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basal ganglia psychosis

Rangaswamy, V Ranjith, L Vikas, R Santosh
Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal symmetrical calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, sub-cortical hemispheric white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei. It can be idiopathic or associated with an endocrinopathy, frequently with parathyroid disorder. Clinical spectrum of the disease is wide ranging from neurological features like seizure, syncope, stroke like events, extra-pyramidal symptoms often combined with frontal sub-cortical pattern of behavioural dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis, mood disorder and dementia...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Natasha L Lethbridge, Paul L Chazot
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a serious age-dependent human neurodegenerative disease, with multiple debilitating symptoms, including dementia, psychosis and significant motor deficits, but with little or no effective treatments. This comparative ligand autoradiographical study has quantified histamine H3 receptors (H3R) in a series of major cortical and basal ganglia structures in human DLB and Alzheimer's (AD) post-mortem cases using the highly selective radioligand, [(3)H] GSK189254. In the main, the levels of H3 receptor were largely preserved in DLB cases when compared with aged-matched controls...
August 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Mark J Millan
Though a multi-facetted disorder, Parkinson's disease is prototypically characterised by neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to a severe disruption of motor function. Accordingly, L-DOPA, the metabolic precursor of dopamine (DA), is well-established as a treatment for the motor deficits of Parkinson's disease despite long-term complications such as dyskinesia and psychiatric side-effects. Paradoxically, however, despite the traditional assumption that L-DOPA is transformed in residual striatal dopaminergic neurones into DA, the mechanism of action of L-DOPA is neither simple nor entirely clear...
July 4, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Kate Merritt, Alice Egerton, Matthew J Kempton, Matthew J Taylor, Philip K McGuire
IMPORTANCE: Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission may be fundamental to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the glutamatergic system is a target for novel therapeutic interventions in the disorder. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature of brain glutamate alterations in schizophrenia by conducting a meta-analysis of glutamate proton magnetic resonance (MRS) spectroscopy studies. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database was searched for studies published from January 1, 1980, to April 1, 2015...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Beatrice Roiter, Giorgio Pigato, Giulio Perugi
Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as "secondary" forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Jan Lošák, Jitka Hüttlová, Petra Lipová, Radek Mareček, Martin Bareš, Pavel Filip, Jozef Žůbor, Libor Ustohal, Jiří Vaníček, Tomáš Kašpárek
Abnormalities in both time processing and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission have been observed in schizophrenia. Time processing seems to be linked to DA neurotransmission. The cognitive dysmetria hypothesis postulates that psychosis might be a manifestation of the loss of coordination of mental processes due to impaired timing. The objective of the present study was to analyze timing abilities and their corresponding functional neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a predictive motor timing paradigm in 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched healthy controls (HC)...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Wing Chung Chang, James A Waltz, James M Gold, Tracey Chi Wan Chan, Eric Yu Hai Chen
Numerous studies have identified reinforcement learning (RL) deficits in schizophrenia. Most have focused on chronic patients with longstanding antipsychotic treatment, however, and studies of RL in early-illness patients have produced mixed results, particularly regarding gradual/procedural learning. No study has directly contrasted both rapid and gradual RL in first-episode psychosis (FEP) samples. We examined probabilistic RL in 34 FEP patients and 36 controls, using Go/NoGo (GNG) and Gain vs Loss-Avoidance (GLA) paradigms...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Satyakam Mohapatra, Ashirbad Satapathy
Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare idiopathic degenerative neurological disorder, which can be present in different heterogeneous manifestations and characterized by bilateral symmetrical cerebral calcification. We present a case of a 55-year-old male who presented with the psychotic feature, bilateral tremors of hand and bilateral symmetrical calcification of basal ganglia. Hence our case suggests that psychiatrists should evaluate the cases of psychosis thoroughly when the age of presentation is atypical, and they should consider the diagnosis of FD when psychosis presents with motor abnormalities...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Paul Allen, Christopher A Chaddock, Alice Egerton, Oliver D Howes, Ilaria Bonoldi, Fernando Zelaya, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Robin Murray, Philip McGuire
OBJECTIVE: Animal models suggest that the development of psychosis involves hyperactivity in the hippocampus that drives increased activity in the midbrain and basal ganglia. The authors examined this hypothesis by measuring resting perfusion in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and midbrain in people at high risk of psychosis. METHOD: Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging was used to measure resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 52 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in 27 healthy volunteers...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bing Pan, Weibo Liu, Qiaozhen Chen, Leilei Zheng, Yingying Bao, Huichun Li, Risheng Yu
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium in the brain and variable combinations of movement disorders, gait impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Few reports have described psychiatric manifestations as early symptoms of IBGC. The present study reports the case of a middle-aged man with schizophrenia-like psychosis and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as the first manifestations of IBGC. The response of the patient to olanzapine and fluoxetine suggests that low-dose olanzapine is effective and should be increased cautiously to avoid worsening parkinsonism and that fluoxetine is an effective drug for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in IBGC...
August 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Derek J Dean, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous movement abnormalities, occurring independent of medication status, are thought to reflect basal ganglia pathology in patients at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. To date, the research literature has primarily focused on movements associated with elevated striatal dopamine (i.e., hyperkinesia) while little is known about motor symptoms associated with low levels of subcortical dopamine (i.e., spontaneous parkinsonisms; SPs). As SPs (e.g., bradykinesia) may be governed by distinct neural mechanisms, this line of research can provide a clearer picture of the etiological processes in the prodrome...
