal symmetrical calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, sub-cortical hemispheric white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei. It can be idiopathic or associated with an endocrinopathy, frequently with parathyroid disorder. Clinical spectrum of the disease is wide ranging from neurological features like seizure, syncope, stroke like events, extra-pyramidal symptoms often combined with frontal sub-cortical pattern of behavioural dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis, mood disorder and dementia...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592250/ligand-autoradiographical-quantification-of-histamine-h3-receptor-in-human-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#13
Natasha L Lethbridge, Paul L Chazot
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a serious age-dependent human neurodegenerative disease, with multiple debilitating symptoms, including dementia, psychosis and significant motor deficits, but with little or no effective treatments. This comparative ligand autoradiographical study has quantified histamine H3 receptors (H3R) in a series of major cortical and basal ganglia structures in human DLB and Alzheimer's (AD) post-mortem cases using the highly selective radioligand, [(3)H] GSK189254. In the main, the levels of H3 receptor were largely preserved in DLB cases when compared with aged-matched controls...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389773/expanding-the-repertoire-of-l-dopa-s-actions-a-comprehensive-review-of-its-functional-neurochemistry
#14
REVIEW
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Mark J Millan
Though a multi-facetted disorder, Parkinson's disease is prototypically characterized by neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to a severe disruption of motor function. Accordingly, L-DOPA, the metabolic precursor of dopamine (DA), is well-established as a treatment for the motor deficits of Parkinson's disease despite long-term complications such as dyskinesia and psychiatric side-effects. Paradoxically, however, despite the traditional assumption that L-DOPA is transformed in residual striatal dopaminergic neurons into DA, the mechanism of action of L-DOPA is neither simple nor entirely clear...
April 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304221/nature-of-glutamate-alterations-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-studies
#15
Kate Merritt, Alice Egerton, Matthew J Kempton, Matthew J Taylor, Philip K McGuire
IMPORTANCE: Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission may be fundamental to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the glutamatergic system is a target for novel therapeutic interventions in the disorder. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature of brain glutamate alterations in schizophrenia by conducting a meta-analysis of glutamate proton magnetic resonance (MRS) spectroscopy studies. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched for studies published from January 1, 1980, to April 1, 2015...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213069/late-onset-mania-in-a-patient-with-movement-disorder-and-basal-ganglia-calcifications-a-challenge-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
Beatrice Roiter, Giorgio Pigato, Giulio Perugi
Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as "secondary" forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190280/predictive-motor-timing-and-the-cerebellar-vermis-in-schizophrenia-an-fmri-study
#17
Jan Lošák, Jitka Hüttlová, Petra Lipová, Radek Marecek, Martin Bareš, Pavel Filip, Jozef Žubor, Libor Ustohal, Jirí Vanícek, Tomáš Kašpárek
Abnormalities in both time processing and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission have been observed in schizophrenia. Time processing seems to be linked to DA neurotransmission. The cognitive dysmetria hypothesis postulates that psychosis might be a manifestation of the loss of coordination of mental processes due to impaired timing. The objective of the present study was to analyze timing abilities and their corresponding functional neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a predictive motor timing paradigm in 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched healthy controls (HC)...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179125/mild-reinforcement-learning-deficits-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Wing Chung Chang, James A Waltz, James M Gold, Tracey Chi Wan Chan, Eric Yu Hai Chen
Numerous studies have identified reinforcement learning (RL) deficits in schizophrenia. Most have focused on chronic patients with longstanding antipsychotic treatment, however, and studies of RL in early-illness patients have produced mixed results, particularly regarding gradual/procedural learning. No study has directly contrasted both rapid and gradual RL in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples. We examined probabilistic RL in 34 FEP patients and 36 controls, using Go/NoGo (GNG) and Gain vs Loss-Avoidance (GLA) paradigms...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114631/a-case-of-schizophrenia-like-psychosis-due-to-fahr-s-disease
#19
Satyakam Mohapatra, Ashirbad Satapathy
Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare idiopathic degenerative neurological disorder, which can be present in different heterogeneous manifestations and characterized by bilateral symmetrical cerebral calcification. We present a case of a 55-year-old male who presented with the psychotic feature, bilateral tremors of hand and bilateral symmetrical calcification of basal ganglia. Hence our case suggests that psychiatrists should evaluate the cases of psychosis thoroughly when the age of presentation is atypical, and they should consider the diagnosis of FD when psychosis presents with motor abnormalities...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684922/resting-hyperperfusion-of-the-hippocampus-midbrain-and-basal-ganglia-in-people-at-high-risk-for-psychosis
#20
Paul Allen, Christopher A Chaddock, Alice Egerton, Oliver D Howes, Ilaria Bonoldi, Fernando Zelaya, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Robin Murray, Philip McGuire
OBJECTIVE: Animal models suggest that the development of psychosis involves hyperactivity in the hippocampus that drives increased activity in the midbrain and basal ganglia. The authors examined this hypothesis by measuring resting perfusion in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and midbrain in people at high risk of psychosis. METHOD: Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging was used to measure resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in 27 healthy volunteers...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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