2015: NPJ Schizophrenia
Laura Pina-Camacho, Ángel Del Rey-Mejías, Joost Janssen, Miquel Bioque, Ana González-Pinto, Celso Arango, Antonio Lobo, Salvador Sarró, Manuel Desco, Julio Sanjuan, Maria Lacalle-Aurioles, Manuel J Cuesta, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Miguel Bernardo, Mara Parellada
Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12-35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software...
March 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jennifer J Johnston, Monica Y Sanchez-Contreras, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Julie Sapp, Molly Crenshaw, NiCole A Finch, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Rosa Rademakers, Virginia P Sybert, Leslie G Biesecker
Penttinen syndrome is a distinctive disorder characterized by a prematurely aged appearance with lipoatrophy, epidermal and dermal atrophy along with hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acro-osteolysis. All individuals have been simplex cases. Exome sequencing of an affected individual identified a de novo c.1994T>C p.Val665Ala variant in PDGFRB, which encodes the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β. Three additional unrelated individuals with this condition were shown to have the identical variant in PDGFRB...
September 3, 2015: American Journal of Human Genetics
Jonathan Tomas Lockwood, Gary Remington
INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotic drugs (APs) represent the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder associated with the ongoing use of APs and is characterized by involuntary, repetitive movements that are potentially irreversible. Current treatment is wanting, due in part to our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying TD. AREAS COVERED: Risk of TD associated with APs appears linked to continuous blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the basal ganglia...
September 2015: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Nese Sinmaz, Mazen Amatoury, Vera Merheb, Sudarshini Ramanathan, Russell C Dale, Fabienne Brilot
In recent years, autoantibodies to proteins or receptors expressed on the surface of neurons have been detected in movement and psychiatric disorders. These autoantibodies can assist in better recognition of clinical syndromes and offer novel treatment opportunities via immunotherapies, potentially leading to improved patient outcome. In this review, we describe several autoimmune syndromes associated with movement and psychiatric disorders, including anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Sydenham chorea, and autoantibody-associated psychosis and schizophrenia...
September 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gregory P Strauss, Nicholas S Thaler, Tatyana M Matveeva, Sally J Vogel, Griffin P Sutton, Bern G Lee, Daniel N Allen
There is increasing evidence that schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share a number of cognitive, neurobiological, and genetic markers. Shared features may be most prevalent among SZ and BD with a history of psychosis. This study extended this literature by examining reinforcement learning (RL) performance in individuals with SZ (n = 29), BD with a history of psychosis (BD+; n = 24), BD without a history of psychosis (BD-; n = 23), and healthy controls (HC; n = 24). RL was assessed through a probabilistic stimulus selection task with acquisition and test phases...
August 2015: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Roberta R Lemos, Eliana M Ramos, Andrea Legati, Gaël Nicolas, Emma M Jenkinson, John H Livingston, Yanick J Crow, Dominique Campion, Giovanni Coppola, João R M Oliveira
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder, with affected individuals presenting a wide variety of motor and cognitive impairments, such as migraine, parkinsonism, psychosis, dementia, and mood swings. Calcifications are usually symmetrical, bilateral, and found predominantly in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. So far, variants in three genes have been linked to PFBC: SLC20A2, PDGFRB, and PDGFB. Variants in SLC20A2 are responsible for most cases identified so far and, therefore, the present review is a comprehensive worldwide summary of all reported variants to date...
May 2015: Human Mutation
E B Forsaa, J P Larsen, T Wentzel-Larsen, G Alves
INTRODUCTION: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a potentially disabling motor problem in Parkinson's disease (PD) with uncertain etiology. Longitudinal studies of FOG in PD are scarce. We determined the prevalence, incidence, and associated clinical risk factors and concomitants of FOG during prospective long-term follow-up of a population-based PD cohort. METHODS: A community-based prevalent cohort of 232 PD patients was followed prospectively over 12 years. Reassessments were conducted at 4 and 8 years, and then annually...
March 2015: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Stephanie Boets, Pieter Janssens, Hilde Lavreysen, Thomas Steckler
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The glutamate system plays an important role in the formation of synapses during brain development and synaptic plasticity. Dysfunctions in glutamate regulation may lead to hyperexcitatory neuronal networks and neurotoxicity. Glutamate excess is possibly of great importance in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Interestingly, cross talk between these disorders has been well documented: psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the highest risk factors for developing psychosis...
September 2015: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Jessica A Bernard, Vijay A Mittal
Motor abnormalities in individuals with schizophrenia and those at-risk for psychosis are well documented. An accumulating body of work has also highlighted motor abnormalities related to cerebellar dysfunction in schizophrenia including eye-blink conditioning, timing, postural control, and motor learning. We have also recently found evidence for motor dysfunction in individuals at ultra high-risk for psychosis (1-3). This is particularly relevant as the cerebellum is thought to be central to the cognitive dysmetria model of schizophrenia, and these overt motor signs may point to more general cerebellar dysfunction in the etiology of psychotic disorders...
2014: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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